Irony is a literary device that uses words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. Irony is often used to create dramatic irony, where what the audience knows or expects differs from what the characters know or expect.
In Macbeth, there are many examples of irony:
-The title character himself is an example of irony. He is not as strong and powerful as he believes himself to be, and he ultimately fails because of his own flaws.
-The play’s plot is full of irony. The witches’ predictions are all ironic, especially since they don’t know that Macbeth will kill Duncan himself; Macbeth’s downfall at the hands of Macduff comes after he has already killed Duncan; Lady Macbeth’s suicide comes after she has lost control over her husband and sees that they cannot escape their fate; The fact that Macduff kills Macbeth is ironic because it was not supposed to happen this way according to prophecy; The ending itself where both Duncan’s sons die while Macduff becomes king after defeating Macbeth is also ironic because it turns out that Macduff was fated to become king but not necessarily by defeating Macbeth in battle.