Switzerland Essay, Research Paper
Switzerland is a little European state known for its beautiful,
snow-capped mountains and freedom-loving people. The Alps and the Jura
Mountains cover more than half of Switzerland. However, most of the Swiss
people live on a tableland that extends across the center of the state
between the two mountain scopes. In this part are most of
Switzerland? s capital, Bern, and largest metropolis, Zurich, are besides at that place.
The Swiss have a long tradition of freedom. About 700 old ages ago,
people in what is now cardinal Switzerland agreed to assist each other stay
free from foreign regulation. Gradually, people in nearby countries joined them
in what became to be known as the Swiss Confederation. Various Swiss
groups speak different linguistic communications. Switzerland has three functionary
linguistic communications? German, Gallic, and Italian. The Latin name for Switzerland,
Helvetia, appears on Swiss coins and postage casts.
The Swiss now show great pride in their long independency.
Switzerland has no regular ground forces, but about all the work forces receive military
developing annually. They keep their arms and uniforms at place, and can be
called up rapidly in an exigency. Local marksmanship competitions are held
In the early 1500? s, Switzerland established a policy of non taking
sides in the many wars that raged in Europe. During World Wars I and
II, Switzerland remained an island of peace. Almost all the states
around it took portion in the bloody struggles. Switzerland provided safety
for 1000s who fled from the combat, or from political
persecution. The state? s neutrality policy helped the Swiss develop valuable
banking services to people of states throughout the universe, where Bankss
are less safe. The League of Nations, the major universe organisation of
the 1920? s and 1930? s, had its central offices in the Swiss City of
Geneva. Today, many international organisations, including assorted United
States bureaus, have central offices in Geneva.
Switzerland has limited natural resources, but it is a thriving
industrial state. Using imported natural stuffs, the Swiss industry
high-quality goods including electrical equipment, machine tools, and
tickers. They besides produce chemicals, drugs, cocoa, and cheese and
other dairy merchandises.
The authorities of Switzerland is based on the Swiss Fundamental law of
1848, which was changed greatly in 1874. The Constitution establishes a
federal democracy in which political powers are divided between the
cardinal authorities and cantonal ( province ) authoritiess.
In some ways, the Swiss authorities is one of the most democratic in
the universe. Swiss citizens enjoy close control over their Torahs through
the rights of the referendum and the enterprise.
The referendum allows the people to demand a popular ballot on Torahs
passed by the legislative assembly. A ballot must be held if 50,000 people request
it. The people can so accept or blackball the jurisprudence.
The inaugural gives Swiss citizens the right to
issues before the people for a ballot. Such a ballot may coerce a alteration in
authorities policy or may amend the Constitution. An inaugural requires a
request by at least 100,000 citizens. All electors must be at least 20
old ages old.
Cantonal and local authorities. Swiss electors elect executive
councils and legislative assemblies in the Guangzhous, half-cantons, and metropoliss. The
state? s six half-cantons were originally three undivided Guangzhous. They
split into separate political units with every bit much power of self-determination
as the full Guangzhous. But each half-canton sends merely one
representative to the national legislative assembly? s Council of States, alternatively of two.
In one Guangzhou and in four of the half-cantons, the people vote by a
show of custodies at alfresco meeting called a Landsgemeinde. Similar
meetings of electors are held in the little towns and small towns.
Politicss. Switzerland has a broad scope of political parties.
However, there are few differences among the big 1s. Therefore, the
parties cooperate easy. The three largest political parties have about
an equal grade of strength. They are the Christian Democratic Party,
the Radical Democratic Party, and the Social Democratic Party.
Defense. Switzerland has a reserves ( citizens? ground forces ) alternatively of
habitue armed forces. Swiss work forces are required to get down a series of
military-training periods at the age of 20. They can be called into service
until the age of 50. Men whose wellness or work makes them unable to function
in the reserves and work forces who live out of the state must pay a particular
Even after the Swiss began to fall in forces about 700 old ages ago to
defend themselves, people from different countries kept their ain ways of
life. They defended these ways of life in the same spirit of independency
that has made Switzerland celebrated. Therefore, the Swiss still differ
greatly among themselves in linguistic communication, imposts, and traditions. These
fluctuations are evident from part to part, and even among some little
In the yesteryear, the local nationalism of the Swiss was so strong that
most of them idea of themselves as portion of their ain local country more
than of their state. They considered the Swiss of other countries about
foreign challengers, and feuds among assorted countries lasted for 100s of
old ages. But at most when their state faced danger, the Swiss stood
together as one people. Today, local nationalism has mostly been replaced
by national nationalism.
Population. Switzerland has approximately 7 million people. About 1
million of the people are nonnative. About a 3rd of the state? s
nonnative population came from Italy. Large groups of people from
France, West Germany, and Spain besides reside in Switzerland. Switzerland has
a larger per centum of nonnative occupants than any other European
state. Foreign workers have been recruited to make full freshly created
occupations, because Switzerland? s economic system has grown quicker than its domestic