“Individual“ , the term by itself means something or person alone. Therefore, “Individualism” is a revolution which tends to power the rights of an person. In states like America, such a pattern is followed. The people at that place wish that there should be adequate personal infinite for every person without being disturbed by name of any sort of authorization or power as good. But the utmost opposite civilization or pattern prevails in China, which can be shortly called as Bolshevism. Here, neither the idea of single nor their want is given privilege. It is because they believe in group idea and they strive together for group success. If in instance any person in a group is holding sentiment mismatch with that of the group, so the person is expected to stamp down the ideas without upseting the group ‘s activities. ( Pratt, D. D.1991 ) Such a pattern could besides be viewed as coercing a common idea upon everybody. But this is their civilization and they have been practising it for rather long old ages. We have to state that they got used to it.
Now, in the recent yesteryear a Television show called “Super girls” has been commenced and succeeded every bit good. It is a endowment world show which brings out the endowments of an person to the sight of everybody by giving them a suited platform. Another interesting fact about this show is that, it is the populace who judge the show. They vote for their favourite star of the show and therefore the victor is selected. But it is been condemned by the observers that the Super miss show is inflaming the individualistic feeling amidst the Bolshevism practicians. Many have started protesting against the show fearing that the show may upset the Chinese civilization. But on the other manus the populace started basking the amusement. They are glad to vote for their stars. ( Dinging, Y. 2008 )
China is a state which ever value squad success. Simply talking, they follow Bolshevism. They give much importance to group ideas than the single sentiment. This pattern is purely followed by them in the name of civilization. Chinese people have non practiced direct election. But late the state of affairs has changed because of the Super Girl show in China. It is condemned by the analysts that this show has initiated amidst people individuality. Let us discourse whether the show is truly spreading individuality among the Chinese young persons.
The Chinese civilization –A History
Change – has been the most outstanding factor qualifying the universe of today. Every second of our life is changed as finds and innovations galore the topographic point we live on. This sort of transmutation is non new to the least. It has been a changeless factor ; right from adult male happening fire to the scientific revolution, going from bullock-carts to modern autos, from eating anything to standardising the repast we take, the universe has about seen everything.
Each alteration in bend was diversified among several groups of people based on their idealistic values, the ethical rules they followed and their public assistance matching to their geographical part. These diversified alterations easy developed as cultural behaviour of that peculiar group. Then there came a point where all the variegations attained impregnation. In the terminal, alternatively of these alterations regulating the cultural behaviour, it turned out the direct opposite manner where cultural behaviour dominates the alterations. ( Songhua, F, n. vitamin D )
For now, the rhythm has turned once more. It ‘s about a revolutionizing act if a individual does the direct antonym of what their civilization intends them to make.
Chinese civilization gives the Chinese people their basic individuality. They have certain nucleus values which are sole and consistent, and these are fashioned by a tradition of four thousand old ages of history and maintained by the same linguistic communication every bit good. Considered to be one of the oldest civilizations, the Chinese civilization has a huge and traditional history. Several groups of people, each holding their ain unique traits have shaped and nurtured the Chinese traditions and patterns. It has evolved through different ages invariably but has ever maintained its true individuality. ( Destiny: Culture of China,1998 )
Bing the most thickly settled state in the universe, and the geographical landscape covering major portion of Asia, there were every bit many as 56 groups of people who followed alone civilization in ancient China. ( Constitution, 1982 ) As clip passed by, each of the groups lost their individuality and their civilization got erased with clip. Chinese civilization is good influenced by “Confucius” , who is a Chinese philosopher. The instructions of Confucius are called by the name ‘Confucianism ‘ , which stress the importance of person ‘s instruction based on ethical motives so that the moral virtuousness of the province will be raised. ( Downs, 1971 )
In the current scenario, China is considered to be the fastest emerging ace power prosecuting itself to vie at the top most degree in about all Fieldss get downing from concern to infinite research. Its economic passage is increasing exponentially when compared to other states. In such a high paced universe, the clip spent for conserving the true traits and home ground of Chinese civilization is frequently neglected. Given the exposure to telecasting and cyberspace services, already uncertainties have risen among several quarters about the sustainability of the age old heritage. The different civilizations exposed to people through these commercial mediums have fascinated the current coevals of people to research the so impregnable civilizations go forthing them unfazed by the impairment of their ain civilization. ( Child, J. , & A ; David, K. 2001 ) .
Individualism – A theory
Oyserman, Coon, et Al. ‘s ( 2002 ) through their extended analysis on individuality and Bolshevism suggest that Individualism can be considered as a stand-alone concept for analysing cross-cultural comparings. They suggest that individuality as the nucleus ground for the extended differences society, emotions and single behaviour. Individuality can be considered to be the most critical factor for patterning a personality of oneself. Mcrae ( 2001 ) besides suggests that a state ‘s determination to research and seek out new things depends on their individualistic nature. Since every individual contributes to the success of a state, this statement does offer a fruitful idea about individuality and its effects. The idea of geographic expedition and seeking new things is termed to be an of import feature of individuality as it leads persons to organize new relationships based on their demands and undertakings. Besides, the relationship life is non formed on the footing of solidarity and people frequently entangle themselves in new relationships, which is wholly opposite to Chinese civilization.
Another of import feature of individuality is that it plays an built-in portion in the well being of an person. The person may be to the full satisfied with the right to take their ain intent and their ain vision in their life. They enjoy complete satisfaction of what they are executing. This is one of the grounds that individualistic states produce tonss of innovations and new sorts of activities every now and so. Peoples are allowed to research in their ain ways. ( Lam C 1997 ) On the other manus, though individuality allows people to hold their ain relationships, it besides lends to an addition in the figure of divorces in an individualistic state. But so, by all agencies, people are satisfied in both terminals with their relationships and they enjoy complete freedom. Peoples following individuality provide higher importance to their leisure activities compared to other states. It has been confirmed through studies that individualistic people tend to do ego analyzed determinations based on their ain experiences alternatively of transporting out undertakings suggested by others. ( Schimmack, Radhakrishnan, et al. , 2002 )
Collectivism versus individuality
Basically Chinese people value Bolshevism instead than individualistic sentiment. There is no difference that affair to race, category or community. Their focal point is upon the sentiment or claim of a group or association. They ever demand that a group is more of import than an single. This at times led to suppression of self sentiment and involvement for the public assistance of the group as a whole. Thus leftists must be able to make forfeit. But the interesting fact about this is, pure democracy is a signifier of Bolshevism. ( Jhuener,2006 )
On the other manus most American states have developed individuality. They believe, without protecting person ‘s right, there is no sense in protecting an single. Therefore individuality is described as a revolution which protects an person ‘s right which in bend protects a adult male from the other and therefore it protects the province as a whole. It opposes Bolshevism stating that it denies an single his or her right to life. Furthermore they charge against the leftists that they are poisoning the state. Besides they condemn that the ability and attempts of some work forces are been sacrificed for the interest of others. ( Wong, E. Y. 2001 )
David Brooks, a newspaper editor, has analyzed about the dramatic behaviour of the outlook of the leftists and that of the individualists. He cites an interesting illustration. If we show the image of a fish armored combat vehicle to an American, he will concentrate the biggest fish in the armored combat vehicle and will get down explicating about it, whereas if the same image is shown to a Chinese individual, he will see the armored combat vehicle as a whole and will get down explicating about the contextual behaviour of the group of fishes inside. Brooks says ( 2008 ) “An American in general expressions into the class but a Chinese will look into the context” . Besides Brooks ( 2008 ) explains the behaviour of people in collectivized states and individualistic states as
Peoples in individualistic states tend to overrate their accomplishments whereas those in collectivized societies under estimate their accomplishments. Peoples in states like China will ever be given to lend more for group attempts.
Scientist excessively has supported his ideas. They say relationship is the key to happiness. Peoples populating in groups tend to boom whereas those populating entirely tend to depression and they even commit self-destruction.
Super Girl – the show
Any state which gets a feel of something attractive and something they could acquire attracted excessively would welcome it with unfastened Black Marias. Such is a scenario with the telecasting show, “Super Girl” . It is fundamentally a Chinese version of “American Idol” Television show. When the show foremost started in 2005, it attracted every bit many as 400 million people from China, about bing the population of US and UK totaled together. It is a female contested show, where any girl irrespective of our background beginning and other inside informations can take part in it and showcase her endowment. The show was conducted in a hierarchal unit of ammunition order, where each unit of ammunition filters the figure of campaigners and merely the best of the batch enter the concluding unit of ammunition. ( China Daily, 2005 )
The 2005 season saw more than a 100 thousand appliers. Everyone was given 30 seconds to execute on phase and in the allotted clip they have to affect the justice with their endowment. Out of the full rivals, three were filtered for the concluding unit of ammunition. They battled it out in one of the most exciting shows that full China has ne’er experienced. ( China Daily, 2005 )
The exposure was so much that during the concluding show, about every Chinese voted for the contestants to demo their support. The major characteristic that attracted people towards the show apart from the glistening show was that the people were in bend played the function of the Judgess. It involved voting through SMS and other services. This made everyone feel as if they contribute towards the choice of the victor and this in bend motivated each person ‘s liquors. ( Dinging, Y. 2008 )
One of the major factors of individuality that affected the Chinese civilization through this show was neither the Government, nor the party had any kind of function to play in its success. It ‘s an finally new thing for the people of China.
The ground for that is, prior to this show, the lone amusement that was given to people through telecasting was Jumping Festival show, conducted by the authorities itself. And this show was running under rigorous supervising. Merely the party people were allowed to see it, the remainder were all watching through telecasting entirely. In fact, they were allowed merely to watch, non even to take part. Rest of the shows that got aired was all military plans, socking out all sorts of military anthems and materials. And so, in short, with this show, the party and the authorities were neglected all together. For, the people, any sort of information and policy from the authorities sing the show would n’t hold mattered anything. Hence, there was no show as universally accepted as this show was. ( Hutong, X. 2005 )
The state till so had ne’er favored any single dad star to turn media towards them and derive popularity. So, when the three immature chaps, in their early 20 ‘s, rocked the phase with assurance and high quality, the whole state appreciated and amazed. It was a freedom of autonomy, a freedom of look to many persons to demo their endowment to all in a manner they have ne’er done earlier. ( Hutong, X. 2005 ) .
This is the most popular every bit good as the most sensational show every bit good. But so, it is been condemned by the politicians that this show is piquing the traditional usage of China. Inevitably this show has kindled the patriots to debate upon the democracy in China. Generally the success of Television shows lies upon the remarks of certain analysts who could be political observer. Thus they took in their custodies to postmortem about the sensational show. Yardley, J. ( 2005 ) .
Rise of individuality
Since the clip when China became as People ‘s Republic of China in 1949, ‘Collectivism ‘ has been their policy. It still remains the same. It does non hold direct elections to choose a individual to run the state. On this point of position, the “Super Girl” show has provided the people a new signifier of election where single vote affairs. It merely wholly opposes the cultural values of China. ( Junbo, J. 2009 ) .
It follows the footfalls of ‘individualism ‘ which leads to the way of democracy in a non-democratic state. This is the point where the show attracted enviousness ‘s from all corners on a political position. Equally shortly as the show gained popularity, the politicians criticized it to be pathetic and fundamental, blockading the growing of Chinese civilization and mentioned it as advancing individuality. ( Quing, M. 2005 ) .
The alteration in cultural values towards individuality did non halt with amusement channel entirely. The mentality of the people was another major factor that got changed. In China before Super Girl, people were non given an chance to vote. This in turn lead people disabled to put to death their freedom to prosecute their ain class of life. In all ways, the authorities or the way came in their manner. After this show, people have an chance to exert their right to take part, put to death their will. ( Li, B. , 2005 ) .
The other alteration brought approximately by this show is that the exhilaration and joy experienced by the people during the show, displayed that people are ready to travel off from the idealistic values followed by the Communist party. Though this seems to be merely a position of people, many critics believe that it has led to a new phenomenon emulating the civil society, where single people can be given the higher precedence instead than the society. Get downing from the terminal of the twentieth century, there have been countless divisions within the society based on societal and cultural values. Zhu Dake ( 2005 ) has even mentioned about this,
The Super Girls let us see that when the media can hold on public sentiment, it can bring forth a powerful force. I feel that public sentiment will be the most productive force in twenty-first century China.
Role of media
Coming to the portion the media played in this, the “Super Girls” show has showed that how powerful media can be. It has given a solid strength and grounds to the people that media has the power to alter the face of the state. It has the power to raise the voice of the populace, no affair how large the authorities is. Besides, with the coming of cyberspace truly doing its manner into each and everyone ‘s lives, the right to show single position as collected attending and people are get downing to utilize it.
Super Girl-Show for all
Before the show was aired, every activity performed in the state was bit by bit developing a split between the different degrees of society. The elite and rich people of China had a better say in each and every activity than the under-privileged. This was turning out to be a major factor cultivating caste and cultural group differences. The reaching of this show smashed up such theories that were bing and that were been practiced. It cleared the air saying a house statement that the state and engagement is for all. ( Lynch, D. 2005 )
Super Girls – the three finalists and their spirit of individualism
Out of the several 1000s of people who competed in the Super miss show, three misss were selected in the concluding. They were Li Yuchun, Zhou Bichang, Zhang Liangying. Out of the three, Li Yuchun emerged as the victor with about 3.5 million ballots. What helped her, irrespective of our weak voice was her personality and undiscouraged attitude and motive to win. These are the traits of individuality. She had a, really much expression of boylike hair manner and a smiling that could take 1000 other people smile. Her chief feature that made her the young person icon of 2005 was her amazing capableness to enchant the populace and her unafraid competitory nature. She was determined to win the competitions and was ready to demo her self-identity. She was an ordinary individual with no individuality till the show was conducted. Later on, she became the heartthrob of many young persons, transfusing individuality in many of them.
Even after several months of acting, all the three of them continued to better their vocalizing accomplishment ; the manner handled the populace and popularity was phenomenal. Chinese civilization was fundamentally related with human interior feelings and nature. They do non care about the outer looks. But so, through this show, the misss were dressed and prepared like Westerners. The Westerners got this tendency merely because of single geographic expedition. They were non afraid of the society for what they were have oning and in-turn led them to different findings. The same rule was followed here by the ace misss, taking them to publicize the individualistic love for frocks to general populace. They advertised themselves as an illustration of individuality. The civilization of westerners is being imported by the misss but however, the misss have modified it to their ain civilization and traditions. ( Robertson 1995 ) An illustration is the fast nutrient processing identified by U.S but so, the Chinese followed it and created their ain bill of fare harmonizing to their civilization. The misss served as the best illustrations of planetary advertisement and cultural alteration.
Super Girl – reaction from authorities
As a consequence of the force per unit area scenarios created by the show, the authorities, on 2007, banned people from projecting their ballots through messaging and cyberspace. In add-on to this, the authorities besides changed the show timings in such a manner that it is non shown in premier clip and as a consequence there wo n’t be every bit much viewing audiences as there were in 2005. They have besides placed regulations on who all could take part in the show.( Kim, N, 2009 )
This is in response to their idea that the rivals are turning out to be bad function theoretical accounts for the current and future coevals. They wanted even the dressings and hairdos of the participants should be purely in line with the traditional civilization of the society. ( Bao, . X.J. , 2006 ) . Rules were proposed to an extent that they decided to censor the show. But the show went on in 2009 with all these limitations and is expected to go on.
Some critics who are in favour of the show believe the amendments in media regulations to be a first measure of success against the authorities. They are besides of the sentiment that with appropriate and planned instruction, people can be aware of the democratic values and can act upon democracy to be started in the state. They pose the position that the people of US were non born with the endowment of taking right leaders, it came to them merely in pattern as portion of their life style. They believe that such thing could go on with China if practiced for twenty old ages. ( Ning, Q. , & A ; Ning, C.T.K. 2002 )
Super Girl-benefits in different Fieldss
Apart from democracy, this show has been a disclosure in supplying quality contents to the populace, the method of operations being so modern-day, altering the ideal work moralss followed by the Orthodox people. In footings of societal values and society, the plan was able to run into the demands built-in in common people. It helped them fulfill their desire to exert their rights. In footings of fiscal alterations, this show provided gross like ne’er before, therefore increasing the economical stature of the state from amusement industry excessively. ( Xinhua. , 2006 )
Super Girl –Negative Remarks
As a show, society wise, it did n’t do any job. But due to its immense popularity, the show gathered crowd wherever it got telecasted. As a consequence of it, the jurisprudence work forces had a tough clip to manage the crowd. The crowds near the bowl were grim to come in and the jurisprudence work forces had to utilize their beginnings to acquire rid of them. The whole state of affairs had become unruly. The politicians subsequently on took this as one of the grounds for socking at the show. The unfavorable judgment was non a major one and it was forgotten as clip passed by. Another issue that occurred was that the choice unit of ammunition was non done decently and there were ailments from some of the participants that though they performed good, they were eliminated and some sort of favoritism is done for choice based on some issue. All this has non been given strong grounds boulder clay now and therefore the ailments were non taken earnestly. These were some of the black Markss which happened during its class clip.
On a personal point of position, life is merely a affair of mental perceptual experience. One can happen a sea of alteration in life if the position of the same job is merely changed from its current perceptual experience. The people who come to take part in the competition are from different traditions and beginnings. Before they could execute, one could see their civilization and tradition being exposed to others, either by themselves, or through their features.
Such traditional civilization takes a shit when they perform and acquire publicized after some success. Their individuality takes the front phase go forthing out the Bolshevism and Confucianism. They are prompted to be self-conscious, self –conscious, care about themselves and pretermit the so called cultural Bolshevism. This can be seen in two ways. This either affects their ain cultural development or in a positive note, helps them liberalise and understand their ain ego rights. It is obvious that both can non be achieved at the same time. ( Bodde, D.1957 )
Apart from the contestant point of position, the other factor that comes in here is the democracy and direct election. In my position, I do n’t see any sort of relation between the Super Girl show voting system and democracy. Yes, I understand, it is one signifier exerting one ‘s right to take part. It gives you pleasure that you performed something that could alter the destiny of other individual. But the alteration does n’t hold the magnitude that a democracy election would hold over an full state. ( Zhou, R. 2005 ) .
This being one position, one other point of position is that this could be seen as a democratic seed sown in a communist land. Peoples tend to overstate this simple thing into such a immense issue that it got concerns from the authorities itself and led to the limitation on the show itself. Here, I have to advert that Chinese people have thrown sand on themselves. They have seen something new, some new alteration being occurrence, which they could capitalise on and do it scale greater highs. Alternatively, they tried to expose the democratic confederation that it circumstantially had, into a full blown issue and it showed the effects of it. ( Jakes S. 2006 ) It is non possible here to propose a quandary on whether the democracy interpreted through the show is valuable, deep and thought provoking. There is no via media on whether it kindled the idea or non. Some people would travel for a yes, some would travel for a no but there can ne’er be a consentaneous determination for this issue. ( Time,1954 ) .
Peoples all of a sudden forget the mere being of the cardinal authorities and without any message or communicating from the top degree administration ; they merely started organizing groups and started basking by their groups. They have simply forgotten the presence of a top degree establishment in the state. They were populating in their reel life instead than their existent life. ( Dinging, Y. 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to D.D Pratt ( 1991 ) , transmutation from collectivized nature of human being to individualism involves transmutation of personality. This in his position is done in footings of perceptual, rational and moral cognition. On Chinese point of position, it is about flawlessness and instruction. Hence their position was to the full focused on Confucianism, and their human nature was limited in its position. With the coming of this show, it is shown that the Chinese have found about the countless signifiers that a human nature relationship can take in its entireness. Hofstede, G. ( 2001 ) .
The major high spot of the show that specially characterizes individuality is the manner each one is given the freedom to show themselves, how they are given the freedom to show their emotions, there inside ideas, irrespective of their tradition. The show showed that civilization is merely nil but sharing between one another and the ensuing boundaries that develop to single groups.
When people from different civilization, from different walks of the society are pitted against each other, they make their ain premises about others merely based on their ain civilization that is their values and rules they follow. These are merely sensible from their point of position, non from others. Hence, these constructs take a excavation when they do something wrong, which in bend, leads them to make self witting work and that is, individuality. So, self-aware nature gets into them one time they enter the show itself. This in bend affects the already built-in cultural values inside them. ( Dinging, Y. 2008 ) .
The other grounds that I could province for the analysis of individuality in Super Girl show is that it is non merely supplying the current coevals young person, a function theoretical account to look for, or a rule to follow for, but the fact is the feel of heat, a fresh charming wavelength fluxing between the contestants and the young person. They give high precedence to this heat, higher than their friends ; higher than their co-workers ; and most significantly, higher than the theoretical account set created on a moral footing by the Chinese authorities.The other factor is the psychological factor. The young person are able to acquire psychologically inspired through this show. Psychological inspiration involves, a belief in interior to follow their end, a head start to accomplish their ends and an attitude, that can take success or failure – no affair what comes, taking both in a positive manner. So, for all these facets, the civilization of the Super Girls can be used as an instrument in determining up their calling. ( Yan, Y 2000 )
An disposed illustration for this scenario could be, the application of regulations and ordinances in an disposed mode can be followed by other regulation doing or regulating establishments. Peoples who feel are dawdling in educational calling, can concentrate on their extra-curricular endowments with this show as an inspiration. So, this show gives the ego assurance to the young person and in the procedure applies self-fulfillment.
Another illustration that could be provided is how even the under-privileged people can larn from the Super Girls, the ability to prevail until the end is reached. It gives them the assurance non to rest until the spotlight is achieved. ( Zan, Z.2009 ) . Harmonizing to Ha Jin, an acclaimed author, The Chinese young person have changed their ain perceptual experience. They think about themselves otherwise. They are self-worthier and they have started to believe in footings of gaining money for themselves to accomplish their intent. He feels that people are no more thought that individuality is a bad factor and they are appreciating it
It is a fact that the “Super Girls” show has sown the seed of individuality in China. This state of affairs can be compared to a submerging individual who gets air assorted with C dioxide. It is obvious that the individual will seek to take every bit much air as possible without caring the degree of C dioxide. The same has happened in China. But, this can non be exaggerated by any agencies. Though the show is running for a period of 6 old ages, the sum of individuality impact it had upon the Chinese young person is really minimum. Individuality is a complicated issue and is straight related with the development of the state. China, being the fastest developer in the universe is yet to come in footings with the individualistic nature of U.S on cultural position. The national differences are traveling to go on to be prevailing between these states. No affair, how many different Numberss of shows come, the domination of traditional Bolshevism in historic China is non traveling to be replaced by individuality any clip shortly.
Hofstede, G. ( 2001 ) . Culture ‘s effects ( 2nd ed. ) . Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
McCrae, R. R. ( 2001 ) . Trait psychological science and civilization: Exploring intercultural comparings. Journal of Personality, 69, 819–846.
Oyserman, D. , Coon, H. M, . & A ; Kemmelmeier, M. ( 2002 ) . Rethinking individuality and Bolshevism: Evaluation of theoretical premises and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.
Pratt, D. D. ( 1991 ) Conceptions of Self within China and the United States: Contrasting foundations for big education.international diary of intercultural dealingss. 15. 285-310.
Robertson, Roland ( 1995 ) , “ Globalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity- Heterogeneity, ” in Global Modernities, Mike Featherstone, Scott Lash, and Roland Robertson, eds.. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 45-46.
Yan, Y ( 2000 ) , “ Of Hamburger and Social Space: Consuming McDonald ‘s in Beijing, ” in The Consumer Revolution in Urban China, Deborah S. Davis, ed. , Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 201-225.
Lam C. ( 1997 ) A cultural position on the Chinese Adolescent Development. Child and adolescent societal work diary, 14 ( 2 ) , 95-115.
Li, B. ( 2005 ) . Moral instruction in passage: The values conflict in China. Studies in Philosophy and Education. 12, doi:10.1007/BF01235475
Ning, Q. , & A ; Ning, C.T.K. ( 2002 ) . Chinese Students Encounter America. Honk Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Bodde, D. ( 1957 ) China ‘s cultural tradition, what and whither? Beginning jobs in universe civilisation. London: Rinehart.
Schimmack, U. , Radhakrishnan, P. , Oishi, S. , Dzokoto, V. & A ; Ahadi, S. ( 2002 ) . Culture, personality, and subjective wellbeing: Integrating procedure theoretical accounts of life-satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1313–1329.
Ding, Y. ( 2008 ) . A critical comparing of American Idol and Super Girl: A cross-cultural communicating analysis of American and Chinese civilizations. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/377/1/Yding_2008-1_BODY.pdf
Zan, Z. ( 2009 ) . Paradise and paradox: on the Super Voice Girls: simple treatment on popular civilization, young person, media and province political relations of modern-day China. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //dspace.library.ubc.ca/dspace/bitstream/2429/7872/1/ubc_2009_spring_zhang_zan.pdf
( n.d ) ( 1982 ) .Constitution of the People ‘s Republic Of China. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/China/prc_constitution.pdf
Wong, E. Y. ( 2001 ) .The Chinese at work: Bolshevism or Individualism? Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.library.ln.edu.hk/etext/hkibs/hkws_0040.pdf
Jakes S. ( 2006 ) China ‘s Super Girl Needs a Rescue. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1176987,00.html
Brooks, D. ( 2008 ) . Harmony and the Dream. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/2008/08/12/opinion/12brooks.html? _r=2 & A ; ref=opinion
Lynch, D. ( 2005 ) . China under enchantment of mighty ‘Super Girl ‘ . Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-05-26-supergirl_x.htm? csp=N009( n.d ) ( 1954 ) .
Red China: The Road to Collectivism. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823226,00.html
Macartney, J. ( 2005 ) . Television endowment competition ‘too democratic ‘ for China ‘s censors. Times Online. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/article560126.ece
Martinsen, J. ( 2005 ) CPPCC: Exterminate the Super Girls. Danwei. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.danwei.org/trends_and_buzz/cppcc_exterminate_the_super_girls.php
Goldkorn, J. ( 2005 ) . The concluding hebdomad of Television esthesis Super Voice Girls. Danwei. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.danwei.org/media_and_advertising/the_final_week_of_tv_sensation.php
Bao, . X.J. ( 2006 ) . The State Administration of Radio Film and Television Restricts Super Girl. China digital times. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //Chinadigitaltimes.net/2006/03/the-state-administration-of-radio-film-and-television-restricts-super-girl/
Xinhua. ( 2006 ) . China ‘s “ Super Girl ” singing competition creates “ economic miracle ” . Peoples. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //english.people.com.cn/200601/18/eng20060118_236323.html
Zhou, R. ( 2005 ) . Secret behind idol-making Super Girl competition. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www2.Chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-08/27/content_472681.htm
Yardley, J. ( 2005 ) . An improbable dad icon concerns China. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/2005/09/04/world/asia/04iht-super.html
Child, J. , & A ; David, K. ( 2001 ) .
China ‘s Passage and its Implications for International Business. Journal of International Business Studies.32. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst ; jsessionid=KT1Pl0x5lhy9LhS1qL5Tp2ys8y32pJTv7TGSjwcw2QBzVGHkjcB1! 1242489961! 507429036? docId=5000970723
( n.d ) ( 2005 ) . China rockin ‘ to “ Super Girl ” . Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.Chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-08/30/content_473432.htm( n.d ) ( 1998 ) Destiny: Culture of China. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //library.thinkquest.org/20443/living.html
Songhua, F. ( n.d ) . The modern significance of Chinese traditional civilization. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.crvp.org/book/Series03/III-16/chapter_xviii.htm( n.d ) ( 2006 ) .
Using individuality and Bolshevism to compare civilizations – A review of the cogency and measurings of the concepts: Remark on Oyserman et Al. ( 2002 ) . Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //jhenner.wordpress.com/2006/10/04/115994528226554536/
Kim, N. ( 2009 ) Super Girls! – Everybody Is A Star. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hammertonail.com/genre/documentary/super-girls-everybody-is-a-star/
Quing, M. ( 2005 ) . ‘Super Voice Girls ‘ challenges China ‘s Television civilization. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.Chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-08/12/content_468543.htm
Junbo, J. ( 2009 ) .Confucianism a critical twine in China ‘s bow. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.atimes.com/atimes/China/KJ09Ad01.html( n.d ) ( 2005 ) . Whether the General Will is Fallible. . Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.online-literature.com/rousseau/social-contract-or-principles-/14/ ( n.d ) ( 2005 ) EastSouthWestNorth. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //Chinese.mediaChina.net/index_news_view.jsp? id=77898