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Screening Of Mung Bean Germplasm Biology

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Mungbean { VIgna radiata ( L. ) Wilczeck } besides known as green gm belongs to household Leguminosae is a widely consumed pulse harvest of South Asia. Mung bean is grown in kharif season in Pakistan. It acquires an ability of following diverse cropping form due to development of short continuance and unvarying maturing assortments ( Haqqani et al. , 2004 ) .In Pakistan, during 2006-2007 the are under mung bean cultivation was 217.8 1000 hectares produced 138.5 1000 tones with mean output of 636 kg/hectare ( Anonymous, 2008 ) .

Mungbean constitute of import foods including protein, saccharides, minerals, vitamin B, fibres and lipoids.

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Seed is used as a whole, husked and dehusked signifier in different ways, as pigeon pea, in curries, soup readying, noodles, staff of life and different sorts of Sweets. Easy digestibleness and absence of flatulency doing factors increased its importance. Furthermore, it is besides used in medical specialties for bring arounding different complaints ( Engel, 1977 ; Singh et al. , 1988 ; Thirumaran and Seralathan, 1988 ; Bashir, 1994 ) . Despite great nutritionary value, mungbean is subjected to prone different biotic emphasiss in which diseases are the most of import.

Among them, Charcoal putrefaction by Macrophomina phaseolina ( Tassi. ) Goid is a serious and endangering one ( Bashir and Malik, 1988 ) . The pathogen is soil-borne and survives in microsclerotial signifier in dirt ( Dhingra and Sinclair, 1977 ) . Its growing and endurance can be triggered by low wet contents, high temperature, heat and different physiological emphasiss ( Papavizas, 1977 ; Dhingra and Sinclair, 1978 ) . Badness of wood coal putrefaction disease consequences in visual aspect of terrible symptoms, usual sunburn colored root bends grey from land degree to upwards with presence of black Sclerotium on septic part. It besides causes wet putrefaction of sprouts during sprouting procedure. Wilting and premature decease is normally seen in septic workss ( Seraffin, 2008 ) .

Different direction schemes have been adopted to command the disease such as application of different chemicals, adversaries and harvest rotary motion method by cut downing sclerotial degree in dirt ( Franci et al. , 1988 ; Pineda, 2001 ; Chaudhary et Al, 2004 ) .

The chemical direction of this disease is non cost-efficient due to its soilborne nature. These chemicals lead to wellness jeopardies and ecological outflow due to frequent usage. But these schemes could non successful due to their feasibleness under specific conditions. So, cultivation of immune assortments seems to be utile method in disease direction. It is cheaper and pertinent method besides clip ingestion. Immune response in different harvests against disease may be due to reduced degree of certain chemicals as compared to susceptible 1s ( Songa et al. , 1997 ; Smith and Carvil, 1997 ) . Therefore, in this respect, present survey aimed to test out immune mungbean germplasm against wood coal putrefaction disease and this information is indispensable for works breeders for obtaining lasting and immune lines of mungbean against this disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials and Methods

Isolation of Macrophomina phaseolina

Stem tissues of mungbean bearing fungous Sclerotium and features charcoal putrefaction symptoms were collected for isolation of the pathogen. The tissues were cut into little pieces of 5-10 millimeter length and 2-3 millimeter thickness. Surface was bleached with 1 % Na hypochlorite ( NaOCl ) for 2 proceedingss to extinguish secondary encroachers and so rinsed in three consecutive alterations of sterile distilled H2O prior to plating. These pieces were placed on chloroneb quicksilver rose bengal agar ( CMRA ) medium ( Meyer et al. , 1973 ) .The Petri dishes incorporating septic tissue were incubated in dark at 26A±2A°C for 6 yearss.

Preparation of sorghum inoculums for M. phaseolina

Seeds of the sorghum were moistened, air dried under room temperature and placed in conelike flasks. The oral cavity of each flask was plugged with cotton wool and wrapped in aluminium foil before autoclaving at 15 pounds per square inch ( 121A°C ) for 20min. After chilling, the flasks were inoculated with 4 millimeters mycelial stopper from a 7 yearss old civilization of M. phaseolina and incubated at 26A±2A°C for 15 yearss for the colonisation of sorghum seeds with the pathogen. One hundred colonized sorghum seed were plated on PDA at 26A±2A°C and after five yearss the civilizations were examined under the microscope for the presence of the pathogen. The figure of seeds demoing the mycelial presence of the pathogen was counted. The per centum recovery of M. phaseolina from the inoculums was calculated.

Screening of green gram germplasm for wood coal putrefaction Resistance.

One hundred green gram germplasm accessions were planted at National Agricultural Research Centre ( NARC ) in unnaturally inoculated dirts in the field and green house during 2008 in kharif season. Each genotype was planted in a individual row of 4m length. Plant to works and row to row distance was maintained at 10cm and 30cm severally. Plots were inoculated with inoculant @ 2g per metre of row. In the green house 2-3 sorghum seeds infected with M. phaseolina were placed around each seed of mungbean sown in pots. Five seeds were planted in each pot. Data was recorded on 1-9 disease ratting graduated table ( Abawi and Pastor-Corrales, 1990 ) , where, 1 = no symptoms on workss ( extremely immune ) : 3 = ( immune ) : 5 = ( tolerant ) : 7 = ( susceptible ) and 9 = ( extremely susceptible ) .

Consequences

The consequences revealed that all genotypes differed in their response to charcoal rot disease. The disease badness of assorted genotypes ranged from 1-9 in green house every bit good as in the field. Out of one 100 accessions, 14 genotypes, 013987, 013992, 014026, 014033, 014062, 014098, 014218, 014219, 014245, 014253, 014255, 014256, 014257 and 014258 with disease ratting mark ‘1 ‘ were extremely immune whereas 18 genotypes with disease ratting mark ‘3 ‘ were found as resistant. 35 Genotypes with disease evaluation ‘5 ‘ acted as tolerant lines whereas remainder of 33 genotypes with evaluation graduated table ‘7 ‘ and ‘9 ‘ showed either susceptible or extremely susceptible behaviour ( Table-1 ) . The disease response under field conditions showed that out of 100 genotypes, 34 genotypes, 013987, 013992, 014026, 014033, 014062, 014098, 014149, 014173, 014184, 014218, 014219, 014220, 014222, 014223, 014239, 014240, 014241, 014243,014245, 014253, 014255, 014256, 014257, 014258, 014259, 014262, 014263, 014293, 014294, 014297, 014307, 014308, 014309 and 014310 appeared as extremely immune with disease mark ‘1 ‘ , whereas 30 were immune, 20 three tolerant, 8 genotypes were susceptible and 5 acted as extremely susceptible lines. As shown in spread secret plan diagram ( fig-1 ) there was a strong additive relationship between these two phases. Twelve groups were found which indicate different combinations of genotypes on the footing of disease badness. Fifteen genotypes ( 13987, 13992, 14026, 14033, 14062, 14098, 14218, 14219, 14245, 14253, 14255, 14256, 14257 and 14258 ) were extremely immune at both seedling and adulthood at the point ( 1, 1 ) on Ten and Y-axis. 7 genotypes showed immune reaction with disease mark “ 2 ” at ( 2, 2 ) on Ten and Y-axis, While five were found to be extremely susceptible at ( 5, 5 ) on Ten and Y-axis with disease evaluation “ 5 ” . The disease badness was less at generative phase as compared with the seedling phase. High relationship was observed between these two phases. It was concluded that wood coal putrefaction of mungbean gave high degree of infection at seedling phase under nursery conditions therefore it was recommended to test out big figure of mungbean germplasm at nursery degree to minimise the labor and resources.

Discussion

Charcoal putrefaction caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is extremely annihilating disease of the most cereal harvests which infect the workss both at seedling and adulthood phases. In our consequences most of the genotypes were found susceptible at seedling phase under nursery status and merely five genotypes ( 014227, 014228, 014284, 014285 and 014286 ) were susceptible under field conditions at adulthood phase. This may be due to un-even distribution of inoculant in the field because in the pots under nursery conditions the inoculant is unvarying and the micro-climate is distributed equally that ‘s why the figure of genotypes in nursery are more susceptible to this disease as compared to filed.

The dirt in the field are rich with organic mater that ‘s why there is an abundant figure of bacteriums and actinomycetes which have counter affect on M. phaseolina. Therefore the propagules denseness may be affected. Due to which the disease tri-angle ( host-pathogen-environment ) can non be established. Sometimes the morbid dust can non be decomposed decently in the dirt and exposed to sunshine and stay in such conditions. The propagules can non multiply in the dirt and disease flight was occurred, while the conditions are unvarying in instance of glass house. We used sterilized dirt which gives the pathogen maximal opportunity to boom. There will be no competition between pathogen and the dirt micro vegetation.

During this survey different reaction groups were formed. Fifteen genotypes were found extremely immune at both seedling and adulthood phases. Songa et Al ( 1997 ) evaluated 313 common bean accessions against wood coal putrefaction under field conditions and found 50 lines resistant. Ashraf et Al ( 2005 ) screened 56 garbanzo lines for opposition against this disease. Merely one genotype was to be immune against wood coal putrefaction. 53 accessions of beans were evaluated by Pastor and Abawi ( 1998 ) Twenty two genotypes classified as immune and staying found tolerant to susceptible.

This indicates that the factors for opposition against wood coal putrefaction do non protect the host against the pathogen but they retard the growing of the fungus. Therefore the harvest is governed by polygenic cistrons which resist the pathogen in the field, which needs to be investigated in item. However the big Numberss of genotypes are investigated to happen out the immune beginnings of mung bean germplasm against wood coal putrefaction.

Table.1. degree of resistance/susceptibility of Mungbean germplasm against wood coal putrefaction

Disease Reaction

Number

Greenhouse

Field

Highly resistant ( HR )

GH=14

F =34

013987,013992,014026,014033,

014062,014098,014218,014219,

014245,014253,014255,014256,

014257,014258

013987,013992,014026,014033,014062, 014098,014149,014173,014184,014218, 014219,014220,014222,014223,014239,

014240,014241,014243,014245,014253,

014255,014256,014257,014258,014259,

014262,014263,014293,014294,014297,

014307,014308,014309,014310

Resistant ( R )

GH=18

F =30

014149,014173,014184,014222,

014233,014234,014235,014241,

014243,014250,014293,014294,

014297,014306,014307,014308,

014314,014315

013953,013954,013956,013961,013962, 014075,014089,014119,014121,014123, 014125,014148,014213,014224,014233, 014234,014235,014237,014247,014249,

014250,014270,014277,014288,014290,

014306,014312,014313,014314,014315

Tolerant ( T )

GH=35

F =23

013953,013954,013971,014044, 014063,014064,014073,014075,

014119,014121,014123,014125, 014213,014220,014223,014232, 014237,014239,014240,014247,

014249,014259,014262,014263,

014270,014277,014287,014288, 014290,014292,014303,014304,

014311,014312,014313

013955,013971,014035,014044,014063, 014064,014073,014133,014221,014232, 014251,014252,014274,014275,014276, 014287,014292,014298,014301,014302, 014303,014304,014311

Susceptible ( S )

GH=16

F =8

013955,013956,013961,013962,

014035,014089,014148,014224,

014251,014252,014275,014276,

014301,014302,014309,014310,

014043,014225,014226,014278,014279, 014280,014281,014283,

Highly susceptible ( HS )

GH=17

F =5

014043,014133,014221,014225,

014226,014227,014228,014274, 014278,014279,014280,014281,

014283,014284,014285,014286,

014298

014227,014228,014284,014285,014286

Analysis of Discrepancy

Beginning of Variation

United states secret service

df

Multiple sclerosis

F

P-value

Genotypes

258.12

99

2.61

8.69

0.00

Phases

35.28

1

35.28

117.52

0.00

Mistake

29.72

99

0.30

Entire

323.12

199

A

A

A

Fig- 1: Correlation of disease reaction between seedling and adulthood phase of mungbean

Fig-2: Precipitation, Temperature and R.H % at NARC during the kharif season 2007.

Cite this Screening Of Mung Bean Germplasm Biology

Screening Of Mung Bean Germplasm Biology. (2017, Jul 09). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/screening-of-mung-bean-germplasm-biology-essay/

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