This chapter describes research that had been undertaken on choosing healthful landfill site location and its factors that are suited for the topographic point. This literatures besides included the theoretical accounts that can be used to foretell the best location and besides about the relation between and theoretical accounts and the GIS application.
2.2 Solid waste
Solid wastes are all the wastes originating from human and carnal activities that are usually solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted ( Tchobanoglous et al. , 1993 ) . Solid waste besides is the term to depict non-liquid waste stuffs from the populace ( Nair et al. , 2007 ) . Solid waste is one of the three major environmental jobs in Malaysia and it plays a important function in the ability of Nature to prolong life within its capacity ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gecnet.info, 2002 ) . Presently, over 23,000 metric tons of waste is produced each twenty-four hours in Malaysia. However, this sum is expected to lift to 30,000 metric tons by the twelvemonth 2020 ( Manaf et al. , 2009 ) . From that sum, merely less than 5 % of the waste is being recycled ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gecnet.info, 2002 ) .
Based on survey from Manaf et al. , ( 2009 ) in Malaysia, there were three major classs of solid waste and each class is under the duty of a different authorities section. For municipal solid waste, it is the duty under Ministry of Housing and Local Government ( MHLG ) . Department of Environmennt ( DOE ) will set up the agenda or risky waste and the clinical waste is under the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) .
2.3 Sanitary Landfill
Landfill choice in an urban country is a critical issue in the urban planning procedure because of its tremendous impact on the economic system, ecology and the environmental wellness of the part ( Akbari et al. , 2008 ) . As twenty-four hours from twenty-four hours, the growings of urbanisation every bit good as the desire to populate in metropoliss, larger sum of wastes are produced and unluckily the solid waste direction job became bigger ( Akbari et al. , 2008 ) . Land filling has been used for many old ages as the most common method for the disposal of solid waste generated by different communities ( Komilis et al. , 1999 ) . As Zyma ( 1990 ) mentioned that legion factors have to be evaluated in order to put a landfill and so this adequate landfill should hold minimal environmental impacts and societal credence. Besides, an equal landfill should be in conformity with the several ordinances ( Zyma 1990 ) .
Yesilnacar and Cetin ( 2005 ) surveies that the site choice process, nevertheless, should do maximal usage of the available information and guarantee that the result of the procedure is acceptable to most stakeholders. The planning and design of a solid waste landfill direction system involves choice of intervention and disposal installations, allotment of solid wastes and waste residues from the generator to the intervention and disposal sites, and choice of transit paths ( Yesilnacar and Cetin, 2005 ) . Furthermore, many possible standards, such as distance from residential countries, distance from chief roads, investing costs, handiness of solid waste, and land incline must be considered in the choice process of a landfill location.
Landfill sitting besides is a hard and complex procedure necessitating rating of many different standards ( Chang et al. 2007 ) since it has to unite environmental, economic and societal factors. Environmental factors are really of import because the landfill may impact the environment and the ecology of the environing country ( Siddiqui et al. 1996 ; Kontos et al. 2003 ; Erkut and Moran 1991 ) . Consideration of economic factors for landfills, it includes the costs development, operation of the site and besides transit of the waste ( Delgado et al. 2008 ; Erkut and Moran 1991 ; Kontos et al. 2003 ) . Social and political resistance to landfill locating have been indicated as the greatest obstruction for successfully turn uping waste disposal installations ( Lober 1995 ) . The “ Not In My Backyard ” ( NIMBY ) and “ Not In Anyone ‘s Backyard ” ( NIABY ) phenomena ( Chang et al. 2008 ; Kao and Lin 1996 ; Erkut and Moran 1991 ; Kontos et al. 2003 ; Lin and Kao 2005 ) are going popular presents because it create large job to determination shaper to take the suited topographic point for healthful landfill while presents is encounter insufficient of suited land.
It is apparent that many factors must be consider in doing determination for healthful landfill sitting and geographic information systems ( GIS ) is an ideal tools for this sort of preliminary surveies due to their ability to pull off big volumes of spacial informations from a assortment of beginnings ( Sener et al. 2006 ) .
2.4 Geographical Information System
Geographic information system ( GIS ) is a computerize database direction system that designed to pull off big volumes of spatially distributed information from a assortment of beginnings ( Charnpratheep et al. , 1997 ) . They are ideal for advanced site-selection surveies because they expeditiously store, retrieve, analyze, and show information harmonizing to user-defined specifications ( Kao et al. , 1997 ) . GIS has been extensively used to ease and take down the cost of the landfill site-selection procedure ( Sener et al. , 2006 ) .
GIS frequently been employed for the siting and arrangement of installations ( Church, 2002 ) . GIS has emerged as a really of import tool for land usage suitableness analysis ( Malczewski, 2004 ) . GIS besides can acknowledge, correlative and analyse the spacial relationship between mapped phenomena, thereby enabling policy-makers to associate disparate beginnings of information, perform sophisticated analysis, visualise tendencies, undertaking results and strategize long-run planning ends ( Malczewski, 2004 ) .
GIS as a box of tools for managing geographical informations is really utile, nevertheless, the list of tools provided by GIS although impressive is non complete. For illustration in most GIS packages spacial analytical functionality, lies chiefly in the ability to execute deterministic sheathing and buffer maps ( Carver, 1991 ) . Such abilities whilst ideal for executing spacial hunts based on nominally mapped standards, are of limited usage when multiple standards and marks, such as in the instance of landfills choice, are applied ( Jeff and Baxter, 1996 ) . The integrating of GIS with analytical techniques will be a valuable add-on in GIS tool chest. Advancement in this country is inevitable and future developments will go on to put increasing accent upon the analytical capablenesss of GIS ( Fotheringham and Rogerson, 1994 ) .
GIS have the capableness to manage and imitate the necessary economic, environmental, societal, proficient, and political restraints. Many of the properties involved in the procedure of choice of healthful landfill sites have a spacial representation, which in the last few old ages has motivated the predomination of geographical attacks that allow for the integrating of multiple properties utilizing geographic information systems ( Kontos et al. 2003 ; Sarptas et Al. 2005 ; Sener et Al. 2006 ; Gomez-Delgado and Tarantola 2006 ; Delgado et Al. 2008 ; Chang et Al. 2008 ) . Site choice processs can profit from the appropriate usage of GIS.
Common benefits of GIS include its ability to: ( a ) gaining control, shop, and pull off spatially referenced informations ; ( B ) provide monolithic sums of spatially referenced input informations and execute analysis of the informations ; ( degree Celsiuss ) perform sensitiveness and optimisation analysis easy ; and ( vitamin D ) communicate theoretical account consequences ( Vatalis and Manoliadis 2002 ) .
GIS besides provides a spacial model to set down usage analysis and it has been recognized as a utile determination support engineering. The function of GIS is to bring forth a set of executable solutions stand foring the comparative land suitableness with regard to any given map beds and to expose it. However, it does non supply agencies to cover with multiple determination factors. There has been a recent tendency to incorporate GIS with other package for better determination devising in planning.
2.5 Previous Study on GIS in Sanitary Landfill Site Selection
2.5.1 Case Study in Iran ( Akbari et al. , 2008 )
Harmonizing to Akbari et al. , ( 2008 ) a good waste disposal country has few features such as it should be off from the topographic point which has the history of deluging. From old survey done by Allen et al. , ( 2001 ) , landuse, route and other environmental factor must be considered in choosing the suited waste disposal country. In this survey, raster-based and vector-based is used to place possible waste sites based on suitableness of topography and propinquity to geographic characteristics ( Kier et al.,1993 ) .
In turn uping the suited waste disposal country, this survey was concern about public wellness. Harmonizing to first phase, Akbari et Al. ( 2008 ) in sing the high rate of urbanisation, one should take the long term land use planning of suburbs into consideration to turn up the disposal country. In this survey besides, Akbari et Al. ( 2008 ) use the combine method. In the first phase, GIS used as the method to foretell some of the unacceptable country based on standards. Then, the survey continues the analyzing by utilizing fuzzed multicriteria determination devising ( Zadeh, 1965 ) .
For the parametric quantity in this survey, most of the standards that has been used follow the old survey such as proper heigt and incline, mistakes, surface H2O beginnings, H2O Wellss, urban and rural country, agribusiness country, route webs and coastal zone ( Kamariah, 1998 ; Halvadakis, 1993 ; Vassiloglou, 2001 )
Consequence for this survey as about based on the 2nd phase which is utilizing Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making ( Zadeh, 1965 ) . FMCDM method is hence chosen for ranking different landfill sites based on determinations given by a group of experts ( Chang et al. , 2007 ) .
2.5.2 Case Study in China ( Wang et al. , 2008 )
GIS used as the chief system in planing the suited topographic points for the healthful landfill site. GIS has been extensively used to ease and take down the cost of the healthful landfill site-selection procedure ( Charnpratheep et al. , 1997 ) . Some of the siting technique combine GIS with the multiple standards analysis ( Kao and Lin, 1996 ; Lin and Kao, 1998 ) and for this instance survey, Wang et al. , ( 2008 ) choose to utilize Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) as a determination devising technique. Actually, AHP is frequently used to compare the comparative suitableness of a little figure of options refering the overall end ( Wang et al. , 2008 ) .
In this survey, the standards that been used is based on the relevant International literature ( Kontos et al. , 2005 ; Al-Jarrah and Abu-Qdais, 2006 ; Sener et al. , 2006 ) and besides ordinance in China. For the standards, Wang et al. , ( 2008 ) split into two groups which is environmental standards that limit to geographical countries. The 2nd group is about economic factors. As reference in diary, the standards that has been used for choosing suited site are residential country, surface H2O organic structures, land Waterss, airdrome countries, land utilizations, inclines of land surface and roads. Wang et al. , ( 2008 ) use the monetary value of the land as the economic factor in choosing suited site. Other standard for the economic factor is the cost for the transit. They lower the transit cost by make up one’s minding the waste production centre should be 500m from the chief route. Harmonizing to Wang et al. , ( 2008 ) economic factor is of import for developing states and should be considered for solid waste landfill.
From the overall survey, integrating of GIS with the multi standards rating technique, AHP can be the best method for finishing in choosing suited site for the healthful landfill. AHP gives some advantage for the user because it can supply big and many informations in choosing suited site ( Charnpratheep et al. , 1997 ; Chang et al. , 2008 ) . AHP besides provided great flexibleness in the collection process ( Wang et al. , 2008 ) .
2.5.3 Case Study in India ( Sumathi, 2005 )
In this instance survey, Sumathi et Al, ( 2005 ) use the combination of GIS method and besides MCDA or Multi Criteria Decision Method. A GIS-based MCDA integrates and transforms spacial and aspatial informations into a determination. It involves the use of geographical informations, the determination shaper ‘s penchants and the use of informations and penchants to get at uni-dimensional values of options ( Sumathi et al. , 2005 ) .
Consequently, it may be considered as a instead complex multi-criteria determination devising procedure affecting legion stakeholders and public involvement groups. Hipel ( 1982 ) proposed an earlier version of multi-criteria patterning integrating fuzzed set theory to work out solid waste disposal jobs in Canada. MCDA have chiefly been employed to work out site choice jobs in solid waste direction ( Vuk et al. , 1991 ; Pereira and Duckstein, 1993 ; Hokkanen and Salminen, 1994, 1997 ) . Kontos et Al. ( 2005 ) described a methodological analysis which comprises several methods from different scientific Fieldss such as multiple standards analysis, geographic information systems, spacial analysis and spacial statistics to measure the suitableness of the survey part in order to optimally site a landfill. Padmaja et Al. ( 2006 ) identified a solid waste disposal site in Hyderabad metropolis utilizing an analytical hierarchy procedure and GIS.
The standard that has been used in this instance survey are, lake and pools, rivers, H2O supply beginnings, groundwater tabular array, groundwater quality, infiltration, air quality index, geology, mistake line, lift, land usage, habitation, main roads and sensitive sites.
2.5.4 Case Study in Sabah, Malaysia ( Lunkapis, 2004 )
Study in Sabah by Lunkapis ( 2004 ) is utilizing Geographical Information System ( GIS ) as determination support tool for landfills locating. Using merely GIS as a tool for choosing landfill site still can give the ideal sites. From this survey, the standards used for this survey is determine by following the guidelines produced by the Ministry of Environment Malaysia in 1995 and besides the coaction with the Sandakan Spatial Planning Working Group.
In this survey besides, Lunkapis ( 2004 ) used the two major standards which are restraints and factor that has been used for an ideal siting of landfills. The restraints were related to roads, unfastened H2O, protected countries, urban, rural residential countries, dirt permeableness and dirt type, land usage and distance to transit paths ( Lunkapis, 2004 ) .
In this undertaking, there were some jobs sing direction issue and budget allotment. On one manus the advocator proposed that the bing landfill should be maintained due to the deficiency of support to open a new one ( Lunkapis, 2004 ) . Lunkapis ( 2004 ) besides said that the bing dumping site were big plenty to provide for many old ages to come and the lone demand was the budget must be allocated for better direction and maintainance.
2.6 Uniting GIS with other method
2.6.1 GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP )
Siddiqui et Al. ( 1996 ) were the first to unite geographic information system ( GIS ) and AHP process to assistance in site choice. Similarly, Charnpratheep et Al. ( 1997 ) utilized fuzzed set theory with GIS for the showing of landfill sites in Thailand. Chang et Al. ( 2008 ) combined GIS and fuzzed multi-criteria decision-making for landfill locating in the suburban country of the City of Harlingen. Nema and Gupta ( 1999 ) proposed an improved preparation based on a multi-objective whole number programming attack to make the optimum constellation of a regional risky waste direction system. Ishizaka and Tanaka ( 2003 ) discussed the hazard for the waste disposal system in Japan, is sing public struggle in the site choice procedure. Recently, several publications have tackled landfill locating jobs utilizing GIS and multi-criteria analysis or intelligent system approaches in Greece, Turkey, and Jordan ( Vatalis and Manoliadis, 2002 ; Kontos et al. , 2005 ; Al-Jarrah and Abu-Qdais, 2005 ; Sener et al. , 2006 ; Wang et al. , 2008 ) .
2.6.2 GIS with Multi Criteria Evaluation ( MCE )
Multi-criteria rating ( MCE ) is used to cover with the troubles that determination shapers encounter in managing big sums of complex information. The rule of the method is to split the determination jobs into more smaller apprehensible parts, analyze each portion individually, and so incorporate the parts in a logical mode ( Malczewski 1997 ) . The integrating of GIS and MCE is a powerful tool to work out the landfill site choice job because GIS provide efficient use and presentation of the informations and MCE supplies consistent ranking of the possible landfill countries based on a assortment of standards ( Sener et al. 2006 ) . Higgs ( 2006 ) reported the potency of incorporating multi-criteria techniques with GIS in waste installation location and documented through a reappraisal of the bing literature to foreground the chances and challenges confronting determination shapers at different phases of the waste installation direction procedure.
Vatalis and Manoliadis ( 2002 ) used GIS digital map sheathing techniques in order to happen the suited landfill sites in Western Macedonia, Greece. Differing locating restraints were considered, and numerical and qualitative standards were applied in their probe. The ensuing alternate sites were besides evaluated utilizing multi-criteria rating theoretical accounts. Lin and Kao ( 1998 ) developed a theoretical account which was applicable for vector-based informations. Integrated with a GIS, the theoretical account was capable of treating digital spacial informations to ease landfill locating analysis. Leao et Al. ( 2001 ) described a method to quantify the relationship between the demand and supply of suited land for waste disposal over clip, utilizing GIS and patterning techniques. Allen et Al. ( 2003 ) have studied the development of a GIS theoretical account for turn uping landfill sites, an Interreg IIC funded by EU research undertaking and conducted by a squad of Irish and Portuguese technology geologists, civil applied scientists, and GIS experts from universities and local authorities. The primary aim of the undertaking has been reported so as to set up a movable, trans-national GIS site choice model that could be applicable throughout the European Union, therefore making a GIS landfill theoretical account for the location of new landfill sites over the following few old ages.
2.6.3 GIS with System Simulation Model ( SSM )
A performance-based design attack can supply more efficient and cost-efficient solutions. Choice of landfill design constituents fulfilling some predefined public presentation standards is possible utilizing geographic information systems ( GIS ) and system simulation theoretical accounts ( SSM ) . Recently, with the aid of new developments in the country of package engineerings, integrating of GIS and SSM engineerings into adept systems or determination support systems has become of import for landfill design applications ( Lukasheh et al. 2001 ) . GIS can expeditiously manage databases and execute questions to analyse geographic informations to be classified geologically and hydrogeologically, which can assist landfill site choice ( Lukasheh et al. 2001 ; Dorhofer and Siebert 1998 ) . SSM like hydrogeologic rating of landfill public presentation ( HELP ) were developed to help in the design of landfill elements. The integrating of GIS and SSM in one incorporate system is stated to supply an interface for informations storage, database entree, and informations show utilizing the GIS and let a individual interior decorator to carry through a complete design and rating and supply with a prognostic tool utilizing SSMs ( Lukasheh et al. 2001 ) .
2.7 Chapter sum-up
Based on this chapter, the most method that has been used by old research is uniting Geographical Information System ( GIS ) and Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) . Basically, utilizing merely GIS package is adequate to foretell suited topographic points for healthful landfill site. But to acquire more exact value for anticipation, uniting with the AHP is better. This is because AHP can unite many standards in one clip. More than that, utilizing AHP can do the standards that been use for anticipation more flexibleness depends on the grading weighting. Combing GIS with AHP besides is a better method because if usage GIS merely, the natural information may merely came from map, but AHP can fall in map and besides other informations such as economic factor as the grading weighting.