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Organizational Beh.

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Stephen P. Robbins —San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge —University of Notre Dame PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Preface 22 1 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 7

The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 38 What Managers Do 39 Management Functions 40 • Management Roles 40 • Management Skills 42 • Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 42 • A Review of the Manager’s Job 43 Enter Organizational Behavior 44 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 45 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 47 Psychology 48 • Social Psychology 48 • Sociology 48 • Anthropology 48 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 48 Challenges and Opportunities for OB 49 Responding to Economic Pressures 49 • Responding to Globalization 50 • Managing Workforce Diversity 52 • Improving Customer Service 52 • Improving People Skills 53 • Stimulating Innovation and Change 54 • Coping with “Temporariness” 54 • Working in Networked Organizations 54 • Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts 55 • Creating a Positive Work Environment 56 • Improving Ethical Behavior 56 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Mode! 7 An Overview 57 • Inputs 58 • Processes 59 • Outcomes 59 Summary and Implications for Managers 64 Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 38 M y t h or Science? “Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking Women” 46 An Ethical C h o k e Can You Learn from Failure? 58 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices? 64 Point/Counterpoint Lost in Translation? 65 Questions for Review 66 Experiential Exercise Workforce Diversity 66 Ethical Dilemma Jekyll and Hyde 67 Case Incident 1 “Lessons for ‘Undercover’ Bosses” 68 Case Incident 2 Era of the Disposable Worker? 69 CONTENTS 2 Diversity in Organizations 7 3 Diversity 74 Demographic Characteristics of the U.

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S. Workforce 75 • Levels of Diversity 76 • Discrimination 76 Biographical Characteristics 73 Age 78 • Sex 80 • Race and Ethnicity 82 • Disability 82 • Other Biographical Characteristics: Tenure, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity 84 Ability 86 Intellectual Abilities 86 • Physical Abilities 89 • The Role of Disabilities 90 Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 90 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 90 • Diversity in Groups 92 • Effective Diversity Programs 92 Summary and Implications for Managers 94 ^V^lvj Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Older People? 74 M y t h or Science? Dual-Career Couples Divorce Less” 81 A n Ethical Choice Religious Tattoos 85 glOBalizationl Images of Diversity from Around the Globe 88 Point/Counterpoint Men Have More Mathematical Ability Than Women 95 Questions for Review 96 Experiential Exercise Feeling Excluded 96 Ethical Dilemma Board Quotas 96 Case Incident 1 The Flynn Effect 97 Case Incident 2 Diversity at Work:. Nestle Malaysia 98 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 1 3 0 Attitudes 104 What Are the Main Components of Attitudes? 104 • Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes? 106 • What Are the Major Job Attitudes? 107 Job Satisfaction 112 Measuring Job Satisfaction 113 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 114 • What Causes Job Satisfaction? 115 • The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace 118 Summary and Implications for Managers 122 Self-Assessment Library How Satisfied Am I with My Job? 104 CONTENTS

A n Ethical Choice Do Employers Owe Workers More Satisfying Jobs? 108 giOBaiization! Culture and Work-Life Balance 110 |)T(10) Self-Assessment Library Am I Engaged? 112 M y t h or Science? “Favorable Job Attitudes Make Organizations More Profitable” 117 Point/Counterpoint Employer-Employee Loyalty Is an Outdated Concept 121 Questions for Review 122 Experiential Exercise What Factors Are Most Important to Your Job Satisfaction? 123 Ethical Dilemma Bounty Hunters 123 Case Incident 1 Long Hours, Hundreds of E-Mails, and No Sleep: Does This Sound Like a Satisfying Job? 124 Case Incident 2 Crafting a Better Job 125 4 Emotions and Moods 131 What Are Emotions and Moods? 32 The Basic Emotions 134 • The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 134 • The Function of Emotions 136 • Sources of Emotions and Moods 137 Emotional Labor 142 Affective Events Theory 144 Emotional Intelligence 146 The Case for El 147 • The Case Against El 148 • Emotion Regulation 149 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 149 Selection 150 • Decision Making 150 • Creativity 150 • Motivation 151 • Leadership 151 • Negotiation 151 • Customer Service 152 • Job Attitudes 153 • Deviant Workplace Behaviors 153 • Safety and Injury at Work 153 • How Managers Can Influence Moods 154 Summary a n d Implications f o r Managers 132 Self-Assessment Library How Are You Feeling Right Now? 132 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Affect Intensity? 138 M y t h or Science? We Are BetterJudgesofWhen Others Are Happy Than When They Are Sad 141 gSOBalization!

Should You Expect “Service with a Smile” All Around the World? 142 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Emotional Intelligence Score? 149 An Ethical Choice Schadenfreude 154 Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Blowing Your Top Is a Good Thing 156 Questions for Review 155 Experiential Exercise Who Can Catch a Liar? 157 Ethical Dilemma Happiness Coaches for Employees 157 Case Incident 1 Is It Okay to Cry at Work? 158 Case Incident 2 Can You Read Emotions from Faces? 158 5 Personality and Values Personality 167 What Is Personality? 167 • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 169 • The Big Five Personality Model 170 • Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB 173 10 CONTENTS

Values 178 The Importance of Values 178 • Terminal versus Instrumental Values 178 • Generational Values 179 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 182 Person-Job Fit 182 • Person-Organization Fit 184 International Values 184 Summary and Implications for Managers 188 Self-Assessment Library Am I a Narcissist? 166 M y t h or Science? Personality Predicts the Performance of Entrepreneurs 176 glOBalization! The Right Personality for a Global Workplace 177 A n Ethical Choice Should You Try to Change Someone’s Personality? 181 Point/Counterpoint Millennial Are More Narcissistic 189 Questions for Review 190 Experiential Exercise What Organizational Culture Do You Prefer? 190 Ethical Dilemma Personal Values and Ethics in the Workplace 190 Case Incident 1 Is There a Price for Being Too Nice? 191 Case Incident 2 Personal Space 192 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 1 9 9 What Is Perception? 00 Factors That Influence Perception 201 Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 202 Attribution Theory 202 • Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 204 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations 207 The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 208 Decision Making in Organizations 209 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 209 • Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 211 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 218 Individual Differences 218 • Organizational Constraints 220 What About Ethics in Decision Making? 221 — • Three Ethical Decision Criteria 221 • Improving Creativity in Decision Making 222 Summary a n d Implications f o r Managers 224 Self-Assessment Library What Are My Gender Role Perceptions? 200 giOBalization!

Chinese Time, North American Time 205 M y t h or Science? Creative Decision Making Is a Right-Brain Activity 215 Self-Assessment Library Am I A Deliberate Decision Maker? 217 A n Ethical Choice Whose Ethical Standards to Follow? 219 Self-Assessment Library How Creative Am I? 224 Point/Counterpoint Checklists Lead to Better Decisions 225 CONTENTS 11 Questions for Review 226 Experiential Exercise Biases in Decision Making 227 Ethical Dilemma Max’s Burger: The Dollar Value of Ethics 227 Case Incident 1 Decision-Making Processes at Steel Inc. 228 Case Incident 2 Career Promotion at Emox: Rationalizing under Uncertainty 229 7 Motivation Concepts 2 5 3

Defining Motivation 236 Early Theories of Motivation 237 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 237 • Theory X and Theory Y 239 • Two-Factor Theory 239 • McClelland’s Theory of Needs 241 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 242 Self-Determination Theory 242 • Job Engagement 245 • Goal-Setting Theory 246 • Self-Efficacy Theory 249 • Reinforcement Theory 252 • Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 253 • Expectancy Theory 258 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 260 Summary and Implications for Managers 262 Self-Assessment Library How Confident Am I in My Abilities to Succeed? 236 M y t h or Science? “The Support of Others Improves Our Chances of Accomplishing Our Goals” 238 An Ethical Choice Motivated to Behave Unethically 243 glOBalization! Autonomy Needs Around the Globe 244 Self-Assessment Library What Are My Course Performance Goals? 248 Point/Counterpoint Fear Is a Powerful Motivator 263 Questions for Review 264 Experiential Exercise Goal-Setting Task 264 Ethical Dilemma The Big Easy? 64 Case Incident 1 Motivation in the Hong Kong Police Force 265 Case Incident 2 Bullying Bosses 265 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model 274 The Job Characteristics Model 274 • How Can Jobs Be Redesigned? 276 • Alternative Work Arrangements 279 • The Social and Physical Context of Work 283 Employee Involvement 284 Examples of Employee Involvement Programs 285 • Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories 286 Using Rewards to Motivate Employees 286 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 286 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 287 • Flexible 12 CONTENTS

Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 291 • Intrinsic Rewards: Employee Recognition Programs 293 Summary and implications for Managers 295 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Job’s Motivating Potential? 274 M y t h or Science? “CEO Pay Can’t Be Measured” 277 A n Ethical Choice Identifying Conflicts of Interest 292 glOBalization! Motivated by Individual Goals or Relational Goals? 294 Point/Counterpoint “If Money Doesn’t Make You Happy, You Aren’t Spending It Right” 296 Questions for Review 297 Experiential Exercise Assessing Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Using the Job Characteristics Model 297 Ethical Dilemma Spitting Mad 298 Case Incident 1 Multitasking: A Good Use of Your Time? 298 Case Incident 2 Bonuses Can Backfire 299 9

Foundations of Group Behavior 3 5 0 Defining and Classifying Groups 306 Why Do People Form Groups? 306 Stages of Group Development 308 The Five-Stage Model 309 • An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines 310 Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, Cohesiveness, and Diversity 311 Group Property 1: Roles 311 • Group Property 2: Norms 314 • Group Property 3: Status 319 • Group Property 4: Size 320 • Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 322 • Group Property 6: Diversity 322 Group Decision Making 324 Groups versus the Individual 324 • Groupthink and Groupshift 326 • Group Decision-Making Techniques 329 Summary and Implications for Managers 330

Self-Assessment Library Do I Have a Negative Attitude Toward Working in Groups? 306 Self-Assessment Library Do I Trust Others? 314 giQBafeatiom! Forming International Teams in a Virtual World 325 M y t h or Science? “Asians Have Less Ingroup Bias Than Americans” 326 An Ethical Choice Should You Use Group Peer Pressure? 328 Point/Counterpoint Affinity Groups Fuel Business Success 332 Questions for Review 331 Experiential Exercise Wilderness Survival 333 Ethical Dilemma Is Social Loafing Shirking? 334 Case Incident 1 Third Circle Asset Management 334 Case Incident 2 Herd Behavior and the Housing Bubble (and Collapse) 335 CONTENTS 13 10 Understanding Work Teams 3 1 4 Why Have Teams Become So Popular? 42 Differences Between Groups and Teams 343 Types of Teams 344 Problem-Solving Teams 344 • Self-Managed Work Teams 344 • Cross-Functional Teams 345 • Virtual Teams 346 Creating Effective Teams 312 Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful 347 • Team Composition 349 • Team Processes 353 Turning Individuals into Team Players 356 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 357 • Training: Creating Team Players 358 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 358 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always t h e Answer 358 Summary and Implications f o r Managers 359 Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Building and Leading a Team? 342 glOBalization! Group Cohesiveness across Cultures 348 A n Ethical Choice Using Global Virtual Teams as an Environmental Choice 349 M y t h or Science? “Teams Work Best Under Angry Leaders” 354 )AF=>X! Self-Assessment Library What Is My Team Efficacy? 56 Point/Counterpoint We Can Learn Much About Work Teams from Studying Sports Teams 360 Questions for Review 361 Experiential Exercise Fixed versus Variable Flight Crews 361 Ethical Dilemma Unethical Teams 361 Case Incident 1 Why Don’t Teams Work Like They’re Supposed to? 362 Case Incident 2 Multicultural Multinational Teams at IBM 363 11 Communication 3 9 6 Functions of Communication 370 — The Communication Process 372 Direction of Communication 372 Downward Communication 373 • Upward Communication 373 • Lateral Commvinication 373 Interpersonal Communication 374 Oral Communication 374 • Written Communication 375 • Nonverbal Communication 375 Organizational Communication 376 Formal Small-Group Networks 377 • The Grapevine 377 • Electronic Communications 379 • Managing Information 383 Choice of Communication Channel 384 14 CONTENTS

Persuasive Communications 385 Automatic and Controlled Processing 385 • Interest Level 386 • Prior Knowledge 386 • Personality 386 • Message Characteristics 386 Barriers to Effective Communication 387 Filtering 387 • Selective Perception 387 • Information Overload 387 • Emotions 387 • Language 388 • Silence 388 • Communication Apprehension 389 • Lying 389 Global Implications 390 Cultural Barriers 390 • Cultural Context 391 • A Cultural Guide 392 Summary and Implications for Managers 394 ? A Self-Assessment Library Am I a Gossip? 370 An Ethica! Choice The Ethics of Gossip at Work 379 M y t h or Science? “We Know What Makes Good Liars Good” 390 glOBalization! How Direct Should You Be? 392 Point/Counterpoint Social Networking Is Good Business 393 Self-Assessment Library How Good Are My Listening Skills? 394 Questions for Review 394 Experiential Exercise An Absence of Nonverbal Communication 395 Ethical Dilemma Pitfalls of E-Mail 395 Case Incident 1 Using Social Media to Your Advantage 396 Case Incident 2 An Underwater Meeting 396 12 Leadership 401 What Is Leadership? 02 Trait Theories 403 Behavioral Theories 404 Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 406 Contingency Theories 406 The Fiedler Model 407 • Other Contingency Theories 409 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 411 Charismatic Leadership and Transformational Leadership 413 Charismatic Leadership 413 • Transformational Leadership 416 Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust 420 What Is Authentic Leadership? 420 • Ethics and Leadership 420 • Servant Leadership 421 • Trust and Leadership 421 • How Is Trust Developed? 423 • Trust as a Process 424 • What Are the Consequences of Trust? 424 Leading for the Future: Mentoring 425 Mentoring 425 Challenges to the Leadership Construct 427 Leadership as an Attribution 427 • Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership 428 • Online Leadership 429 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders 430 Selecting Leaders 430 • Training Leaders 430 CONTENTS 15 Summary and Implications f o r Managers 431 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Leadership Style? 02 Self-Assessment Library What’s My LPC Score? 407 glOBalization! Cross-Cultural Leadership Styles 412 Self-Assessment Library How Charismatic Am I? 416 Self-Assessment Library Am I an Ethical Leader? 420 An Ethical Choice Do Leaders Have a Responsibility to Protect Followers? 422 M y t h or Science? “Power Helps Leaders Perform Better” 426 Point/Counterpoint Heroes Are Made, Not Born 432 Questions for Review 433 Experiential Exercise What Is a Leader? 433 Ethical Dilemma Undercover Leaders 433 Case Incident 1 Leadership Training in “Job Simulations” at Niederrhein University, Germany 434 Case Incident 2 Healthy Employees are Happy Employees 434 3 Power and Politics 445 A Definition of Power 446 Contrasting Leadership and Power 447 Bases of Power 448 Formal Power 448 • Personal Power 449 • Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 450 • Power and Perceived Justice 450 Dependence: The Key to Power 450 The General Dependence Postulate 450 • What Creates Dependence? 451 Power Tactics 452 Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 455 Politics: Power in Action 458 Definition of Organizational Politics 458 • The Reality of Politics 458 Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 460 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 460 • How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? 63 • Impression Management 464 The Ethics of Behaving Politically 468 Summary and Implications for Managers 469 (JU)J Self-Assessment Library Is My Workplace Political? 446 glOBaiization! Power Distance and Innovation 454 An Ethical Choice Should All Sexual Behavior Be Prohibited at Work? 457 M y t h or Science? “Corporate Political Activity Pays” 462 Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Playing Politics? 464 Point/Counterpoint Power Corrupts People 470 Questions for Review 471 Experiential Exercise Understanding Power Dynamics 471 Ethical Dilemma Corporate Spying 472 Case Incident 1 Delegate Power, or Keep It Close? 472 Case Incident 2 The Persuasion Imperative 473 — 16 CONTENTS 14 Conflict and Negotiation 4 9 7

A Definition of Conflict 480 Transitions in Conflict Thought 481 The Traditional View of Conflict 481 • The Interactionist View of Conflict 481 • Resolution-Focused View of Conflict 483 The Conflict Process 483 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 484 • Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 485 • Stage III: Intentions 486 • Stage IV: Behavior 488 • Stage V: Outcomes 489 Negotiation 492 Bargaining Strategies 492 • The Negotiation Process 497 • Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 498 • Third-Party Negotiations 501 Summary and Implications f o r Managers 503 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Preferred Conflict-Handling Style? 480 M y t h or Science? “Communicating Well Is More Important in Cross-Cultural Negotiations” 496 glOBalization! Anger and Conflict Across Cultures 501 Self-Assessment Library What’s My Negotiating Style? 01 An Ethical Choice Using Empathy to Negotiate More Ethically 502 Point/Counterpoint Player-Owner Disputes Are Unnecessary 505 Questions for Review 506 Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role-Play 506 Ethical Dilemma The Lowball Applicant 507 Case Incident 1 Choosing Your Battles 507 Case Incident 2 Mediation: Master Solution to Employment Disputes? 508 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 5 3 1 What Is Organizational Structure? 514 Work Specialization 514 • Departmentalization 516 • Chain of Command 517 • Span of Control 518 • Centralization and Decentralization 519 • Formalization 520 Common Organizational Designs 520 The Simple Structure 520 • The Bureaucracy 421 • The Matrix Structure 522 New Design Options 524 The Virtual Organization 524 • The Boundaryless Organization 526 • The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 528 Why Do Structures Differ? 30 Organizational Strategy 530 • Organization Size 532 • Technology 532 • Environment 533 Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 535 Summary and Implications for Managers 536 CONTENTS 17 Self-Assessment Library Do I Like Bureaucracy? 514 Self-Assessment Library HowWilling Am I to Delegate? 520 glOBalization! The Global Organization 523 An Ethical Choice Downsizing with a Conscience 530 M y t h or Science? “Employees Resent Outsourcing” 534 Point/Counterpoint The End of Management 537 Questions for Review 538 Experiential Exercise Dismantling a Bureaucracy 538 Ethical Dilemma Directing the Directors 539 Case Incident 1 Creative Deviance: Bucking the Hierarchy? 540 Case Incident 2 Siemens’Simple Structure—Not 540 16 Organizational Culture 5 5 4 What Is Organizational Culture? 46 A Definition of Organizational Culture 546 • Culture Is a Descriptive Term 548 • Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? 548 • Strong versus Weak Cultures 548 • Culture versus Formalization 549 What Do Cultures Do? 550 Culture’s Functions 550 • Culture Creates Climate 550 • Culture as a Liability 551 Creating and Sustaining Culture 553 How a Culture Begins 553 • Keeping a Culture Alive 553 • Summary: How Cultures Form 557 How Employees Learn Culture 557 Stories 557 • Rituals 558 • Material Symbols 558 • Language 558 Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture 559 Creating a Positive Organizational Culture 561 Spirituality and Organizational Culture 563 What Is Spirituality? 563 • Why Spirituality Now? 64 • Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization 564 • Achieving a Spiritual Organization 565 • Criticisms of Spirituality 565 Global Implications 566 Summary and Implications f o r Managers 567 Self-Assessment Library What’s the Right Organizational Culture for Me? 546 glOBalizationl Face Culture, Dignity Culture, and Organizational Culture 549 M y t h or Science? “Employees Treat Customers the Same Way the Organization Treats Them” 552 ! Choice Designing a Culture of Ethical Voice 560 18 CONTENTS Self-Assessment Library How Spiritual Am I? 565 Point/CQumterpoiirat Organizations Should Strive to Create a Positive Organizational Culture 568 Questions for Review 569 Experiential Exercise Rate Your Classroom Culture 569 Ethical Dilemma Is There a Universal Ethics?

HQ – Subsidiary Relations 570 Case Incident 1 Are Employees Happier Working in Their Own National Cultures? 570 Case Incident 2 Did Toyota’s Culture Cause Its Problems? 571 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices Selection Practices 578 577 How the Selection Process Works 578 • Initial Selection 579 • Substantive Selection 580 • Contingent Selection 583 • International Variations in Selection Processes 584 Training and Development Programs 585 Types of Training 585 • Training Methods 587 • Evaluating Effectiveness 588 Performance Evaluation 588 What Is Performance? 589 • Purposes of Performance Evaluation 589 • What Do We Evaluate? 589 • Who Should Do the Evaluating? 90 • Methods of Performance Evaluation 592 • Suggestions for Improving Performance Evaluations 594 • Providing Performance Feedback 596 • International Variations in Performance Appraisal 597 Managing Work-Life Conflicts in Organizations 597 Summary and Implications for Managers 600 Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Human Resource Management (HRM)? 578 glOBalization! Performance Appraisal Around the World 592 An Ethical Choice Recruiting the Unemployed 595 Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Giving Performance Feedback? 597 Myth or Science? “Work Is Making Us Fat” 598 Point/Counterpoint Social Media Is a Great Source of New Hires 601 Questions for Review 602 Experiential Exercise Evaluating Performance and Providing Feedback 602 Ethical Dilemma Credit Checking 602 Case Incident 1 Who Are You? 603 Case Incident 2 Fairness And Human Resources Management: What Do Your Employees Want? 604 18 Organizational Change and Stress Management 6 ^ 1

Forces for Change 612 Planned Change 614 Resistance to Change 614 Overcoming Resistance to Change 616 • The Politics of Change 618 CONTENTS 19 Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 618 Lewin’s Three-Step Model 618 • Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change 620 • Action Research 621 • Organizational Development 621 Creating a Culture for Change 625 Stimulating a Culture of Innovation 625 • Creating a Learning Organization 627 Work Stress and Its Management 629 What Is Stress? 629 • Potential Sources of Stress 631 • Individual Differences 633 • Cultural Differences 634 • Consequences of Stress 635 • Managing Stress 630 Summary and Implications f o r Managers 640 Self-Assessment Library How Well Do I Respond to Turbulent Change? 12 M y t h or Science? “Men Experience More Job Stress Than Women” 630 Self-Assessment Library How Stressful Is My Life? 634 An Ethical Choice Responsibly Managing Your Own Stress 635 glOBalization! Work-Family Stress in Different Cultures 638 Point/Counterpoint Responsible Managers Relieve Stress on Their Employees 641 Questions for Review 642 Experiential Exercise Power and the Changing Environment 642 Ethical Dilemma Changes at WPAC 643 Case Incident 1 Starbucks Returns to Its Roots 644 Case Incident 2 Embracing Change Through Operational Leadership 644 lix A Research in Organizational Behavior 650 Comprehensive Gases 657 Indexes 671 Glindex 697

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