Sustainable tourism “Development of sustainable tourism in Scotland” [pic] Main questions: 1. What is sustainable tourism? 2. Characteristics of sustainable tourism: – Economic – Social equity – Environmental and cultural protection 3. Introducing Scotland…(short description) – Country sides – Tourism – Tourists – Historical heritages – Places and destinations in Scotland – 4. The sustainable tourism in Scotland? 5. Who is responsible for the development of the sustainability in Scotland? – Who’s doing what? – Future government projects? 6.
What are the key challenges to the sustainability of Scottish tourism? Challenges 1: Reducing the seasonality of demand 2: Addressing the impact of tourism transport 3: Minimising resource use and waste 4: Looking after our natural and cultural heritage 5: Enhancing quality of life for Scottish communities through tourism 6: Improving the quality of tourism jobs 7: Making holidays available to all 7. What should the tourist know about his visit in Scotland? 8. Ostavat : – Promqna na Problem Formulation – Introduction – Conclusion – Table of contents
Problem formulation Sustainable tourism is simply sustainable development achieved through tourism. Sustainable development is economic development that takes a long-term view. It balances the benefits of economic development against environmental and social costs. Just as sustainable development assumes continued economic growth, so sustainable tourism assumes continued tourism growth. Sustainable tourism is not a marketing idea to attract new markets – it is a strategic term to describe a specific approach to the development of tourism.
Sustainable tourism aims to take all impacts, positive and negative, into account. All tourism has the potential to be more sustainable. As well as encouraging continued tourism growth, sustainable tourism will ensure that Scotland’s two key tourism assets, the natural heritage and the communities, will survive and thrive. Problem definition: How to solve the key challenges of Scottish tourism and how is it possible to reach the sustainable goal of Scotland tourism development? Methodology part
This project is based on led desk research (secondary data) which gives the opportunity of using and cultivating the internet sites, books and other sources which were used further below in the development of the project process. The purpose of the project is to define the key challenges in the particular destination like Scotland or how to develop a certain area by usage of sustainability in tourism. The first step is defining the term “Sustainable tourism”. The second step is detailed examining of the characteristics of sustainable tourism.
The third step is small description of the chosen destination – Scotland. The fourth step is defining the tourism in Scotland and implement statistic for the development of the sustainable tourism in the Scottish region. The final of the project is answering the key term in the project – How to solve the key challenges of Scottish tourism and how is it possible to reach the sustainable goal of Scotland tourism development. What is sustainable tourism? As far as we know the concept of sustainability in tourism is not clearly understood, but it is one of the most used concepts in modern tourism development.
We can define sustainable tourism also through the definition of WTO “Tourism which leads to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. ” We could argue with that definition because of many different opinions given to that specific term. The debate over tourism sustainability concept is a phenomenon which starts at the early 1900s. It seems sustainable tourism envelopes a wide spectrum of different concepts.
As we also know sustainable tourism encourages an understanding of impacts of tourism on the natural, cultural and human environments. It ensures a fair distribution of benefits and costs. Tourism stimulates profitable domestic industries – hotel and other lodging facilities, restaurants and other food services, transportation systems, handicrafts and guide services. Tourism diversifies the local economy, particularly in rural areas where agricultural employment may be insufficient. Tourism generates foreign exchange for the country, and injects capital and new money into the local economy.
Environmentally sustainable tourism demonstrates the importance of natural and cultural recourses to a community’s economic and social well being and can help to preserve them. (“Sustainable tourism management”; John Swarbrooke; 1999) We could conclude with the incontestable fact that sustainable tourism monitors, assesses and manages the impacts of tourism, develops reliable methods of environmental accountability, and counters any negative effect. Characteristics of sustainable tourism: Sustainable tourism has the following characteristics; ? Economic prosperity
Economic prosperity as a part of sustainable tourism characteristics required itself an investment of money. The achievement of sustainable tourism couldn’t be possible if we as dedicated to our ambitions people and the different public organizations and communities don’t invest money in our aims. The economic prosperity will be accomplished if everybody takes responsibility of his actions and is dedicated to his job. Of course the government and all the public agencies are also responsible to create suitable conditions to work and fair payment. • long term competitive
and prosperous tourism businesses • quality employment opportunities, fair pay and conditions for all employees ? Social equity and cohesion The sustainable tourism won’t be realized if the tourists and their desires are not satisfied. When a tourist visits a destination he requires a long list of whims and conditions. We as tourist can prove that one destination won’t be visited if the destination is not able to ensure a safety place us and it doesn’t offer health insurance. So, the destination should be demand and the local society should be united to create the best quality of services.
• tourism that improves the quality of life of local communities, • community involvement in tourism planning and management, • safe, satisfying and fulfilling visitor experiences ? Environmental and cultural protection Environmental and culture protection is one of the most important characteristics in sustainable tourism. It is the general ideal and purpose which the sustainable tourism endeavors to be achieved. The accomplishment of sustainable tourism will be our chance to protect and rehabilitate our environment and to create ourselves an opportunity to live in better conditions.
Sustainable Tourism tries its utmost to maintain the importance of local culture and tradition. It is informatory, as it doesn’t only let tourist know about the destinations but also it helps locals knowing about the culture and civilisation of tourists. It also seeks deeper involvement of locals, which provide local people an opportunity and make their living. Above all, Sustainable Tourism stresses pointedly upon integrity of the tourist places. (http://www. ecoindia. com) • reduced pollution and degradation of the global and local environment • tourism that maintains and strengthens biodiversity
• tourism that maintains and enriches our unique and diverse culture Introducing Scotland (Source: http://www. simplyscottish. com) Millions of people visit the country of Scotland every year, and over five million are proud to call it home. Scotland is an ancient land with a history that is rich and complex. Vital Status: Capital City: Edinburgh Population: 5. 5 million Largest City: Glasgow Currency: Scottish Pounds Sterling Government: Scottish Executive, Scottish Parliament Geography and Regions: Scotland can be divided into several distinct geographical regions in three main areas – The Highlands, The Lowlands, and The Islands.
Each region has its own colorful history and culture. The geography of Scotland is richly varied, from towering mountains like Ben Nevis and the Cuillins to fertile border valleys, rivers, lochs, and more. The Hebridean Islands on the west coast along with Orkney and the Shetland Isles to the north are some of the most beautiful parts of Scotland, all at once desolate, wild, rugged, and breathtaking. Then there’s the sophisticated beauty and allure of Scotland’s capital city, Edinburgh, and the largest city in Scotland, Glasgow, along with the historical towns of St.
Andrews and Stirling, the vibrant cities of Aberdeen, Dundee, Perth, Inverness, and more. Sustainable tourism in Scotland (Source: A Future Foundation Report for the 2025 Scenario; Planning Group) Tourism is a key driver of economic activity across Scotland. Tourism is Scotland’s fourth largest employer, employing 9% of the workforce. Projections from the World Tourism Organisation suggest that the numbers of foreign visitors to Scotland is predicted to increase to as many as 20 million by 2025, bringing the ratio of annual tourists to local population close to 4:1.
By any measure of comparison, this is exceptionally high, and will raise substantial challenges relating to congestion, overcrowding and the environmental sustainability of the tourism industry. This is a particular cause for concern not just in Scotland but for the rest of the world, in light of the increase in popularity of more authentic nature-based holidays. Take into account the need for sustainable development and the significance of the tourist industry in Scotland; sustainable tourism can play a critical role in Scotland’s future.
At one level, sustainable tourism in Scotland can help secure a future for the local producer, pub or post office or the bus network in a fragile, rural or island community. At another, it can help drive regeneration and deepen visitors understanding of their destination and their place within it. Tourism businesses that sell local produce not only support other local businesses but also help maintain the very environment that the visitors come for. Clearly, tourism has the potential to contribute significantly to a comprehensive, cross – sectoral approach to sustainable development in Scotland.
According to implement statistics the most important factors in determining the choice of Scotland as a holiday are: • The scenery • The natural environment • The number of things to see and do • The attitude of the local people Not only are these factors important in encouraging people to come to Scotland but also in recommending holidays to others via word of mouth, a key factor in sustainable tourism. After having visited Scotland, 86% of respondents who had taken a wildlife break in the last 12 months found their holiday was good or better than they had expected and 90% would recommend Scotland as a wildlife destination to others.
On the whole, tourists are very pleased with their stay in Scotland with almost all claiming they are either very or quite satisfied with their holiday. In addition, 96% have their expectations exceeded and 97% are quite or very likely to recommend their holiday experience to others. (Source: Led research by Scottish government) What are the key challenges of Scottish tourism? Research recently carried out by the Scottish Centre of Tourism (SCoT), one of the key commercial and research centres at Aberdeen’s Robert Gordon
University, has found the vital need to reposition Scottish tourism within a collaborative rather than competitive environment if it’s to see an upturn in the industry. “At present too many tourism stakeholders within Scotland work independently of each other, competing rather than complementing one another” says Andrew Martin Director of SCoT. “Not only should Scotland’s tourist industry be working in collaboration, there is also a need to understand that our competitors for discretionary leisure spend are not each other but other destinations out with Scotland, white goods and audio visual equipment.
” The research suggests that by offering a full Scottish experience on arrival: through from airport services to accommodation, retail, car hire and attractions, and by working symbiotically, it can maximises the impact onto the industry and thus the economy. “Bringing enlightened organisations together will result in increased knowledge along with a sharing of best practise and innovation” continues Andrew Martin. “This innovative approach would have a knock on effect of increasing networking and mentoring opportunities, and collaborative marketing initiatives being undertaken region-wide.
The driver is the shared need to increase the economic value of tourism to Scotland. ” An example of this collaboration is an initiative by the Aberdeen Hotels Association (AHA); a private sector led initiative supported by the University, Scottish Enterprise Grampian which has launched a website bringing together the best of hospitality and tourism in the area (www. aberdeenhotels. org). The site includes quality hotels, golfing breaks and destinations, shopping, and information on the World Famous Malt Whisky Trail and castle trails, and as well as other recommended tourist destinations.
Andrew Martin said, “The AHA is committed to furthering standards of excellence in the Grampian region and this ethos is fundamental to the purpose of the website. It is imperative we work together within the industry and explore new marketing methods such as the web to increase business within Grampian. In an industry which is in need of an economic boost, the AHA aims to grow the leisure tourist market through a is commitment to furthering standards of excellence in hospitality and offering a high quality service.
” The website creates one central point which can be accessed world-wide, and where bookings can be made direct, a service which has not previously been available to the Association – giving the customer reassurance that their booking has been made through a reputable organisation. Providing links to other leisure activities such as golf produces a win-win situation, with marketing opportunities mutually available on respective partner sites. By using the web to reach customers not previously accessible, international markets are opened up as the AHA targets countries such as Norway and Ireland to widen its current customer base.
The website is in its initial stages, and will be developed to bring together other hotel associations in Scotland in a joint national venture. The domain name hotelsinscotland. com has now been bought to allow this development. The recent research undertaken by SCoT concluded that it is essential to provide practical solutions, together with more strategic creative opportunities to rejuvenate the Scottish economy and specifically rural areas which rely heavily on tourism for their survival.
While the tourism and hospitality industry experience severe staffing shortages, and as Scotland is looking to tourism for economic regeneration, a premier product and experience must be provided that is worthy of a premier price. To provide a quality service however, staffing problem must be addressed. • Perception It is imperative that the tourism industry is made a”career of choice”. Changing the current perception will take time, but there are opportunities to directly target schools, both primary and secondary, to raise awareness of the industry in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and benefits.
In essence, promoting and developing the positive and fun aspects of the industry. Working closely with careers advisors and guidance councillors is a means of changing the current image of the industry. By directly targeting professionals, and using ambassadors from industry, such as current students and successful graduates and prominent industry leaders, would help to overcome perceived barriers and perceptions about the hospitality industry.
A similar project is currently being run by Springboard UK and Job Centre Plus in London involving hospitality taster days for “key influencers” such as teachers, parents and careers advisors. The economic role of the tourism industry and its place within the community seems to be misunderstood, undermining its value and status. Initiatives such as “Tourism Open Days” within urban and rural locations can be spearheaded by regional organisations. It would be appropriate for local tourism partnerships to lead such initiatives to ensure emphasise on local flavour and local opportunities.
Drawing businesses together to encourage collaboration with common problems would also raise awareness of tourism as an industry and help to identify opportunities available within it. • Recruitment and Retention To address recruitment and retention challenges within the tourism industry, organisations should be encouraged to adopt the concepts of life wide and lifelong learning. Placing learning at the heart of organisations assists in providing lifelong opportunities relevant to all.
In conjunction, career and promotion opportunities must be developed and promoted to those working in the industry as well as those we are looking to attract and by making greater use of recruitment agencies currently underused, and explore wider media options such as e-recruitment particularly in rural or remote locations. Given the changes taking place in terms of workforce makeup such as ageing population and growth in the women returning to work, organisations need to be more proactive in attracting a range of applicants.
It is also crucial the industry review reward and remuneration packages to encourage longer term recruitment and retention. To engage host communities with tourism service, the adoption of the “Whistler” approach as is used in Canada is suggested. This gives employees from within the community benefits such as discounts in shops or free use of leisure facilities as a reward for participating in training. This actively encourages retention and raises standards across the area and gives tourism a real place within communities.
(Source: http://www. rgu. ac. uk) • All Keys: 1. Reducing the seasonality of demand The concentration of tourism trips in certain periods of the year has a major effect on sustainability. Not only does it reduce the viability of enterprises to maximise capacity utilisation and offer year round employment, it can also place pressure on communities and natural resources at certain times while leaving surplus capacity at others. Seasonality of demand makes it very difficult to plan and manage the provision of tourism facilities efficiently.
A process of stimulating demand at less busy times of the year, taking up spare capacity, would enable revenue from tourism to grow while putting less pressure on the environment and community. Appropriate action to strengthen the appeal of off-season visits includes: • adjusting target market selection towards less seasonal markets (e. g. business tourism, non-family segments and certain niche markets) • innovative product development, packaging, events and promotion in the off-season • promoting price differentials and incentives
• joint working between service suppliers and operators to extend opening times and cooperate on marketing and promotional activity 2. Addressing the impact of tourism transport It is estimated that tourism transport (inbound and outbound) currently accounts for 8% of CO2 equivalent emissions in the EU. Daily revelations about the advance and impact of climate change and associations with transport emissions have made this a fundamental and high profile issue for tourism. The tourism sector must respond actively and responsibly to this challenge.
The approach should seek to increase total visitor spending and economic benefit (in line with the 50% growth target) while reducing emissions resulting from this activity: • promoting carbon-offsetting schemes to travellers, with the support of operators • promoting alternative transport options (equally for the enjoyable experience they offer as well as for their low impact), • promoting Scotland to more local / domestic markets • encouraging fewer, but longer, holidays while recognising that this goes against recent market trends. 3. Minimising resource use and waste
Tourism can be a significant and, at times, profligate user of environmental resources. Much of the action required to address this challenge rests with strengthening environmental management in tourism enterprises: • minimising energy consumption and encouraging the use of renewable sources and improved technology • promoting and facilitating the reduction, reuse and recycling of materials • water quality, including the efficient treatment of sewerage, avoiding discharge into marine and river environments • reducing and managing litter • developing and using local supply chains, in particular to reduce food miles 4.
Looking after the natural and cultural heritage The quality of the natural and cultural heritage is, in most areas, fundamentally important to the generation of economic prosperity through tourism, to the quality of life of local communities and to the visitor experience. All three can benefit from: • strengthening the relationship between protected areas, biodiversity and local tourism interests • visitor management, information and interpretation, and monitoring • increasing contributions to conservation and management from visitors and tourism businesses • quality products and services
5. Enhancing quality of life for Scottish communities through tourism Tourism has significant power to change the character and prosperity of the places where it occurs. Two types of change present particular challenges and opportunities for local communities at the moment; property development associated with tourism (e. g. the proposed Trump golf course or the building of houses to be used as self-catering or second homes) and the restructuring of local economies, resulting from a decline in traditional activities.
Careful destination planning and management is required to: • maximise the proportion of income that is retained locally and other benefits to local communities • strengthen local supply chains and promote use of local produce and merchandise (e. g. craft goods), shops and other services by visitors. 6. Improving the quality of tourism jobs One of the key impacts, and benefits, that tourism has on Scotland is through the employment opportunities it offers.
To make sure that tourism brings net benefits to those it employs we need to encourage: • exchange of good practice in tourism training and HR management • integration of sustainability issues into mainstream tourism training and education • active promotion of tourism as a career. 7. Making holidays available to all Social inclusion and equity are important principles of sustainable development. It is estimated that around 40% of European citizens do not take a holiday, often due to various forms of deprivation or disability.
This challenge has strategic implications for sustainable tourism. A policy of maximising revenue from tourism without increasing volume could go against social inclusion. However, pursuing social tourism has also been shown to assist in reducing seasonality and supporting year-round employment, as many people who can be reached in this way, such as those on lower incomes, are well placed to travel outside the main season.
Relevant action includes: • raising business awareness of the size of the market • designing and adapting tourism facilities and sites to meet requirements for physical disability and sensory impairment • improving information relevant to disabled people and under-privileged groups • encouraging a broad price range in tourism facilities and experiences • pursuing specific schemes to facilitate and encourage holiday taking by people on low incomes.
(Source: www. greentourism. org. uk) Sources: Book: “Sustainable tourism management”; John Swarbrooke; 1999 Articles: “A Future Foundation Report for the 2025” Scenario; Planning Group “Scotland… towards sustainable tourism” – a statement by the Tourism and Environment Forum, March 2004 Websites: http://www. ecoindia. com; www. greentourism. org. uk; http://www. rgu. ac. uk; http://www. simplyscottish. com