This research paper discusses robotics, a technology that deals with the design, construction, and operations of robots that are used in a variety of applications. It looks at how these applications range from industries that require accurate and repetitive tasks, for example the car and computer manufacturing industries. dangerous tasks such as diffusing bombs and other work that cannot be performed by human workers like doing research on other planets or going down into a live volcano. It provides a description of what robots are and how they work, the history of robotics, the present applications of robots, and the impact of robots on society. Robotic technology has made a positive turn for the future of the world. The use of robots is becoming more prevalent in everyday life (Selvon, 2009).
According to the Robot Institute of America, 1979; a robot is, “A programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”
Robotics is the field of computer science and engineering concerned with creating robots; devices that can move and react to sensory input. Robotics is one branch of artificial intelligence (AI). Mechanical motion is produced by the use of robotics resulting in movement or locomotion. Mechanical characteristics for robotic mechanisms include freedom of movement, size and shape of the operating space, strength of the structure, lifting capacity, and acceleration. Performance is measured by the ability to repeat movements and accuracy of positioning, speed, and freedom from alterations (McGraw-Hill, 2002).
The word “robot” originates from the Czech word robota which means forced labor. It was introduced by Czech playwright Karl Capek in his play “R.U.R.”(Rossum’s Universal Robots).