Sociology and Sociological Perspectives

Table of Content

The learning outcomes are provided by the BTEC Unit Specification.

Upon finishing this unit, you should:

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1. Gain comprehension of sociological perspectives and approaches to health and social care.

Furthermore, you must also:

When word processing your work, make sure to include your name, PIN, and page numbers in a footer. Additionally, use the Harvard Referencing System and provide a reference list. To show evidence of wider research, utilize various sources like websites, journals, and textbooks. Maintain a 1.5 line space and use either Arial or Comic Sans font with a size of 12pt.

Grading Criteria

To achieve a Pass, you must successfully answer all of the pass criteria questions.

In order to receive a Merit, you must correctly respond to all pass criteria questions as well as all merit criteria questions.

To obtain a Distinction, it is imperative to fulfill the pass criteria, merit criteria, and distinction criteria.

There are two hand-in dates for each assignment. You are welcome to hand in your assignments before the hand-in date.

Please refrain from submitting your assignments via email as they will not be accepted.

Reading List

Boys, D and Langridge, E. (2007). BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 1. Nelson Thornes.

Stretch, B and Whitehouse, M (2007) BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 1. Heinemann.

The book “BTEC National Health and Social Care Student Book 1” by Stretch, B and Whitehouse, M (2010) is published by Heinemann.

You may also find it helpful to utilize AS and A2 Sociology books from the LRC.

Task One – P1, P2 & M1

Launch date:
First Submission date:
Second submission date:

Please make sure to read the following questions and provide your answers.

1) P1: Describe the key sociological approaches.

With the use of sociological terms, create a booklet containing information that explains the seven main sociological perspectives:

Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism, Collectivism, Post-modernism, and The New Right are all different perspectives.

To pass the assignment, you need to explain each perspective’s viewpoint on various social aspects such as social structures, status, roles, class, diversity, culture, values, beliefs, norms, and socialization. Additionally, you should show comprehension of topics like family functions, women’s roles at home or services provided by the state in a collectivist society. Aim for around 200 words per perspective.

2) The various sociological approaches to health and ill health will be explained. (P2)

Write a demonstration that shows you understand the various sociological approaches to the concepts of health, ill health, and the sick role. Your explanation should include the following:

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), health includes negative, positive, and holistic aspects.

Concepts of ill health, disability, impairment, illness, disease, and the Clinical Iceberg are all different aspects that need to be considered.

The Sick Role
Grading Tip
When discussing the various notions of health, illness, and the sick role, it is important to incorporate the sociological perspectives previously explained in P1. This includes considering the contrasting viewpoints of Functionalists and Marxists on these concepts of health.

Case Study – M1

Mohammed and Sonia, who have five young children, reside in a deprived and gloomy area of Leeds. Their three-bedroom house is in a dilapidated condition, suffering from dampness and draftiness. It is also costly to heat during the winter. Additionally, Sonia’s elderly parents live with them. Currently, both Mohammed and Sonia are unemployed.

The family is experiencing several health issues. During the winter, the children always have colds. Sonia has asthma, and her father has bronchitis. Additionally, Sonia’s mother is dealing with depression and is taking medication for it.

3) One should evaluate the biomedical and socio-medical models of health to determine their merits. (M1)

When analyzing the aforementioned case study, evaluate both the biomedical and socio-medical models of health.

The distinction between the bio-medical model and socio-medical model is vital in grading. The bio-medical model focuses on individuals and the absence of disease, while the socio-medical model emphasizes environmental factors related to health and illness. Examples should be used to demonstrate both models and their strengths and weaknesses evaluated. Ultimately, a conclusion about their usefulness in this context should be reached, identifying the most advantageous approach.

Task Two – P3, M2 & D1

Launch date:
First Submission date:
Second submission date:

Take your time to carefully read the questions below and answer them in essay format.


Your employer has asked you to research social groups in the United Kingdom that require the most health and social care services. To complete this task, you will need to analyze statistical data and present your findings in essay format.

P3’s focus is to understand patterns and trends in health and illness within different social groups.

It is essential to study different patterns and trends in health and illness within specific social groups for the purpose of achieving P3. This examination should consider factors like:

Social class
Geographical location

When grading, consider analyzing differences in life expectancy, morbidity and mortality rates, disease incidence, and suicide rates. Provide explanations for these disparities by incorporating statistical data from diverse sources. It is important to use current and reliable data when using statistics and to properly cite your sources. Including your own statistical data may be advantageous.

Utilize diverse sociological viewpoints to analyze the patterns and trends of health and illness within two distinct social groups. (M2)

Using the four sociological perspectives for health and illness, discussed in P3, analyze the patterns and trends of health and illness in two distinct social groups.

1. The explanation of artefacts.

2. The explanation of natural and social selection.

3. The explanation of culture and behavior.

4. The explanation of materialism and structure.

When analyzing health and illness trends in two different social groups, it is important to utilize sociology’s language and tools. It is essential to apply all four perspectives to both groups. Additionally, consider the challenges of defining health and the reliability of statistical data while evaluating health and illness patterns.

One possible task is to evaluate different sociological theories related to health and illness in two separate social groups (D1).

Regarding P3 & M2, the importance of the four sociological explanations for health and illness in explaining the patterns and trends of health and illness in two distinct social groups is analyzed and assessed.

Grading Tip
In order to examine the patterns of two social groups, analyze the four sociological explanations for health disparities. Assess each explanation separately in paragraphs and consider the evidence related to both groups. Furthermore, evaluate the reliability of evidence concerning differences in health and well-being among these groups. Explore the strengths and weaknesses of this evidence and form your own conclusion. For instance, question whether there is enough reliable evidence to suggest inequalities in health and well-being between higher and lower social classes or genders.

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Sociology and Sociological Perspectives. (2016, Aug 07). Retrieved from

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