Social Studies: The Invasion of Kuwait

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Social studies notes Chapter 1 The Invasion of Kuwait, also known as the Iraq-Kuwait War, was a significant conflict between the Republic of Iraq and the State of Kuwait. This conflict resulted in the seven-month long Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, which led to direct military intervention by United States-led forces in the Gulf War.

A dispute arose over financial debt between Iraq and Kuwait. Kuwait had provided extensive funding for Iraq’s 8-year-long war against Iran. However, when the war ended, Iraq found itself unable to repay the $14 billion it had borrowed from Kuwait for financing purposes. Iraq argued that this war had prevented Iranian influence from rising in the Arab World, but Kuwait refused to forgive the debt. As a result, tensions escalated between these two Arab nations despite multiple official meetings held between their leaders attempting to resolve their differences.

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According to George Piro, who interrogated Saddam Hussein after his capture in 2003, Iraq tried repaying its debts by increasing oil prices through OPEC’s production cuts.

Kuwait, a member of the OPEC, impeded Iraq’s recovery from the damages caused by war by increasing its own petroleum production. This aggressive move led to a decline in oil prices, which had catastrophic consequences for Iraq. The Iraqi economy suffered a yearly loss of US$1 billion for each US$1 decrease in the price of one barrel of oil. Consequently, Baghdad faced a severe financial crisis with an approximate annual loss of US$14 billion because of Kuwait’s oil price strategy. Iraq accused Kuwait of engaging in “economic warfare” and illegally drilling into the disputed Rumaila field to worsen the conflict. The dispute over this field dates back to 1960 during the Iran-Iraq War when Kuwait expanded its drilling operations while Iraq’s diminished.

In 1989, Iraq accused Kuwait of using “advanced drilling techniques” to exploit oil from the Rumaila field. Iraq claimed that Kuwait stole US$2.4 billion worth of Iraqi oil and demanded compensation. Kuwait, however, dismissed the accusations as a false Iraqi ploy to justify military action. American firms operating in the Rumaila field also dismissed Iraq’s claims, seeing them as a cover for Iraq’s ulterior motives. After the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq’s economy was struggling to recover.

Despite Iraq’s economic challenges, including its overwhelming debt, destroyed ports and oil fields, and the loss of traditional oil customers, the government saw potential in taking over Kuwait. This action aimed to overcome financial difficulties and enhance regional influence. In comparison to Iraq, Kuwait had a significantly longer coastline despite having a much smaller land area. Furthermore, Kuwait boasted bustling ports within the Persian Gulf region. Baghdad perceived Kuwait as an easy target due to its relatively small size and believed it was historically inseparable from Iraq except for British imperialism.

The Persian Gulf War, known by various names such as the Gulf War, the First Gulf War[12][13], the Second Gulf War[14][15], and The Mother of all Battles according to Saddam Hussein[16], took place from 2 August 1990 to 28 February 1991. It was a conflict authorized by the UN and involved a coalition force from 34 nations. Its objective was to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait following their invasion and annexation on 2 August 1990. This military response is commonly referred to as Desert Storm.

The international community strongly denounced the invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops in August 1990, leading to economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council. In response, U.S. President George H. W. Bush deployed American forces to Saudi Arabia and urged other nations to do the same. This led to the formation of a coalition called the Gulf War Coalition, primarily comprising military forces from the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and Egypt (in order of importance).

Saudi Arabia’s contribution to the overall cost of the conflict was approximately US$40 billion out of a total of US$60 billion [17]. The conflict began with an airstrike on January 17, 1991, aimed at removing Iraqi soldiers from Kuwait. A ground attack followed on February 23. The coalition forces achieved a resounding victory by reclaiming Kuwait and advancing into Iraq. However, their progress was halted and a cease-fire was declared within 100 hours of the start of the ground campaign. Most of the combat took place in Iraq and Kuwait, as well as in regions along Saudi Arabia’s border.

In terms of Iraq-United States relations, there have been recent occurrences in which Iraq targeted coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia through missile launches. During the Cold War era, Iraq was aligned with the Soviet Union, resulting in tense relations between Iraq and the United States. The United States expressed concerns about Iraq’s position on Israeli-Palestinian politics as well as its dissatisfaction with the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. Moreover, the United States disapproved of Iraq’s support for Arab and Palestinian militant groups such as Abu Nidal, which contributed to its inclusion on the growing list of worries.

The United States labeled Iraq as a state sponsor of international terrorism on December 29, 1979. Despite claiming neutrality in the Iran-Iraq War, the United States secretly supported Iraq. In March 1982, Iran’s successful counteroffensive led to an increase in US assistance to Iraq to prevent Iran from surrendering. The goal was to establish full diplomatic relations and remove Iraq from the list of state sponsors of terrorism. Although there were improvements in Iraq’s record, their involvement in terrorism was later acknowledged without any doubt. The true motive behind removing Iraq from this list was to support their war against Iran. As Iraq gained more success and rejected a peace offer in July, arms sales reached their highest point ever in 1982. However, there remained an obstacle for potential actions

Despite the tense relationship between the United States and Iraq, Abu Nidal continued its operations in Baghdad with support from the Iraqi government. However, pressure from the United States led to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein expelling the group to Syria in November 1983. During this time, Donald Rumsfeld was sent by the Reagan administration as a special envoy to meet with President Hussein and strengthen their connection.

The invasion of Kuwait is also significant within this context because it exacerbated Iraq’s already dire financial situation after reaching a ceasefire agreement with Iran in August 1988. As a result, Iraq found itself burdened with substantial debt owed to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

Iraq urged both nations to pardon the debts, but they declined. Iraq also alleged that Kuwait had surpassed its OPEC limits and decreased the oil price, causing more harm to Iraq’s economy. The plummeting oil prices had a disastrous effect on Iraq’s economy. The Iraqi Government referred to this as an economic battle, which it asserted was worsened by Kuwait illegally drilling into Iraq’s Rumaila oil field. [19] Iraq argued that Kuwait had historically been under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire’s Basra province.

In 1899, the al-Sabah family, rulers of Kuwait, made a treaty with Britain to manage their foreign affairs. This resulted in the creation of the Iraq-Kuwait border under British influence. The main goal was to limit Iraq’s access to the sea and safeguard Britain’s dominance over the Persian Gulf. Initially, Iraq rejected this border and only recognized Kuwait’s government in 1963 [20]. Recently, Iraq has expressed dissatisfaction with Kuwait’s actions and openly warned about military intervention due to unfulfilled quotas.

On the 23rd, Iraq-Kuwait border reported 30,000 troops by CIA leading to alerting of U.S. naval fleet in Persian Gulf. Two days later, Saddam Hussein met American ambassador April Glaspie conveying U.S. neutrality on Arab conflicts to Iraqi delegation in Baghdad. On the 31st, violent negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait ended without resolution in Jeddah [21]. Then on August 2, 1990, Iraq initiated invasion by bombing Kuwait City with warplanes.

The main operation included commandos being transported by helicopters and boats to launch an assault on the city, while other divisions at the same time took control of the airports and two airbases. Although Iraq demonstrated its military power, Kuwait was caught off guard and ill-prepared. Following intense fighting for two days, most of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces either surrendered to the Iraqi Republican Guard or escaped to Saudi Arabia. Saddam Hussein proclaimed a conclusive triumph and designated his cousin, Ali Hassan al-Majid, as governor of Kuwait.

Saddam Hussein showcased Western hostages on state television, capturing them and refusing to grant exit visas. One notable incident occurred on August 23, 1990, when President Saddam appeared on state television with the hostages. In the video, he affectionately patted Stuart Lockwood, a young British boy, and inquired about his well-being through his interpreter Sadoun al-Zubaydi. Saddam expressed hope for their short stay as guests in order to prevent war.

After the invasion, Kuwaiti and U.S. delegations convened a meeting of the UN Security Council resulting in the passage of Resolution 660 denouncing the invasion and demanding Iraqi troops’ withdrawal. On August 3rd, the Arab League also passed its own resolution emphasizing internal resolutions and warning against external interference.

Shortly after that, UN Resolution 661 was enacted on August 6th imposing economic sanctions on Iraq. This was followed by UN Security Council Resolution 665 which authorized a naval blockade to enforce these economic sanctions against Iraq.

It stated that measures should be taken to stop all maritime shipping and inspect their cargoes and destinations to ensure implementation of resolution 661. The west was mainly worried about the threat Iraq posed to Saudi Arabia, as the Iraqi army was close to Saudi oil fields after conquering Kuwait. If Hussein gained control over these fields, along with Kuwaiti and Iraqi reserves, he would control a majority of the global oil reserves.

During the war between Iraq and Iran, Saudi Arabia provided a loan of 26 billion dollars to Iraq. This was because they were concerned that Iran’s Islamic revolution could have an influence on their Shia minority. Since the Saudis’ oil fields are mainly located in areas populated by Shias, this caused worry. However, after the war ended, Saddam Hussein refused to repay the loans. He justified his refusal by stating that he had helped stop Iran. After conquering Kuwait, Hussein verbally attacked Saudi Arabia and criticized them for being an illegitimate and ineffective guardian of Mecca and Medina. He used similar language to Islamist groups in Afghanistan and Iran who also criticize Saudi Arabia. In response to the threat of Iraq invading Saudi Arabia, U.S. President George H.W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield on August 7, 1990 as a defensive mission aligned with the Carter Doctrine policy.

The deployment of US troops in Saudi Arabia was initiated by King Fahd’s request, which came as a result of his earlier call for military assistance. However, the original defensive strategy was abandoned when Iraq proclaimed Kuwait as its 19th province on August 8th. Ali Hassan Al-Majid was appointed by Saddam Hussein as the military governor of Kuwait. In order to deceive Iraq and mislead them about the main coalition ground attack targeting Central Kuwait, American decoy attacks were launched as part of the Liberation of Kuwait campaign. These decoy attacks involved air strikes and naval gunfire that occurred on the night before the liberation of Kuwait.

On February 23, 1991, the 1st Marine Division, 2nd Marine Division, and the 1st Light Armored Infantry entered Kuwait and advanced towards Kuwait City. They quickly captured the strategically planned but poorly defended Iraqi trenches. The Marines successfully overcame Iraqi barriers of barbed wire and mines and encountered surrendering Iraqi tanks shortly after. After that, Kuwaiti forces swiftly attacked Kuwait City with little resistance from the Iraqis. During this operation, one soldier and one aircraft were lost by the Kuwaitis, but they promptly liberated the city.

Instead of engaging in combat, numerous Iraqi soldiers stationed in Kuwait chose to surrender, while it was the coalition forces who were responsible for initiating the invasion of Iraq. U.S. President George H. W. Bush and his advisors were briefed on the advancements made in the ground war by General Colin Powell. Following this briefing, an armored attack led by the 3rd Squadron of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3/2 ACR) was launched into Iraq on February 24th by the U.S. VII Corps. This unforeseen assault occurred to the west of Kuwait and took Iraqi forces by surprise.

XVIII Airborne Corps led a comprehensive attack through the unguarded southern desert of Iraq, known as the “left-hook” maneuver. The 3rd Armoured Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) spearheaded this offensive. The French 6th Light Armoured Division Daguet protected the left side of this movement. The French division swiftly defeated the Iraqi 45th Infantry Division, with minimal losses and a significant capture of enemy soldiers. They subsequently established defensive positions to thwart any potential Iraqi counter-attack on the Coalition flank.

The British 1st Armoured Division protected the right flank of the movement. After the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they launched a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard to prevent their escape. The battle was brief and resulted in the destruction of 50 Iraqi armored vehicles, with minimal coalition losses. However, on 25 February 1991, Iraq launched a scud missile attack on Coalition barracks in Dharan, Saudi Arabia, resulting in the death of 28 American military personnel. [44]

The Coalition advance on the Highway of Death exceeded U.S. generals’ expectations, as a mix of civilian and military vehicles was caught off guard. Starting on February 26, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait after igniting the country’s oil fields (a total of 737 oil wells were set ablaze). Along the main highway connecting Iraq and Kuwait, a large convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed. Despite their retreat, this convoy was heavily bombed by Coalition air forces to such an extent that it earned the name Highway of Death. Resultantly, hundreds of Iraqi troops lost their lives.

Forces from the United States, the United Kingdom, and France pursued retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, engaging in frequent battles which resulted in significant losses for Iraq and minimal losses for the coalition. They advanced to within 150 miles (240 km) of Baghdad before withdrawing. On 28 February, 100 hours after the ground campaign began, President Bush declared a cease-fire and liberation of Kuwait. The conflict was caused by…

Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 had three main causes. Firstly, Iraq had always regarded Kuwait as a part of its own territory. This belief had resulted in several conflicts and an ongoing state of hostility between the two countries. Additionally, it can be argued that with Saddam Hussein’s unsuccessful attempt to invade Iran, he turned his attention to his weaker neighboring countries in search of easier conquests. Secondly, the presence of valuable oil reserves along the poorly defined border further fueled the dispute, as Iraq frequently accused Kuwait of illegally extracting oil from Iraqi fields using their oil rigs.

Border delineation in Middle Eastern deserts has been challenging, leading to numerous conflicts in the region. The First Persian Gulf War between Iraq and Iran further strained relations between Baghdad and Kuwait. The war initially started when Iraq invaded Iran and eventually escalated into a brutal form of trench warfare as Iranian forces progressively pushed Saddam Hussein’s armies back into Iraq. Kuwait and several other Arab nations supported Iraq in its fight against the Islamic Revolutionary government of Iran, fearing that Saddam’s defeat could potentially trigger a wave of Iranian-inspired revolution across the Arab world.

After the war ended, the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait became worse. This was due to the Baghdad government not showing gratitude for Kuwait’s help during the war, as well as old issues regarding the border and Kuwaiti sovereignty resurfacing. In March 1973, Iraq occupied a border post called as-Samitah on the Kuwait-Iraq border. The dispute started when Iraq demanded the right to control the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah. With the persuasion of Saudi Arabia and the Arab League, Iraq eventually retreated. From 1980 to 1988, Kuwait supported Iraq in the First Persian Gulf War against Iran.

DESCRIPTION OF CONFLICT: In the midst of escalating tension between two Persian Gulf nations, Saddam Hussein came to the conclusion that Kuwait would not receive any outside interference or defense from the United States or any other countries. Consequently, on August 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and swiftly took control of Kuwait. Within a few days, both the United States and the United Nations demanded Iraq’s prompt withdrawal. In response, the U.S. and other member nations of the UN initiated the deployment of troops to Saudi Arabia, starting within one week of the invasion. This led to the formation of a global coalition authorized by the UN.

By January of 1991, more than 500,000 allied troops were stationed in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. Despite extensive diplomatic efforts by U.S. and Iraqi officials, Iraq did not withdraw their forces. Consequently, on January 16, 1991, the Allied forces initiated a destructive bombing campaign against Iraq and its forces in Kuwait. The aim of the bombing was to impair Iraq’s infrastructure and hinder its capacity for warfare, which would affect both civilian and military morale. In response to the air assault, Saddam commanded the launch of his notorious SCUD missiles towards Israel and Saudi Arabia.

The objective was to provoke Israel into retaliating against Iraq. The hope was that this would lead to a division between the Arab nations and the anti-Iraq coalition, given the ongoing tensions between Israel and the Arab world. Although Israel came close to striking back, they refrained from doing so because of President George Bush’s promise to protect Israeli cities from SCUD missiles. Consequently, the United States deployed Patriot missile batteries in Israel to intercept the SCUDs. Additionally, the SCUD launches resulted in a diversion of Allied air power away from attacking the Iraqi army towards searching for the hard-to-find mobile missile launchers.

Despite initial expectations, the air strikes and cruise missile attacks conducted by the Allied forces against Iraq were more devastating than anticipated. The ground war was launched on February 23rd by the Allies, who found that the Iraqi occupation forces in Kuwait had already been defeated. Due to the intense air campaign, which cut off their supply bases and headquarters, many Iraqi soldiers surrendered rather than fighting back as the Allies easily overcame Iraq’s defenses. In situations where the more skilled Iraqi forces, like the Republican Guard, chose to stand their ground and fight, they were ultimately defeated by the superior equipment and training of American, British, and French forces.

By February 26, U. S. and Allied Arab forces, along with the underground Kuwaiti Resistance, had gained control of Kuwait City. Additionally, the retreating Iraqi occupation army had been pounded by Allied air forces. In southern Iraq, Allied armored forces were positioned at the Euphrates River near Basra, leading to internal rebellions against Saddam’s regime. As a result, on February 27, President Bush issued a cease-fire order and allowed the surviving Iraqi troops to retreat back into southern Iraq. The fighting ultimately ended on March 3, 1991, when Iraq accepted the terms of the cease-fire. The conflict had several consequences.

Saddam’s second war resulted in an even worse outcome than the previous one, leading to Iraq’s defeat and the liberation of Kuwait. Despite this defeat and subsequent rebellions, Saddam’s government still maintained a strong hold on power in Iraq. As part of the terms of the cease-fire, Iraq had to accept the establishment of “no-fly zones” and United Nations weapons inspection teams to investigate their nuclear and other weapons programs. The economic and trade sanctions that began during the war have continued until today, causing severe economic hardship in Iraq. Reports suggest that hundreds of thousands of children have died as a result of these sanctions, while there is no evidence of similar hardships being faced by the government or military. While the world, including the United States and Europe, focused on Iraq, Syria took advantage of the situation to suppress the last remnants of resistance in Lebanon, effectively ending the country’s prolonged civil war. It is believed that this was possible because Syria’s President Assad was given permission to intervene in Lebanon in exchange for joining the war in Kuwait.

It is believed that a cash for annuity payment was agreed upon when Yemen expressed solidarity with Iraq. In response, Saudi Arabia expelled over one million Yemeni guest workers, resulting in economic hardship in Yemen and increased tension between the two neighboring countries. For more information, refer to the Saudi-Yemen Border Conflict page. Regarding casualty figures, as of August 2, 2009: Iraq initially reported 100,000 military deaths, but recent estimates suggest 20,000 military and 2,300 civilian fatalities. In the United States, there were 148 service members killed in action, 458 wounded, and one reported Missing In Action (MIA). Additionally, 121 Americans died from non-combat incidents.

The only missing in action (MIA) from the Vietnam War, Navy pilot Captain Michael “Scott” Speicher, was shot down without being rescued or having his body found. On August 2, 2009, the Pentagon revealed that Speicher’s remains were discovered by U.S. Marines stationed in Iraq. The news of Speicher’s recovery was coincidentally or deliberately announced by the Pentagon on the 19th anniversary of Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait, which ignited 19 years of war.

The Gulf War (1990-1) was a limited war between the US-led coalition and Iraq. The coalition, which had overwhelming technological superiority, defeated Iraq’s armed forces in a six-week air campaign followed by a 100-hour land campaign. The coalition suffered minimal casualties. However, they were unable to eliminate the Republican Guard, which was the main force of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. Saddam’s ongoing development of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons posed a threat, resulting in repeated US and Allied air strikes throughout the 1990s.

The primary reason for the invasion was the Rumaila oilfield which is located on the Iraq-Kuwait border. Around mid-July 1990, Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of stealing oil from this field through diagonal drilling. He also claimed that Kuwait had not repaid the loans given to Iraq for financing the Iran-Iraq war. According to him, he had been serving the interests of the Gulf monarchies. These arguments had some validity. In response, Iraq amassed its armored forces on the border. When the US ambassador expressed their reluctance to intervene in the conflict, Saddam Hussein ordered the Iraqi columns to invade at 01:00 local time on August 2nd. The invasion caused great concern as it was feared that Iraq might continue its advance into Saudi Arabia, thus gaining control over half of the world’s oil reserves. The United Nations condemned the invasion through Resolution 660 by demanding immediate and unconditional withdrawal. In response, the USA announced on August 7th that it was deploying its forces in collaboration with Egypt and Saudi Arabia to form a joint operation called DESERT SHIELD.

On the following day, the UK also announced its intention to send forces in GRANBY. Then, on 29 November 1990, the Security Council passed Resolution 678, granting authorization to the coalition led by the USA to use ‘all necessary means’ against Iraq in order to free Kuwait if it did not withdraw by 15 January 1991. Instead, the Iraqis strengthened their positions along the southern border of Kuwait and by 8 January they had approximately 36 to 38 divisions, with each division having an official strength of 15,000 troops but in reality considerably fewer.

The coalition amassed approximately 700,000 troops in the theatre, primarily from the USA, with significant contributions from the UK, France, Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. These troops operated under the command of US Gen Schwarzkopf. One of the key factors in maintaining the coalition was the unusual alignment of Arab states with non-believers against another Arab state. It was crucial to safeguard Israel, which was at risk of Iraqi missile attacks, and prevent their involvement in the war.

Known for their al-Hussein missiles, the Iraqis possessed the capability to deploy their chemical and biological weapons (CBW) across a range of 373 miles (600 km), twice the distance of the original Soviet Scud missiles they were derived from. DESERT STORM commenced at 02.38 local time on 17 January, with US Apache helicopters initiating the assault on Iraqi air defense sites near the border in order to establish a pathway for a large air fleet. This marked the start of a 43-day air campaign comprising 100,000 sorties.

The F-117A Stealth light bomber and sea-launched cruise missiles were both highly effective in attacking heavily defended targets in Baghdad, including Iraqi air defenses, electrical power facilities, command and control facilities, and suspected nuclear, chemical, and biological warfare facilities. Although the precision-guided munitions received most of the attention due to their high-quality TV footage, the majority of the ordnance delivered consisted of conventional bombs.

As the campaign progressed, the Allies transitioned to using Iraqi ground forces. However, the elite Republican Guard suffered less damage compared to the lower quality infantry in the front lines. Schwarzkopf later stated that this decision was driven by his strong concern for preventing his ground troops from being delayed and exposed to chemical and biological warfare. The Gulf war, 1991: the land campaign, 24-8 February. Top: positions of forces 24 February. Bottom: Allied envelopment of Iraqi forces (Click to enlarge)

On 18 January, Iraq retaliated against the air attacks by targeting Israel, which was considered the coalition’s weakest point. A missile struck Tel Aviv and was initially believed to contain a chemical warhead. However, the coalition later refuted this claim. Nonetheless, a log released after the war revealed that the missile carried cyclo-sarin, an extremely lethal nerve gas. In response, Israel made preparations to launch a counter-attack but was dissuaded by the United States’ promise to eliminate the Scud missiles. Consequently, significant efforts were redirected towards locating the elusive mobile Iraqi missiles during what became known as the ‘Scud hunt’.

British and US special forces were deployed to the area to locate and eliminate Scuds, though the outcomes of these missions varied. Additionally, the US utilized the Patriot system, which was initially designed for air defense purposes, to intercept incoming missiles. Notably, this marked the first-ever use of anti-missile technology in warfare. However, only a small number of incoming missiles were successfully intercepted, and those that were hit resulted in unintended consequences. These interceptions often caused the missiles to break apart, potentially causing even more harm than if they had struck their targets directly. On January 20th, Iraq targeted Riyadh with missile attacks, resulting in one missile striking a temporary US barracks and causing the most severe casualties among the Allied forces throughout the war.

Schwarzkopf developed a strategic military strategy known as encirclement. The plan involved diverting the attention of the Iraqis to the south and the coast through the US Marines, while Schwarzkopf focused on launching his main operation from the west of the main Iraqi forward defenses. The objective was to flank the Iraqi forces and directly target the Republican Guard. The goal was to execute a swift and intense air-land campaign that would annihilate the Republican Guard Force Corps while minimizing harm to friendly forces. The aim was to force the Iraqi forces to maneuver, thereby exposing them to attacks throughout their entire formation.

After several days of probing and artillery raids, the main ground attack commenced on 24 February. The attack consisted of direct assaults into Kuwait from the south by the US Marines and two Saudi task forces. The following day, additional forces initiated a flanking maneuver. The primary force involved was the US VII Corps, which included the 1st British Armoured Division. In addition, the XVIII Airborne Corps, which included the French 6th Light ‘Daguet’ Division, extended even further to safeguard the left flank. The breach area targeted by the VII Corps was bombarded with 60 batteries of artillery and Multiple Launch Rocket Systems, unleashing a greater amount of explosive power compared to the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

Despite expectations that Iraq would use CBW, Saddam Hussein chose to exercise caution and refrain from doing so. This decision likely stemmed from the coalition’s possession of several harsh retaliatory measures, such as responding with similar means or destroying Iraq’s highly susceptible water supply system. On the late evening of February 25th, Saddam eventually issued the order to withdraw from Kuwait. However, a significant portion of the Iraqi military forces found themselves trapped between the advancing allied forces from the south and west, and the Gulf and Euphrates marshes towards the east and north.

TV images of the completely burned Iraqi column, which had been trying to escape Kuwait City, caused concerns about public outrage. President Bush decided to stop the land campaign after only 100 hours. There were also geopolitical factors to consider. Prior to the invasion, the Western powers were focused on maintaining a balance between Iraq and Iran in the area. If the land war had continued into Iraqi territory, the Arab members of the coalition might have withdrawn. At 08:00 local time, the fighting ceased.

Saddam was allowed to keep the majority of the Republican Guard and was given the freedom to utilize attack helicopters to suppress uprisings among the Sunni population in the south and the Kurds in the north, which had been encouraged by the coalition. After the war, it was surprising to discover the extent and complexity of his weapons development programs. Despite inspections by the United Nations and economic sanctions that primarily harm civilians, there is little question that he still possesses chemical, biological, and possibly even nuclear weapons.

Despite the restoration of Kuwait’s territorial integrity and the weakening of Saddam Hussein’s power, the success of the war cannot be determined by the exaggerated claims about human rights, which were not taken seriously by any party involved. The initial stage of the war, known as Operation Desert Shield, focused on defensive measures as the United States and Saudi Arabia collaborated to strengthen their defenses and protect Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Gulf region. Concurrently, the United Nations employed economic sanctions to pressure Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait.

The United States took the lead in organizing a broad international coalition, with the necessary military forces, to liberate Kuwait. They also convinced the United Nations to

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