A baby’s physical development may begin with rolling over then sit up, crawl, walk, run. Another may sit up, walk, run missing out rolling over & crawling. Even though elements are missed the development still proceeds in what’s viewed as an expected. While the sequences are common amongst most children what often changes is the rate in which they develop the skills. It is important to monitor a child’s sequence and rate of development in order for us to determine the kind of help he/she will need and of whom they will need to be referred too.s
There are a variety of factors that will affect children and young peoples development, children’s development starts before the child is born for example.If the mother smokes ,takes drugs, becomes ill or suffers from stress or anxiety this can result in premature birth and health problems for the baby such as low birth weight, undeveloped organs, problems with sight and hearing. These are all problems that could delay their development.
Some children are born with conditions that could affect their development such as a blood disorder. Health problems can be genetic or caused by the environment the child grows up in. If the child lives in poor quality houses with damp this could trigger asthma and other breathing problems . Poor diet could affect their development. Children with heath problems may miss time out of Preschool this would affect their social development such as making friends. Physical development would also be effected if a child feels unwell or restricted and are unable to join in.
Physical disabilities-: can put a child at a disadvantage in many ways e. g. If a child had restricted movements they may find it difficult to join in with things such as sport, putting building blocks together manipulating materials etc. Sensory impairment –Visual or hearing. If a child has a hearing problem this would influence their development, it could affect their speech and communication and may make them feel they are unable to join in with other children’s games if they can’t communicate properly with them. Visual impairment can also influence a Childs development they are unable to watch and learn from what others are doing.
Explain How Children and Young People’s Development is Influenced By a Range of External Factors External factors again can really effect a child’s learning, some of these could be:
- Poverty and deprivation poverty affects children in many ways, such as their education if children deprived of opportunities it can affect their life outcome and lead to low expectations and no motivation in life. Poverty can affect a Childs diet a poor diet can affect children’s development and growth and also their behaviour.
- Family environment and background. In some homes education is not at the front of their things to do list. We can often see this where the parents/ carers are of a lower educational development. This could also show that there is no support at home as the parents do not understand the required educational elements needed to complete the work.
- Personal choices. If a child or young person as decided for what ever reason they do not want to be educated or leave school before they finish their education, this is their choice and we cannot always show them alternative choices for staying at school.
- Looked after/ care status. This again could have a huge influence as a lot of looked after children are moved around regularly. This will effect their education enormously. Separation and attachment issues are quite often the cause of many reasons not to want to be in school. This is constantly worked on by schools to find the best way to include these children in school and to be able to give them a good standard of education.
- Education. If for example a child has not attended a nursery or play group in their early years this can often set them back from what development stage they should be at when attending school.
This could be the lack of nursery places, not good enough teachers to the child having a learning disability that has not been identified yet.
Theories of development are important as they can influence practice and help us understand a Childs way of learning, behaviour and reactions The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell. His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to.
In our setting, we support this by encouraging children but not forcing them to develop a physical skill. We have outdoor playtimes between 2-4 times a day so that children can develop themselves physically whilst having fun outside for example staff encourage our toddlers to run outside and also encourage the children to use the peddles on the trikes The theorist who theory is language development is B. F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behaviour when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed.
He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. We support this at nursery by speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct. This is to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate. The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by cares and parents.
An example of this is when a parent sings ’pat-a-cake’ to their child and helps them clap their hands until the child can clap their hands themselves. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how react correctly. staff supports this by giving support if children are having difficulty managing a particular task. We also give praise when children handle social interactions with good behaviour to prove that we are happy and that what they have done is the correct way to behave.
The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behavior they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. Staff behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements. Inappropriate behavior or language is not permitted, as children will copy this. The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby.
His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main cares generally have high self esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. We support this theory by easing children into nursery life slowly with visits that get longer and longer as the child becomes more comfortable.
This is to prevent separation anxietyThe theorist whose theory is Behavioral Development is B. F. Skinner. His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioral modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave. Staff support this by praising and rewarding good behavior and giving time out and no attention to naughty behavior.
Observations can be taken during craft or play aswell as in the playground. They record what the child is doing in a subjective way. It’s most appropriate to use this method when child’s development is causing concern. Assessment framework: It is the way in which child is assessed to decide whether they have any particular needs and what these needs may be. It is useful in deciding whether the child is reaching expected milestones of development in different areas.
The assessment framework is how children are assessed in nursery e. . Photo obs, progress books, and this is me’s. Information from colleagues and carers: Parents/carers who know the child and colleagues expertise are invaluable, especially when planning for social and academic success for children with special educational needs and/or disabilities. If we are concerned about child’s development it’s good to ask/share information. Explain reasons why children and young peoples development may not follow the expected pattern Disability can affect several areas of development at the same time but early support might help minimise the effects of the disability.
Emotional reasons, if a child is not settled and having good attachments they are more likely to have low confidence and self esteem they might not try new tasks and have a lack of motivation. Physical development might be effected by genetics this can mean physical growth difficulties or may be the child might be a slower learner. Environmental there are many reasons that can effect child development like poverty, where a child lives, education and their family structure can effect a child’s development.
Culturally how people bring up their children can differ vastly like in china a girl is deemed second class to a boy the boy is worth tying to a boat but not a girl. Other cultures have restrictions on children’s freedoms this can adversely affect the child’s development. Social reasons are that for children born into poverty and families whose parents are separated are likely to have negative effects of children’s development or if a family might give less time to activities which aid children’s developments like a lack of play this can also effect child development.
Learning difficulties children might have these due to genetic diseases, birth difficulties, and cognitive difficulties or might just have difficulties with writing or reading. Communication for medical reasons like hearing or tongue tied can cause communication problems children who have communication needs find it hard to express themselves and can show aggressive behaviour when frustrated. Children who experience communication needs might have problems with reading and writing Explain how disability may affect development
Children with a learning or physical disability may be subjected to prejudice or discrimination at school for the reason that they could be treated differently than the rest of the children. They may be bullied or ridiculed by other students which will affect their self-confidence and in turn affect their learning capabilities and development. Disabilities are categorised in different forms i. e. learning or physical. Learning disabilities which affect development could be. Autism; autism is a developmental disability which affects how a person relates and communicates with other people and the world around them.
A child/young person with autism finds it difficult to understand facial expressions or the tone of a voice. They can feel lonely and cut off from society as they avoid social interaction. This could affect their ability to development or interact in social settings or in the classroom. Dyslexia; is a difficulty in learning to read. A child/young person suffering from this may become frustrated and problems could arise at home or in school, behavioural problems could also be seen, as well as the child becoming unmotivated or developing a dislike for school.
If dyslexia is undetected then this will affect their development at school and could spoil any chance of achievement. Cerebral palsy; cerebral palsy is a condition which affects the movement, posture and co-ordination of a person. A child/young person with this disability may only be affected physically with this disability while others could be affected by seizures, epilepsy or difficulties with speech and language. Explain how the different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected patterns
Speech and language therapist can help children overcome most of their problems. By helping children gain the ability to use language they can help children gain confidence and self esteem I have seen this in my setting with children who have had communication and language needs. These children have gained confidence and their language is now at a level that they can interact with other children and not show frustration. This is because they can now express themselves. Additional learning support staff works within and outside schools providing a range of services to help children who have certain specific educational needs.
This might include people like teaching assistants or advisors to provide support and train staff. Youth justice this is based on children with behavioural problems these people will work with them and social workers to help them. Social workers are there to help vulnerable children and young people and their families this might include children on the child protection register or disabled children. Psychologist is a professional who helps support children who have learning or behavioural difficulties.
They provide teachers and practitioners with aimed support programmes for that child once they have identified the child’s needs. A specialist nurse provides support for the family and child especially if that child suffers from medical conditions that need specialist care Also health visitors come under this title for measuring and assessing a child’s development . A psychiatrist is a doctor who is trained in mental health problems this person works alongside other professionals to help diagnose or support children and young people with mental health problems.
Physiotherapist this professional help children with their movement especially those who have little or no movement they are trained to get the maximum movement and skill level. Referrals can take the shape of common assessment form which are filled in then in my setting passed upstairs to the health visitor, speech therapist or other health professionals that are required.
Analyse the importance of early identification of speech language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. Its important to analyse early identification of speech and language communication delays and disorders so we can get help for the child and prevent the child from falling further behind with development, if it is not corrected in early years it may become harder to correct and the child may develop behaviour difficulties. Explain How Multi Agency Teams Work Together To Support Speech Language and Communication
Multi-agency teams work together: Once the parent/carer has visited the GP or health visitor a referral will be made initially to check vision and hearing to see if there is a problem there. In other cases a referral may be made directly to speech and language services. For some children if communication difficulties are linked to other learning difficulties an assessment by an educational psychologist may be required. Speech therapy may be required by a speech therapist at regular intervals.
Once established what type of support is needed then all professionals, parents and carers need to work together. Explain How Play and Activities are Used To Support The Development of Speech, Language and Communication Activities and play enable speech, language and communication to happen whilst everyone is engaged in things they enjoy or find an interest in, making the act of communication more natural, flowing and relevant to what’s being done or looked at. Through play children learn about themselves and each other in a non-pressurised environment.
Using puppets can be used to motivate a child to talk, songs & rhymes help children to listen and take turns but also sing and communicate some can help practise particular sounds, books help to increase vocabulary and help children learn meaningful words some books can also be made to specifically to meet a child’s interest and encourage a child to vocalise and point also blowing Bubbles can encourage children to point and show interest in the bubbles, encouraging children to blow bubbles can help the child make specific sounds.
Types of Transitions Can Affect Children and Young Peoples Development These are common transitions every child and young person goes through in their lives:- Babies weaning – young children may not like the texture or taste of other foods and may lose weight if weaning attempts to replace a milk diet too early. Children may begin to have disturbed sleep patterns, be more irritable whilst awake and less motivated to try new foods.
Move from crawling to walking – this transition sees children reach new perspectives on their lives, viewing the world around them from an independantly upright position. They can obtain items with greater ease, move with increasing speed. Move from cot to bed – a child may feel insecure with new sleeping arrangements, may have disturbed sleep patterns, wake more or less frequently, be happier or more withdrawn / tired / aggressive / upset at leaving parents during the day. They may react negatively when they realise bed is the next part of their day and behaviour may regress.
Bereavement, serious illness or separation of a family can affect children and young people emotions. This can be displayed anger, and depression. They might even show aggression or be withdrawn. Physically they might suffer from a lack of sleep, have little or no appetite or they could possibly self harm. Older children or young people might cut themselves or something like drugs. Physiologically they might change behaviour this can include regressive behaviour, extrovert behaviour may be just uncooperative behaviour like slamming doors, staying out late or getting into trouble.
Intellectual changes can include a lack of concentration, not joining in activities. Moving into a new setting like changing schools, preschool to school, changing young groups or leaving care can be emotionally upsetting. Some children might be showing anxiousness at moving, sadness at moving and or loss of friends. This can change their behaviour younger children might show regression and clinginess.
Children and young people might change behaviour and some might withdrawal other might show extroverted behaviour or illness. They might have a real illness or pretend so they don’t have to o. Older and younger children might have sleepless nights young children might have night mares, young people might be frightened of their future or where they might live. This can affect eating habits they might not have an appetite. Moving home can be very stressful like moving settings children and young people can lose friends. They face the same emotional, psychical, physiological and intellectual affects as the moving settings but they also have the problem of a new county/country this can also affect them as they might be viewed as an outsider.
Young people might self harm as they because of this. Puberty can affect children and young people emotionally hormones are pumped into the body causing mood swings. Teenagers become more self-conscious and can become aggressive and behavioural changes that can cause some teenagers to experiment with drug etc. Physically the body will have growth spurts and sexual maturity will be reached as the sexual organs fully develop their bodies will look more like adults than children’s.
They need consistency, trust and a good bonding whether it is with their key worker, teacher etc having someone that they can trust will make transitions easier for the child. Children with positive relationships on transitions can have long term positive impacts of their ability to cope and be more resilient. They are likely to be more successful academically and socially they will feel cared for, valued and respected their learning evelopment will continue instead of dip. They will feel more confident to explore and have self esteem and confidence so feeling more relaxed. Children will feel able to make new friendships. Young people might feel they need guidance and will not be afraid to ask for help even on sensitive subjects. If a child has good transitions early in life this will make it easier for transitions later in life.