Although agriculture is important, in the twenty-first century, boosting agriculture production within a growing population has been a major problem that Sub-Haran Africa has faced.13 Malawi is one country in particular that is very populated and has an estimated fifteen million people, whereby eighty-five percent of the population lives in rural areas and derives its livelihood from agriculture.
However, considering Malawi and other countries do not have much room to expand under cultivation, agricultural production must be greater than it already so that enough food can be produced for the population that is growing so rapidly. This remains important because farmers are unable to utilize and increase their production with the modern uses of inputs and have little access to capital and technology that is confronted by numerous small holders, which may lead to high fixed costs of technology that is new and will eventually lead to assets and incomes that are lower and overtime increase farm output and yields. With the help of industrialization, it has increased levels of income, health care that has made progress and high productions of food, which each of these factors have caused an increase in the growth of the population. According to research, three conventional objects of policies concerning industrialization are mainly to offer work for population growth and however in some instances for agricultural populations that are under-employed already, improve balance of payment situations and also raise the living standards that is done by increasing the per capita net national income.
It seems as if the growth of the economy in the near future would supply a majority of capitalization that is invested to what is needed to be sustained for the world’s population. The capitalization of a climate and soil combined experience and producers who are well-organized has led to commercial production and agriculture that is very efficient.10 Obtaining land rights, titles and certifications is part of the process to rule your land and obtain rights that are essential in making sure that farmers have the security to enable them to proper develop their agriculture. In many countries, the property rights and such does not exist and various farmers utilize the land the state usually owns. According to research, Africa up close to 100 percent of land that individuals farm on for food production is not formally their land and it is considered a social right for them. This has caused Africa and other countries to have less gains in productivity, investment and even income in comparison to developed countries.
The systems dealing with land tenure also have goods that are shared among individuals within the community and export products such as iron, oil, minerals, copper, etc. from countries that are underdeveloped. These are trades that are international consisting of at least one or more products that potentially need some advancing to some degree. However, countries that have has their attention on biofuel investments, the production capacity of such investments is is much higher than 10 percent which is usually above normal and biodiesel which combines a variety of factory that play a role in developing capacities that are domestic and effectively on its potential production of agriculture.
In Africa, a large percentage of growth in agricultural must be derived from gains that are continuous in land productivity, specifically in high populated areas that are dense and obtain yields that are very high.8 As Mellor states, the physical infrastructure that is in African is far low to a majority of countries in Asia. The diversity of agriculture usually requires a more diverse and larger structure, the systems of research, education, innovation and financial systems that are rural in general inferior to Asia’s productions and institutions. According to Mellor, the record of countries such as in Ethiopia’s growth of 6 to 7 percent growth in agriculture and poverty in rural areas, investments and policies will in turn support and provide a very positive outcome to Africa and underdeveloped countries with current institutional and physically poor infrastructure by contributing from growth in agriculture to a reduction in poverty and an increased gross domestic product.
As opposed to places like Asia who already have sustainable support systems through advanced technology and the help of commercial farmers that that speed the growth of its agriculture. Asia is one of the countries that already has a sufficient amount of income for farms that is beyond the poverty level. Statistics have shown the differences as it compares underdeveloped to developed countries that have agricultural support and Asia comprising up to more than half of the population that is rural and producing between seventy to eighty percent of output that is from agriculture, which is evident that they are not in the category of being poor. The poor in underdeveloped countries have inadequate land that meet the poverty level unfortunately and individuals are therefore unemployed and obtain no jobs that are within agriculture that can be sustained and properly managed accordingly. Poverty is a main issue in underdeveloped countries and especially within the sector of agriculture and as mentioned, to reduce poverty within this sector is the spending with small commercial farmers and increase the income that are based on services from rural sector and goods that are based on employment.
Projects and policies that also address the issues economically are the biofuel projects that are have enhanced foreign exchange that have been earned and societal benefits that could have been gained through food policies. Biofuel is an important in the lack of food and agriculture as it contributes to food that is locally available and it could minimize food prices that are a shock and nationally exposed and reduces its imports and their dependency on them.5 For instance, fluctuations in food prices can majorly threaten the capacity in the household and withhold individuals from meeting their basic needs.8 This is specifically true in many countries in Africa, where many of it is considered a rural population and they focus on net food prices.
Interestingly, most households are very aware of the specific changes in the price for foods such as cereal, which is stated that it constitutes between 40 to 60 percent of the total caloric intake. Though, in Sub Saharan Africa is only capable of reaching seventy-seven percent through domestic production with the following products from markets that are external. The productions are a great source, however the domestic products and other goods are only consumed in small percentage, less than one percent of the entire population. Therefore, there is much advancement that needs to be made. Hunger continues to be an issue in various parts of Africa and in other countries, however one the greatest methods to address issues in underdeveloped countries is with the policies and their advancements that represent and sustain the growth of agriculture in Africa.
Overpopulation in underdeveloped nations could also be looked at from growth rate, death and birth rate, as well as income. As far as the growth rates, they seemed to be much higher in Africa with the birth rate being 37 out of the population of 1,030 million individuals overall. As mentioned above, Malawi is a very populated country with an estimation of around 15 million individuals, with 85 percent of those individuals who live in rural areas. However, it is estimated that in the year of 2020 the population will reach 20.8 million individuals. By the year of 2000, the population in Africa would have increased by nearly two and a half times that of Asia at 1,820 million individuals by nearly three times and Latin America at 215 million individuals by over three times.
It was stated during this time that the rest of the population in this would will be increased by only a small amount less than where the calculations of the populations are at currently. It has been quite evident that the areas that experiences the most growth are within the regions that consist of standards of living that are considerably lower.10 In underdeveloped countries, birth rates are one of the main reasons for the population growth so fast. The death rates in the countries that are in undeveloped parts of the world are also more increased compared to countries that are considered to be developed. This could be why a higher population rate has been very consistent throughout the past years. As listed above the birth rates and population growth of these countries are fairly high and however are minimizing the rates of death, which could be due to being able to obtain adequate food supply, medical knowledge and access, public sanitation that is better, increase in their income levels and agricultural advancements.
Education is on factor that is so important for any human being to obtain regardless of location or current socioeconomic status. Education is almost essential as needing water, food and a enough income to survive. Millions of parents and children are illiterate and lack access and are not as aware of the various ways there are to overall improve their condition or way of living. Educational percentages are lower in individuals who live in underdeveloped populations. However, there is a major need to address the lack of education because that can impact and make a difference in the population growth. The lower the level of the education that individuals have within the underdeveloped countries, the more illiteracy there is compared to countries that are more developed in technology, medical advances and so forth. Illiteracy is a large drawback to the advancement of these populations an is withholding adequate advancement to the generations that are to come.
According to Mountjoy, it is the illiteracy and the resistance to change that is causing a major obstacle in expanding and educating on birth control, furthering hygiene products and uses, introducing manufacturing industry and advancing with more crops and caring and breeding them.10 Policies have even been put in place to spent a certain amount of money to fund for education and even university education. However, while some advances have been neglected, there have been progress made although this is one duty that is enormous to address in one day and will take decades to accomplish, the process has started. For example, illiteracy occurred in places such as in Egypt but have declined overtime from seventy-five percent to fifty-five percent of the population, however in India the rate was little less, only dropping from eighty-five to seventy-six percent.10Also, policies are being created to make this issue of lack of income and other resources aware so that better perspectives can be developed