The Earth has many environmental jobs which are caused by human activities. The first major 1 is planetary warming. This means the mean temperature of the air and oceans additions. Harmonizing to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) , the Earth has become hotter about one Celsius grade during the 20th century. Many scientists suggest the cause of planetary heating is inordinate C dioxide which is generated by firing fossil fuels and deforestation. The fact that the Earth started warming about Industrial Revolution strengthens this thought. If the Earth becomes hotter at this gait, many species will go nonextant and we worlds will be perfectly impacted in the close hereafter [ 1 ] . The 2nd serious job is acerb rain. Acid rain is rain with a pH lower than 5.6. The major suggested cause is sulphur dioxide ( SO2 ) and nitrogen oxides ( NO ) from mills. These substances react with H2O bead in the air and bring forth acids. Acid rain has impacts on woods, dirt, species and worlds. For illustration, acid rain alterations the lake to H2O with lower pH and causes fish life there to be nonextant. If rain bead has lower than pH 5.0, fish eggs can non hatch [ 2 ] . Today, we have acid rain all over the universe so it is a serious job we must make something for bettering.
In add-on, there is a job of groundwater pollution by high N fertiliser. Groundwater is the H2O which flows in the land. It is recharged from the surface, flows beneath the land and finally flows to the surface. We seldom see submerged in our day-to-day lives. In general, a difference between groundwater and H2O in the sea or rivers is that the former frequently includes soil wet or permafrost but the latter does non. There is besides a fact that groundwater has a much longer rhythm term than that of the sea or river H2O. A survey analysing H2O shows that underwater frequently has rhythm more than one million old ages [ 3 ] . We can utilize submerged for agribusiness, industry and imbibing in some country which has less H2O. The major job with groundwater is that it is affected by N included in fertiliser and this leads many people to decease because they have merely groundwater to imbibe.
Fertilizer is known as a chemical substance which supplies workss foods like N or P and this is the most effectual ways of bettering production of harvest and nutrient quality. In the yesteryear, worlds did non hold manmade fertiliser, of class, but Justus von Liebig and others have found the first synthesis fertiliser in 19th century. Since so, worlds have improved fertiliser and we have two sorts of fertiliser, organic and inorganic, now. Organic fertiliser includes natural organic stuffs, so organic one is good for the environment. To the contrary, inorganic fertiliser includes high N which is originated from ammonium. The procedure of doing inorganic fertiliser is called Haber-Bosch procedure and inorganic fertiliser is called man-made fertiliser. The cause of pollution in groundwater is supposed to nitrogen included in unreal man-made fertiliser.
In this paper, I will look into how fertilizer including high N causes belowground H2O pollution. In order to look into this procedure, I used the Internet to happen secondary beginning information. It is of import to understand the procedure of belowground H2O pollution to reconsider fertiliser use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research has been based on unfastened literature secondary beginnings. Ten beginnings were found by seeking keywords related to my subject on the Internet. Two paperss were found by utilizing keywords “ fertilizer N ” on Google. One papers is an on-line encyclopaedia [ 4 ] and a journal paper [ 6 ] . Information about groundwater was found by seeking keywords “ belowground H2O ” on Google. This article is an on-line encyclopaedia [ 3 ] . Information about international jobs like planetary warming [ 1 ] and acid rain [ 2 ] were found by utilizing Google. Two hunt footings “ planetary heating ” and “ acerb rain ” helped me happen information.
Following, information approximately high N fertiliser and submerged pollution by fertiliser were searched. Using keywords “ polluter pays rule ” on Google allow me happen an on-line encyclopaedia [ 7 ] . A relationship between groundwater pollution and high N fertiliser was found by seeking keywords “ groundwater pollution fertiliser ” on Google Scholar [ 10 ] and this beginning is an article. More information about a relationship between these constructs were found by utilizing cardinal footings “ fertilizer pollution ” on Google. This information is about fertiliser pollution in Europe [ 8 ] . Finally, information about the procedure of polluting is needed. By utilizing keywords “ fertilizer pollution rain ” and “ added N interact ” on Google, two paperss [ 5 ] [ 9 ] were found. One is like a acquisition system on the Internet and the other is an article.
There are two procedures in which high N fertiliser can do submerged pollution. The first procedure is due to heavy rain [ 4 ] [ 5 ] . When we consider the procedure with heavy rain, the most of import point is that fertiliser is soluble in H2O [ 5 ] . The intent of fertiliser is to turn workss faster and stronger. Plants can acquire foods merely by their roots with liquid so fertilizer must be soluble in the H2O. When it rains to a great extent, rain H2O goes into the land, of class. Then, N from fertiliser dissolves in rain beads and goes down to the aquifer [ 4 ] [ 5 ] .
The 2nd procedure is caused by submerged flow [ 3 ] . As I mentioned above, belowground H2O flows under the land. In general, submerged flows downward because of the Earth ‘s gravitation and eventually flows into the sea or rivers [ 3 ] . This means that the N from fertilizer spreads easy and causes pollution in big country. How belowground H2O travels under the land is shown in Fig. 1.
Figure 1. Underwater flow beneath the surface [ 3 ] .
In add-on, added N interaction ( ANI ) impacts submerged pollution. Most of the N in the land originates from high N fertiliser but some of them are from industrial waste and sewerage. In general, N in fertiliser and other types have different word pictures. When there are two types of N in the land, N arising from industrial waste and sewerage is easy absorbed. This means N from fertiliser can non be absorbed good and rain beads rinse it and causes submerged pollution [ 9 ] .
There are two procedures involved in submerged pollution by nitrogen fertiliser: heavy rain and submerged flow. However ANI besides contributes submerged pollution. The first procedure, heavy rain, is natural one. Therefore we can non forestall N in the land from fade outing in H2O. The 2nd procedure, underwater flow, is besides natural one. These facts mean that one time we put nitrogen fertiliser in the land, submerged pollution is inevitable.
Then, who is responsible for submerged pollution? There is a flow in submerged so we can state the contaminated country is far from the pollutant. This means we can non cognize who truly polluted that country. In many other instances of polluting, defiler wages rule ( PPP ) is applied for the pollution. Polluter pays rule is defined as an environmental policy rule which requires that the costs of pollution be borne by those who cause it [ 7 ] . Therefore it is impossible to use PPP to this sort of pollution. In 1970s, Clean Water Act tried to command H2O pollution. They gave 50 billion dollars to the state they are in and effluent installations were built. Many scientists suggest that there is a manner to cut down pollution like this instance [ 6 ] .
The serious job by high N fertiliser is non merely submerged pollution but besides planetary heating, eutrophication and wellness impacts. The suggestion that planetary heating is caused by increasing nursery gases is celebrated now. Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) and methane ( CH4 ) are celebrated nursery gases but azotic oxide ( N2O ) is greenhouse gas, excessively. When high N fertiliser is put beneath the surface, bacteriums in dirt decompose N and produce azotic oxide. Then, it goes up in the air because gas is lighter than dirt [ 10 ] . Next serious job is eutrophication. Eutrophication is phenomena that there are excessively much foods in the lake or river and some sorts of species grow so good that other species can non populate comfortably. For illustration, when the nitrate fertiliser flows in rivers, it promotes growing of bantam workss on the surface of the river. These workss are on the surface so the workss in the underside of the river can non acquire adequate Sun visible radiation and make photosynthesis [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 10 ] . The consequence of eutrophication in the sea is shown in Fig. 2. The last job is wellness impacts. The celebrated one is methemoglobinemia which means a serious and frequently fatal unwellness in babies due to transition of nitrate to nitrite by the organic structure, which can cut down the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood [ 10 ] .
Figure 2. The consequence of eutrophication in the sea. We can see the crab at the underside of the sea is dead [ 5 ] .
As I introduced so far, submerged pollution has many serious jobs so we must forestall H2O pollution. There are two ways to forestall pollution. The first 1 is to see whether N fertiliser is truly needed or non [ 7 ] . This helps people cut down pollution and salvage their money. The 2nd manner is to works trees so that dirt eroding will non happen [ 7 ] . Trees change C dioxide into oxide in their photosynthesis and property to alleviate planetary heating. We need to reconsider whether or non high N fertiliser is truly an optimum manner to advance works growing. If we keep utilizing fertiliser at this gait, the Earth will be bit by bit damaged.