Steve Jobs was abandoned at birth by his biological parents, John Jandali and Joanne Schieble. Due to disapproval from her Catholic parents towards her relationship with a Muslim, Jandali, who was from Syria, and Schieble, a girl from Wisconsin, were unable to marry. As a result, they made the decision to give their baby up for adoption. Baby Steve was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs from San Francisco, California. Initially an engine technician but later becoming a car mechanic, Paul Jobs introduced Steve to the world of engineering and design. It was through this exposure that Steve gained many of the design principles that set Apple products apart.
Despite struggling with the circumstances surrounding his birth, Jobs had mixed feelings about both sets of his parents. These feelings became an integral part of his identity. The Jobs family relocated to Palo Alto, just as the technology boom in Silicon Valley was beginning. Steve attended school there, where he often found himself bored and amused by authority. He frequently got into trouble for playing pranks, but his parents never punished him for his antics and instead challenged his school to keep him engaged.
Steve recalled that the sole instance when Paul Jobs expressed anger was during their high school years. Paul became upset when he found out that Steve was exploring marijuana and LSD. During this time, Steve started to realize that aside from his talent for electronics and technical design, he also had a strong sense of aesthetics and a profound love for music and art.
The Two Steves – Steve Wozniak came before Jobs at Homestead High School 5 years earlier, and already had impressive skills as a computer technician when he met Jobs in the garage of a common friend. They formed a memorable friendship centered around their shared passion for computers, practical jokes, and Bob Dylan bootlegs. Their initial collaboration entailed constructing a blue box, a device that enabled users to place free long-distance phone calls.
According to Wozniak, he provided the design while Jobs transformed the innovation into a profitable venture. They managed to sell nearly one hundred blue boxes, which were assembled using $40 worth of components and sold for $150 each. However, sales were discontinued after they encountered an armed robbery from a potential customer. Despite the setback, Wozniak believes that selling the blue boxes showcased their engineering abilities and Jobs’ visionary mindset.
Jobs started to develop his quirky personality during his later years in high school. During this time, he dabbled with various substances like LSD and followed eccentric diets. Additionally, he started a relationship with Chrisann Brennan, who he would later have a daughter with. Reflecting on Jobs, she said, “He had an enlightened aura but could also be cruel.” Following high school, Jobs decided to enroll at Reed College, a small liberal arts institution located in Portland, Oregon.
Reed was a smaller school compared to Jobs’ high school, having half the number of students. When Jobs got to Reed, he discovered that despite the college’s hippie image, there were some bothersome obligations like attending classes. During his time at Reed, Jobs formed a close bond with Robert Friedland, who had different reputations depending on the source – some saw him as a spiritual leader while others considered him a fraud. Jobs adopted many of Friedland’s captivating idiosyncrasies but eventually regarded Friedland as someone only interested in money. After a year, Jobs officially left Reed; however, he was still permitted to audit classes at his own discretion.
After attending auditing classes at Reed for a year and a half, Jobs returned to Silicon Valley and appeared at Atari’s main office wearing sandals. Determined to secure employment, he refused to depart until he was hired. Nolan Bushnell, the charismatic founder of Atari, was captivated by Jobs’ unique enthusiasm and offered him a position for $5 an hour.
However, Jobs had already developed unorthodox habits such as following an all-fruit diet in order to eliminate body odor, which he mistakenly believed to be effective. Consequently, he rarely showered more than once a week. This led his co-workers to quickly distance themselves from him, perceiving him as a stubborn and unpleasant hippie kid who had somehow tricked his way into the job.
One engineer expressed discontent with a colleague, describing them as a “goddamn hippie with b. o.” The engineer was dissatisfied with the situation and questioned why they had to work together, finding the co-worker challenging to collaborate with. Meanwhile, Steve Jobs took a break from his job at Atari and traveled to India to explore his fascination with Eastern spirituality. Although he initially sought guidance from renowned spiritual leaders, he eventually embarked on a personal journey, embracing simplicity and rejecting material possessions. Despite not achieving the desired spiritual tranquility, this experience greatly influenced Jobs and deepened his understanding of intuition’s significance in Indian culture.
Upon his return to Atari, Bushnell presented Jobs with a challenge to create a solo rendition of the game pong. Additionally, he offered a bonus if the game could be designed using fewer computer chips. Jobs enlisted Wozniak to tackle the design and proposed that they divide the fee. Within a span of four days, Wozniak completed the design and received payment from Bushnell. However, there exists controversial accounts surrounding this narrative, with some suggesting that Jobs withheld the additional bonus for himself without informing Wozniak about it.
During the technology revolution in Silicon Valley, Steve Wozniak joined the Homebrew Computer Club where he witnessed a microprocessor demonstration. This sparked his idea for a modern personal computer that integrated a keyboard, screen, and computer into one device. While Wozniak intended to freely share his design, Jobs devised strategies to monetize it. According to Wozniak, “Whenever I created something incredible, Steve would consistently find ways for us to capitalize on it.”
With a starting capital of $1300, Wozniak and Jobs made the decision to establish Apple Computer. It so happened that Jobs was returning from an apple orchard on the day when they required a name for the company, and they settled on Apple. Wozniak and Jobs worked diligently for a month to manufacture one hundred computers, selling fifty of them to a nearby computer reseller and the remaining fifty to their acquaintances and other patrons. In just thirty days, Apple started generating profits.
Dawn of a New Age Jobs promptly acknowledged that the Apple I did not have the elegance and display commonly seen in products produced by larger corporations. Therefore, he incorporated appealing design as a crucial aspect of the Apple II.
Jobs obtained the funding needed for expanding the company by utilizing his connections at Atari. Through this network, he was introduced to Mike Markkula, a retired millionaire who had previously worked at Intel. Although initially disregarding their need for haircuts, Markkula was impressed by what he saw on Jobs’ workbench. He recognized the potential of Apple and possessed the necessary business acumen and connections to transform it into a powerful computer company. Markkula even hired a publicist to enhance Apple’s brand image.
Following the triumph of the Apple II launch, Apple expanded beyond Jobs’ capabilities. Markkula took on Mike Scott as President to oversee Jobs. While Scott and Jobs frequently argued, the Apple II, in its different versions, ultimately sold nearly six million units.
Brennan and Jobs had an on-again, off-again relationship for five years before she got pregnant with their sole child. Jobs frequently appeared disinterested in the situation, sometimes ignoring the pregnancy and denying paternity.
Lisa Nicole Brennan was born on May 17, 1978. Although Jobs joined Chrisann in naming their daughter, they decided not to give her Steve’s last name. However, Jobs later expressed remorse for his actions towards his first daughter and recognized his lack of readiness for fatherhood. He confessed, “I wish I had handled it differently. At that time, I couldn’t envision myself as a father, so I avoided confronting it.” Nonetheless, he did provide financial assistance to both Chrisann and Lisa by buying them a house in Palo Alto.
After the huge success of the Apple II, Jobs pursued other projects. However, he was not satisfied with either the Apple III or the “Lisa,” which were created by different people and ahead of their time. Meanwhile, Xerox was leading in computer innovation. Through negotiations, Jobs made a deal with Xerox: they would invest in Apple’s second round of financing and share some technologies. One notable technology was the graphical user interface (GUI), enabling users to see graphics and text on their screens.
Jobs recognized the significance of this technology and promptly integrated it into Apple. He famously asserted, “Picasso had a saying – ‘good artists copy, great artists steal’ – and we have consistently embraced the act of stealing brilliant ideas.” Jobs swiftly assumed leadership of the Lisa project and introduced the GUI, as well as other groundbreaking components like the advanced computer mouse. Nevertheless, Apple’s high-ranking executives became progressively concerned about Jobs’ unconventional conduct. In September 1980, he was demoted to non-executive chairman of the board and surrendered control over ongoing ventures.
From 1977 to 1980, Apple’s value skyrocketed from $5,309 to $1.79 billion. As a result of Apple’s IPO, Jobs became a millionaire at twenty-five with a net worth of $256 million. Although he appreciated the fine craftsmanship found in luxury cars and German knives, Jobs had little desire for material possessions. This mindset regarding money contributed to his slightly strained relationship with some early Apple employees during the IPO.
Despite having been involved with Apple for a long time, starting from the garage days, Daniel Kottke was paid hourly instead of being on salary. Consequently, he was considered ineligible for the IPO. Jobs firmly refused to give Kottke any stock options, effectively leaving his former friend behind. However, Wozniak later intervened and kindly shared some of his own shares with Kottke, as well as many others.
Originally, Jeff Raskin spearheaded the Macintosh project with the objective of developing a reasonably priced computer ($1,000) for widespread household use. However, Jobs became involved and was committed to producing an extraordinary product, regardless of the expense.
Jobs emerged victorious in the power struggle and assumed control of the Macintosh project. Additionally, he strengthened his authority at Apple headquarters by ousting the unpopular president, Mike Scott, due to layoffs. Markkula’s decision to remove Scott enabled Jobs to freely direct the operations of the Macintosh division according to his own preferences.
Jobs possessed a skill known as the “reality distortion field” which involved distorting reality to inspire his employees and convince them that they could accomplish anything.
Jobs had a simplistic view, dividing people into two categories: the “enlightened” and the “assholes.” He was also known for frequently changing his mind, which frustrated his employees. They would suggest an idea, only to be insulted by Jobs for not being smart enough, and then see him present the same idea weeks later as if it were his own. Apple eventually created an award to recognize the employee who showed the most courage in challenging Jobs every year. Over time, Jobs’ coworkers understood that his eccentricities came from his unwavering commitment to perfection.
Jobs was renowned for his attention to detail, which was evident in how he oversaw the Macintosh project. He had a strong preference for elegant, white packaging and user-friendly design. Jobs was famously exacting, going so far as to demand aesthetic perfection even in the computer’s internal components. To him, the Macintosh wasn’t merely a device; it was a masterpiece. To show his gratitude for the engineers’ contributions, Jobs ensured that each engineer’s signature was engraved on every Macintosh computer.
In the early days of Apple, Steve Jobs saw himself as an outsider rebel when compared to IBM’s established presence. However, Jobs also faced competition from within his own company, especially from the Lisa team, as he aimed to launch his product quickly. Ultimately, the Lisa was released first but failed to gain popularity due to its limited features. Consequently, Apple had to depend on the Macintosh for its future success. Meanwhile, Jobs insisted on retaining complete control over every aspect of the Macintosh project and expressed his wish for his creations to remain unaffected by less skilled programmers.
“It would be like if a stranger added brush strokes to a Picasso painting or altered the lyrics to a Dylan song,” expressed Dan Farber, an editor at ZDNet. Later, Jobs felt hurt by TIME Magazine because he had expected to be named Man of the Year during an interview, but instead they named his computer the Machine of the Year.
Jobs recruited John Sculley, the previous Pepsi marketing director in charge of the Pepsi Challenge campaign, to help run Apple. Although initially hesitant to leave Pepsi, Sculley eventually agreed after seeing a reflection of his younger self in Jobs. They instantly connected due to their shared impatience, stubbornness, arrogance, and impulsiveness. Sculley acknowledged that his mind, like Jobs’, was flooded with ideas at the expense of everything else. He also admitted to being intolerant of those who couldn’t meet his demands. Despite Sculley’s talent in marketing, he struggled to adapt to Apple’s hippie culture and emphasized the equal importance of marketing and engineering.
Originally, the Macintosh was projected to cost $1,995. Nevertheless, Sculley’s insistence on including marketing expenses for a grand launch led to a price increase of $2,495. Jobs later credited this decision as the primary reason behind Microsoft’s dominance in the personal computer market.
As Apple was experiencing growth, IBM was gradually gaining dominance in the PC market. In 1984, Apple responded by launching the Macintosh, a product launch that would serve as the template for Jobs’ future launches.
First Jobs hired Ridley Scott and spent $750,000 on the famous “1984” television commercial, which was first broadcast at the Superbowl that year. Then he began giving interviews to various magazines, and the marketing campaign reached its pinnacle with the product launch where Jobs introduced the Macintosh to the world. Chapter 16: Gates and Jobs Bill Gates and Steve Jobs were born in 1955, but while Jobs grew up in California with a hippie lifestyle, Gates was raised by a prominent Seattle attorney and attended a private school.
Gates, unlike Jobs, had a more introverted and reserved nature. He possessed a knack for business and strategy, which differed from Jobs’ artistic style. Their collaboration began when Microsoft developed software for the Macintosh. However, their relationship soured when Microsoft created Windows, a graphical interface similar to the Macintosh. Gates argued that both systems were derived from Xerox technology, but Jobs saw it as a betrayal, leading to his lasting resentment towards Gates.
In January 1984, the Macintosh launch transformed Jobs into a tech icon. He marked his thirtieth birthday with an extravagant party that showcased Ella Fitzgerald’s performance. Initially, the Macintosh sparked considerable enthusiasm but sales declined when users noticed its limitations. Meanwhile, Jobs’ demanding nature created divisions between him and numerous Apple employees, prompting John Sculley to exert more control over Jobs. Additionally, Apple experienced the departure of key engineers such as Steve Wozniak.
Eventually, the tension between Sculley and Jobs developed into a battle for control, with the board ultimately supporting Sculley. Although Jobs briefly contemplated staying at Apple to oversee AppleLabs, a department dedicated to innovation, he ultimately decided to leave the company.
According to Arthur Rock, firing Steve Jobs and telling him to get lost was the best thing that ever happened to him. This statement proved true as Jobs learned valuable lessons in the following years. Jobs’ subsequent project aimed to meet the computing power demands of educational institutions.
He established NeXT using his personal funds and recruited a few of his preferred engineers from Apple, causing strain in his relationship with his former company. Eventually, he managed to secure investment from Ross Perot during a financially challenging period for NeXT. However, his efforts to persuade Bill Gates to develop software for NeXT computers were unsuccessful. At NeXT, Jobs committed several errors from which he would gain valuable insights later on. He exceeded the budget by investing in a specialized factory exclusively manufacturing NeXT computers, and his insistence on a flawlessly cuboid design led to exorbitant costs for the computer casing.
The NeXT failed at its $6,000 price point as it didn’t meet the desired price range of academics, who were looking for a machine priced between $2,000 and $3,000. Jobs then acquired a 70% ownership in Lucasfilm’s animation division for $10 million and renamed it Pixar, after the name of the division’s most significant hardware. Pixar had three main product divisions: hardware, software, and animated shorts. Unfortunately, all three divisions were making losses. By 1988, Jobs had invested nearly $50 million into Pixar while also facing financial losses with NeXT. However, when the studio released Tin Toy and won the 1988 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, Jobs finally decided to prioritize creating amazing animation at Pixar. Subsequently, Pixar partnered with Disney to produce Toy Story.
A Regular Guy Back in 1982, Jobs began dating singer Joan Baez, who was forty-one at the time with a fourteen year-old son. They eventually broke up partly because Baez didn’t want any more kids. Jobs said, “I thought I was in love with her, but I really just liked her a lot. We weren’t destined to be together. I wanted kids, and she didn’t want any more.” Jobs waited until after his adoptive mother died in 1986 to seek out his biological mother.
He eventually reconnected with both Joanne Simpson and his sister Mona, although he never sought out his father. In an ironic twist, Jobs had often dined at his father’s Mediterranean restaurant in San Jose without ever realizing he was at his biological father’s restaurant. Jobs was an imperfect father to Lisa, who turned out to be as temperamental as Jobs. They could go months without speaking, and neither was good at reaching out. Jobs also later dated writer Jennifer Egan, and later Tina Redse, who claimed that Jobs suffered from Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
Jobs and his future wife, Laurene Powell, first met at Stanford Business School, where Laurene was a student. Their connection was instant, and during their first vacation together in Hawaii, Laurene became pregnant. In 1991, they tied the knot in a small ceremony and settled into a modest home in Palo Alto. According to a friend, Jobs considers himself incredibly fortunate to have found Laurene as she is not only intelligent but also capable of engaging him intellectually and supporting him through his ups and downs and his challenging personality. When Jobs’ daughter Lisa reached eighth grade, she moved in with the couple and remained there until she left for college at Harvard. Additionally, Jobs and Laurene had three more children together: a son named Reed and two daughters named Erin Siena and Eve.
Toy Story was a highly successful film with an interesting background. In the beginning, Disney attempted to bring John Lassiter back from Pixar but was unsuccessful. Instead, they chose to collaborate with Jobs. According to the agreement, Pixar would receive 12.5% of the revenue from Toy Story. This deal turned out to be profitable as the movie became the highest-grossing of that year and received excellent reviews from critics. However, despite this success, Jobs had concerns about not having control over the film. Consequently, he decided that Pixar needed an IPO to fund their own projects.
Starting the year, Jobs had the hope of selling Pixar to recover his $50 million investment. However, by the end of the IPO day, Jobs’ 80% stake had soared in value to $1.2 billion. With Pixar now sufficiently funded, Jobs proceeded to negotiate an agreement with Disney’s Michael Eisner to establish equal branding and profit sharing between Pixar and Disney.
The Second Coming NeXT did not have a significant impact on the computing industry due to its expensive price and limited software variety. At the same time, Sculley’s reign at Apple led to decreasing profits and market share. Apple was in a state of decline by 1996, with its stock price reaching approximately $14, and it had experienced several CEO changes before appointing Gil Amelio, previously from National Semiconductor, as its new CEO.
Amelio decided to acquire NeXT over its competitor, Be, in search of fresh ideas for Apple. Initially, the role that Jobs would play at Apple remained uncertain. After discussions, Amelio and Jobs agreed to label him as an “advisor.” From then on, Jobs would need to determine how he would allocate his time between his family, Pixar, and Apple.
Upon returning to Apple, Jobs began to consolidate his power by placing his favorite individuals from NeXT into high-ranking positions at Apple. This was not a Machiavellian power move, but rather a natural inclination for Jobs to seek control. At the same time, Larry Ellison from Oracle frequently made claims in the media about his readiness to finance a hostile takeover of Apple and appoint Jobs as CEO at any time. Although Jobs declined the offer, he did not publicly criticize the idea, which angered Amelio. Despite this, Apple’s board recognized that Amelio was not capable of saving the company, but there was potential for success with Jobs at the helm.
Jobs was offered the CEO position but surprisingly declined, opting instead to remain an advisor overseeing the search for a new CEO. In his advisory role, he took charge of Apple and made several demands, including the repricing of stock options for top employees and the entire board’s resignation. Additionally, Jobs successfully negotiated a partnership with Microsoft, resolving a decade-long legal battle and significantly boosting Apple’s stock price. This chapter highlights Jobs’ belief in marketing and his fondness for the “Think Different” campaign, which showcased influential figures like Albert Einstein and Gandhi.
Meanwhile, Apple’s board eventually abandoned its search for a new CEO and fully entrusted Jobs with the leadership. Upon his return, Jobs terminated the licensing agreements that Apple had previously established with certain computer manufacturers. Additionally, he insisted that the company redirect its efforts towards producing a smaller selection of exceptional products. Consequently, Apple resolved to concentrate on creating four outstanding computers – namely, a desktop and laptop tailored for professionals, as well as a desktop and laptop targeted at consumers.
Apple experienced a loss of $1.04 billion in 1997. However, with Jobs taking over as CEO in 1998, the company managed to turn a profit of $309 million. Unfortunately, Jobs’ intense work schedule took a toll on his health and he described this period as the most challenging time of his life.
Jobs would begin working at 7 a.m. and would not return home until 9 p.m., when his children were already asleep. The exhaustion was overwhelming, to the point where he could hardly speak and could only watch half an hour of TV before feeling completely drained. This experience nearly endangered his life.
Steve Jobs acknowledged Jony Ive’s remarkable skill and designated him as the second most influential figure at Apple, potentially surpassing his official role. Ive directly reported to Jobs, and together they shared a deep dedication to crafting excellent products guided by the principles of simplicity and user-friendliness.
Both Steve Jobs and Jony Ive, the co-founders of Apple, understood the importance of packaging. They were both involved in creating innovative packages for Apple devices and have patents to their names. One notable example is the plastic case used for selling iPods. Jobs expressed his admiration for Ive and recognized his significant influence not just at Apple but worldwide. According to Jobs, Ive has a deep understanding of business and marketing concepts and truly understands the essence of their work. He even referred to Ive as his spiritual partner within the Apple realm.
The iMac, the first product designed by Jobs and Ive together, was a desktop computer priced at around $1,200 and targeted towards everyday casual users. They made bold changes to the conventional appearance of computers by opting for a blue, translucent case that gave the computer its distinctive “cuteness.” Throughout the design process, Jobs exhibited his well-known temper, but eventually the iMac came together. In May 1998, Jobs launched the iMac to great acclaim from critics who were impressed by its innovative appearance. Within the first six weeks, the iMac sold 278,000 units and reached a total of 800,000 units sold by the end of the year.
Jobs willingly became the CEO of Apple without the word “interim” in his title. He promptly initiated various measures to improve the company’s functioning, such as reducing inventory, securing advantageous agreements with suppliers, and appointing Tim Cook as the head of operations. Despite running Apple for two years and only being compensated with one dollar per year, Jobs caused unease within the board. When his interim title was discarded, Jobs expressed a desire for a private jet instead of a salary, yet the board also proposed to grant him 14 million stock options. Surprisingly, Jobs counteractively requested 20 million options, ultimately compelling the board to reluctantly fulfill his request.
Jobs had a strong faith in his products but despised the notion of others selling them, as he believed that the distinct features of Apple products could get diluted in a large retail store. Therefore, he resolved that Apple should have control over the entire retail process and started devising plans for their own retail stores. Despite the board’s aversion to the idea, as Gateway’s stores had failed disastrously and Dell was dominating the personal computer market by selling directly to consumers through mail, Jobs persisted. He assembled a team to craft an Apple retail store deserving of the brand.
The business world had doubts when Apple launched its first retail store in May of 2001. While Gateway stores were receiving around 250 visitors per week, Apple’s stores were attracting an average of 5,400 visitors per week by 2004. Jobs introduced the Genius Bar concept in his stores and later established the flagship Apple store in New York City. Eventually, the Manhattan store became the highest-grossing store in New York, surpassing Saks and Bloomingdale’s.
Every year, Jobs held a retreat for his top 100 employees to brainstorm new product ideas. During one of these retreats, Jobs became convinced that the personal computer would eventually serve as a central control for various devices, including video cameras and music players. Jobs initially wanted Adobe to develop video editing software for the Mac, but they refused. This refusal felt like betrayal to Jobs and further solidified his desire for control over the entire user experience, including hardware, software, and retail. Jobs subsequently decided to focus on portable music players as the next major Apple product, leading to the acquisition of SoundJam and the start of Apple’s music player design process.
Through the integration of innovative hard disk technology, a small LCD screen, and Apple’s renowned click wheel, the iPod was created. Despite initial doubts from critics regarding the marketability of a $399 music player, consumers quickly propelled the iPod to remarkable success, ultimately revolutionizing the entire music industry.
By 2002, music piracy had begun significantly impacting music sales, resulting in a 9% decline in legal CD sales that year. The executives of music companies surprised Jobs by traveling to Cupertino seeking advice on what actions to take. These companies experimented with different approaches, like implementing various digital protection measures, but none proved successful.
Jobs successfully convinced music companies to combat piracy by implementing a cost-effective and integrated solution for purchasing music via the iTunes store. He skillfully negotiated substantial concessions from the music industry, such as separating songs from albums and setting a fixed price of $0.99 per song. Out of this amount, record companies would receive $0.70. The addition of a Windows version of the iTunes store, prompted by Apple’s top management, had a revolutionary impact on the iPod. By January 2007, iPods generated half of Apple’s revenues, while the iTunes store sold seventy million songs in its first year.
The iPod’s immense success led to the popular phrase “What’s on your iPod?” becoming ingrained in modern culture. When Jobs was posed this query, he disclosed that his own iPod contained a diverse collection spanning from Dylan and The Beatles to Joni Mitchell and Yo Yo Ma. Jobs admired Dylan so much that he ultimately established a marketing partnership in which Dylan featured in an iPod advertisement.
The album by Dylan reached the top spot after 30 years, making it a highly coveted position for musicians who were willing to do an iPod advertisement without charge. Eventually, U2 also agreed to participate in an iPod commercial, but under the condition that Apple create a limited edition U2 iPod and share a portion of the royalties with them. Jobs, who had always admired Yo Yo Ma, believed that Ma’s exceptional playing provided undeniable proof of a divine existence, stating that achieving such greatness alone as a human was impossible. During his battle with cancer, Jobs asked Ma to promise to perform at his funeral.
Steve Jobs played a key role at Pixar by handling contract negotiations. During this time, he developed a rivalry with Jeffrey Katzenberg, who had departed from Disney to establish Dreamworks. Jobs firmly believed that Katzenberg had appropriated the concept of Antz from A Bug’s Life proposal. Despite the intricate circumstances, Jobs could never forgive Katzenberg for what he perceived as intellectual property theft.
Furthermore, Pixar’s agreement with Disney was nearing its end, leading to frequent conflicts between Jobs and Michael Eisner. Eisner held the belief that Disney could manage without Pixar.
Disney’s board, acknowledging that Pixar had been responsible for all of Disney’s successful movies in the past decade, decided to replace Eisner with Bob Iger, who was serving as Disney’s chief operating officer at the time. Jobs and Iger held similar viewpoints and eventually came to an agreement for Disney to purchase Pixar. As a result, senior management from Pixar took on leadership positions within Disney’s animation division.
Macs Jobs and Ive have a reputation for their ability to produce unique and innovative products, although not all of their creations have been successful. The Power Mac G4 Cube, designed for professional use, was exceptionally well-designed and even featured in the Museum of Modern Art. However, it did not sell as Apple had expected. In contrast, Jobs learned from hi