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Principles of safeguarding and protection

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1.1 Define the following types of abuse
-Physical abuse –
Is an act of another party involving contact intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury or other physical suffering or bodily harm. -Sexual abuse –
A statutory offence that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in unwanted sexual act by force or threat. -Emotional/psychological abuse –
Emotional or psychological abuse is in any action which has had an adverse effect on the individuals mental well-being, causes suffering and effects their quality of life and ability to function to their full potential.

-Institutional abuse –

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Is different from other categories because it is about who abuses and how that abuse comes to pass, rather than about types of harm. Abuse occurs in a relationship, family, service or institution and can be perpetrated by an individual or more collectively, by a regime. -Self neglect –

Is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any medical condition they have.

-Neglected by others –

Is a passive form of abuse in which a perpetrator is responsible to provide care for a victim who is unable to care for themselves, but fails to provide adequate care. 1.2 Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse -Physical abuse –

Multiple bruising or finger prints,
Fractures, twisting fractures with bruising or finger marks
Black eyes or bruised ears
Scalds or cigarette burns
Pressure ulcers or soars or rashes from wet bedding/ clothing -Sexual abuse

Recurrent genital or urinary infections
Blood or marks on underwear
Abdominal pain with no diagnosable cause
Bruises, scratches, burns or bite marks on the body
Scratches, abrasions or persistent infections in the anal/ genital regions -Emotional/psychological abuse –
Reports from neighbours of shouting, screaming, swearing
Reluctance by the vulnerable to be left in the same room as the alleged abuser
Carer seeming to be ignoring the vulnerable persons presence and needs
Cared for person fearful of raised voices, distressed if they feel they may be in trouble.

-Institutional abuse –
freedom is limited by the institution
Privacy and dignity are not respected
Personal correspondence is opened by staff
The setting is run for the convenience of the staff
Access to advice and advocacy is restricted or not allowed.

-Self neglect – Physical illness or disability
Memory and concentration problems
Mental illness and mental health problems
Alcohol and drug misuse problems
Increasing infirmity

-Neglected by others – Not providing adequate food
Not supporting someone with mobility or communication needs
leaving someone alone
Not supporting social contact
Not taking steps to provide a safe and secure environment
Not ensuring that someone is adequately clothed
Not providing someone with assistance with eating and drinking

1.3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse People can me abused for many reasons and it is important in highlighting and contributing factors. to make it clear that the factors alone do not mean that abuse is taking place.

2.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused. It is important that you stay calm, you must never jump to any conclusions or make accusations. you need to make sure you give the person a chance to talk, if nothing has been told you need to make sure you inform a higher member off staff, you need to make sure that you, remember the important information as you will need to record all information. you need to make sure you remember where the bruises or marks are and this should be logged straight away.

2.2 Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused. If someone makes an allegation of abuse to you, the first thing you should say is that you believe what they say. You should reassure the person, that you believe what they are telling you. you should also reassure them that it is not their fault. You should not get to involved and in depth conversation about the abuse as it can become very detailed and you and the other person may get confused. after speaking to the person it is important that you inform a senior colleague and hand over responsibility. It is important that you do not ask leading questions because you may accidently put words into their mouth but yourself and the other person may not realise what has been said. try and remember as much information as accuratly as possible so you can record it after the conversation. You must also make sure that they understand that you can not keep it to yourself, but you must assure them that they can trust you and that you are going to support them through out the process.

2.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved. Do not wash or clean any part of the room or area in which the alleged abuse took place Do not clear up
Do not remove the bedding
Do not remove any of the clothing the abused person is wearing do not allow the person to wash, shower, bathe, brush hair or clean teeth Keep other people out of the room or area.

3.1 Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse. Safeguarding Adults Board
The Local Safeguarding Children’s Board
Local Social Services Authority

3.2 Explain the role of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse. Police, criminal (assault, fraud, theft, domestic violence)
Council, to protect people using their service – make sure they’re safe. Extend help where needed to support those experiencing abuse and neglect in their own homes Social Workers, To investigate actual or suspected abuse or neglect CRB, to check an individual’s past to see if they have any criminal convictions

3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse There was a “systemic failure to protect people” by the owners of a Bristol hospital at the centre of abuse allegations involving vulnerable adults, care watchdogs have said. The Care Quality Commission has published its findings following an inspection of services provided at Winterbourne View, owned by Castlebeck Care Ltd, in Bristol. The report comes after the BBC’s Panorama filmed patients being pinned down, slapped, doused in cold water and repeatedly taunted and teased despite warnings by whistleblower Terry Bryan. Mr Bryan, a senior nurse, had alerted the care home’s management and the CQC on several occasions, but his concerns failed to be followed up. After considering a range of evidence, CQC inspectors found Castlebeck Care had failed to ensure that people living at Winterbourne View were adequately protected from risk, including the risks of unsafe practices by its own staff.

3.4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse. Your policies and procedures, your manager, care plans, your local authority, training

4.1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by
-Working with person centred values
Abuse is reduced by person centred values because institutional abuse often stems from things being done to people because it’s convenient for the staff. The individual’s feelings and preferences are not considered. So, for example, a person requesting pain relief is left to wait because it isn’t time for the medication to be administered or reviewed. -Encouraging active participation

Encouraging active participation builds self esteem, and the person will refuse to tolerate abuse and will be inclined to report it, they’re also around other people which will help to build friendships in which they can share things they may tell one of them if abuse may happen and one of them may pass it on to help -Promoting choice and rights

Abuse is reduced by person centred values because institutional abuse often stems from things being done to people because it’s convenient for the staff. The individual’s feelings and preferences are not considered. Active participation means truly involving that person in their care so that choice, dignity and respect are addressed fully. Promoting choice and rights is also addressed by active participation and an accessible complaints procedure backs up that individual’s rights. It means that the person knows who they can go to with a complaint or concern about any aspect of their treatment or care. 4.2 Explain the importance of accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse If it is easy to access the complaints procedure, and anyone willing to complain has no difficulty in doing so, then it makes it harder for abuse to go unreported, and hence less likely to take place. If a victim has difficulty complaining, then someone who might abuse them is more likely to do so, as they would be more confident that the victim would not be able to do anything about it.

5.1 Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals. Staff shortages
• Staff are too tired to do their job correctly •
• Staff “cut corners” due to lack of time •
• Agency staff not knowing service users correct needs
Lack of training
• Inexperienced staff “acting up” in a senior role• • Staff not trained in their role correctly
Lack of correct equipment
•No PPE available •
• Equipment broken or unavailable

5.2 Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified. Follow your organisations’ Policies & Procedures:
Protect – ensure safety of individual(s)
Report – to your Line Manager
Preserve – evidence
Record & Report – write a confidential report; what is suspected & why, this may include a body chart.

5.3 Describe the actions to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response. First would be the manager, then the owner/company/agency, then the CQC. If there is immediate danger the police should be called

1.1 Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship In a working relationship the reasons why you are involved with a person are clear. They will be in the outcome of the support plan. This is from choosing someone to be your friend or having to be born into your family. In a professional relationship you are in a relationship because it’s your job, you will also have working relationships with colleagues and

1.2 Describe different working relationships in health and social care settings. Relationships between:
Caregivers and residents
Caregivers and administration
Caregivers and attending physicians
Office personnel and residents
Administration and families of residents
Caregivers and resident’s families
Caregivers and kitchen staff
Caregivers and janitorial staff

There are others of course, but these are some examples of how employees of a residential care facility must communicate and co-operate with each other in the best interests of all concerned

2.1 Describe why it is important to adhere to agreed scope of the job role You need to work at the level for your experience and qualifications. You need to know what areas for which you are responsible. The job description will form a part of your contract with your employer.

3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others Effective partenerships are aboiut good team work and in order to work well they require some basic ground rules. these need to include agreements on the following… communication – information sharing – decision making – roles and responsibilities – resolving conflicts – agreed conflicts.

1.1 Define person-centred values.
This is about recognising that everyone is different and has their own needs. Not everyone likes doing the same things, eating the same things, reading the same things or wearing the same things. Just because a person is making
use of support and care services does not stop them being a unique person with very particular needs. You will need to make sure you don’t make general assumptions about people.

1.2 Explain why it is important to work in ways that embeds person centred values. The values that underpin your work have an impact on your day-to-day work. All the tasks for which you may provide support, including bathing, dressing, personal hygiene, preparing meals, shopping or general domestic tasks, will be done better if you take into account the person centered values.

1.3 Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach. Risk taking is part of developing independence. If people never take risks then they will never find out what they are able tto achieve and work out where their limits are.

1.4 Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way. Care plans are now developed by the person themselves sometimes with support from family or friends, plans are then agreed by the social worker or the care manager.

3.1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care and support. Consent not only protects social care and health providers against legal challenge it is vital because of the rights of the person and the importance of recognising that people should determine what happens to them. 3.3 Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established. If someone refuses their agreement or changes their mind after saying yes you must stop what you are doing. You must immediately report and refused of consent or any reservations expressed by the person to your supervisor or to the clinical practitioner responsible for the procedure.

4.1 Describe how active participation benefits an individual. having active participation in society is important for peoples self esteem and their well
being. everybody can identify the feeling of having achieved something.

4.2 Identify possible barriers to active participation.
Issues over physical access
Lack of information in accessible formats
Emotional barriers such as lack of confidence
Professional support staff taking over
Family carers who find it hard to let go

5.3 Explain why worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choices. These are your views and beliefs that have been shaped by your experiances, they are not neccassery right for others who have different backgrounds and different life experiances. Everybody should be allowed to make their own choices.

5.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others. You can support people to overcome barriers, you may be able to provide encouragement and also practical help and advice.

6.1 Explain how individual identity and self esteem are linked with well-being. Feeling valued as an individual is vital to increasing self-esteem and making people feel good about themselves. People find it hard to feel good about themselves if you believe other people don’t think much of you. If you feel that people respect and value you, then you are more likely to value yourself.

6.2 Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well-being This could be from listening and treating an individual’s decision with respect. You can promote this by enabling them into their everyday life, even if you may not agree in something you must remember that everybody has different views and beliefs you should encourage people to pursue what they believe even if you do not agree.

1.1 Identify legislation relating to general health and safety in a health or social care setting. Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (as amended 2002)
Control of Substances Hazadous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) Reporting of Injuries, Disease and dangerouse Occurances Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) Health and Safety First Aid Regulations 1981

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999

1.2 Describe the main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer. Make sure that the workplace is safe and secure, but when thinking this think first for whom, from whom, safe from tripping over things or safe from hazadous fumes safe from infection, it has a wide range and complex.

1.3 Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of
To take resonable care of your own health and safety
avoid wearing jewlerry, baggy clothes and make sure hair is tied up and back work with your employer on getting the appropriate training and make sure you follow the companys health and safety policies to report any injuries, strains or illnesses you suffer as a result of doing your job to tell your employer of something happens that might affect your ability to work -The employer or Manager

make the workplace safe
prevent risks to health
ensure the machinary is safe
provide adequate first aid facilities
set up emergency plans
prevent or control exposure to substances that may damage your health provide health supervision as needed

1.4 Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should not be carried
out without special training. All manual handling needs to be carried out by people with the correct training. Employers are abliged to provide training in manual handling and you have to attend it once a year. Training is not a one off its important for this to be kept up once a year. with the latest techniques and equipment as well as any changes to regulations.

1.5 Explain how to access additional support and information relating to health and safety. Your line manager is always your first choice for additional information or support but if they are unavailbe or unsure and you cannot find what you are looking for in your employers policies the The Health and Safety Executive should be able too provide any information you may need. www.hse.gov.uk

2.1 Explain why it is important to assess health and safety hazards posed by the work setting or particular activities Risk assessment in health and social care is important for everyone whether they are employers or self employed or employees who are required by law to identify and asses risks in the workplace. this includes any situations where potential harm may be caused.

2.2 Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified. You should report the situation the situation straight away as soon as you find it, you should report it to the highest person on shift or if needed the maintenance people. If you need to leave the risk and it could be caught by someone else and they may not see the risk you will need to put a sign on to say out of order or tell people who you are working with then report it.

2.3 Explain how risk assessment can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns. A risk assessment will help look at the risks and the control measures that can be put in place in order to reduce the risk of activity, for example suggesting a friend accompanying or maybe give cards with details on maybe with addresses or telephone numbers. OUTCOME 3

3.1 Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting. – Severe bleeding
-Loss of consciousness
-Epileptic seizure

3.2 Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur. Severe bleeding –
Bring bleeding under control
To limit the possibility of infection
To arrange urgent medical attention

Loss of consciousness –
Place in recovery procedure
To summon medical attention as a matter of urgency
To keep airway open
To note if any information which may help to find the cause of the unconsciousness

Epileptic seizure –
to ensure the person is safe and does not injure themselves during the fit To offer any help needed following the fit

5.1 Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1992 (LOLER)

5.2 Explain principles for moving and handling equipment and other objects safely. If it is absolutely necessary for manual handling you need to make sure a risk assessment is in place to reduce the risk of injury to you and the patient. This could mean making enough staff available or if a specific equipment to help are available.

6.1 Identify hazardous substances and materials that may be found in the work
setting. Nicotine, many drugs and alcohol
Cleaning materials, pesticides, acids, disinfectants and bleaches Blood, bacteria and other bodily fluids

6.2 Describe safe practice for
-Storing hazardous substances
Make sure you take the precautions detailed in the COSHH file on how to store hazardous substances. This will involve using the correct containers as supplied by the manufacturers. You need to make sure all containers have safety lids and caps, and are all correctly labelled.

-Using hazardous substances

Make sure you take the precautions detailed in the COSHH file. this may involve wearing gloves or protective goggles or by limiting the time you are exposed to the substance or only using it in certain circumstances.

-Disposing of hazardous substances and materials
It is important that you follow the procedures that your employer puts in place to deal with it safely in order to reduce the risk to you and the other people you support.

7.1 Describe practices that prevent fires from
Identify hazards: anything that could start a fire, anything that could burn. -Spreading
Make sure you have fire extinguishers around the building with correct labels for example in the kitchen near the cooker you would have a fire blanket. your employer would have had to install fire doors to comply with regulations, which these should never be propped open, you should always have clear access.

7.2 Outline emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting. Stay calm, do not shout or run
Do not allow others to run
Organise people quickly and firmly without panic
Direct those who can move themselves and assist those who cannot Use wheelchairs to move people quickly
Move a bed with a person in if necessary
7.3 Explain the importance of maintaining clear evacuation routes at all times Because you may need to use it in case of an emergency and that may be the only one you can access to get out quickly.

9.1 Identify signs and indicators of stress.
Feel tense, uptight, angry
Unable to make decisions
Feel tired and stretched to the limit
Loss of concentration
Quick temper or irritability
Low tolerance of disruption, noise or other disturbance
Headaches, migraines
Menstrual problems
Increase in infections such as colds or cold sores
9.2 Identify circumstances that tend to trigger own stress.
Work pressures
Money problems
Relationship problems
Interrupted sleep
9.3 Describe ways to manage own stress
Physical activity
Talking over things
Do something to take you mind of the problem
Learn relaxing techniques
Organise your time
Learn to shrug things of

1.1 Identify the legislation that relates to the recording, storage and
sharing information in health and social care. Data Protection Act 1998

1.2 Explain why it is important to have secure systems for recording and storing information in a health and social care setting. Information should be stored somewhere safe and secured safely locked. You should never take peoples personal details out of work. If information is on a computer you should have a secure password to login. The information that you will be handling about the people you support will be personal, it may contain medical history, details of family history and financial information.

2.1 Explain how to access guidance, information and advice about handling information. If you are unsure the first place you should look for guidance is your supervisor or senior colleagues. They are the ideal people to ask for advice with regard to information in your work place.

2.2 Explain what actions to take when there are concerns over the recording, storing or sharing of information. 1.Discuss with your line manager
2.Record your concerns and take to a more senior manager
3.Take to director or chief executive
4.Take to inspector

Cite this Principles of safeguarding and protection

Principles of safeguarding and protection. (2016, Sep 28). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/principles-of-safeguarding-and-protection/

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