Green ass and Multicultural 5/s) on the effect of the fight or flight response measured by the earth rate of the viewer? Hypothesis If the speed and the color brightness of the light is Increased, then the heart rate of the viewer will be Increased. The highest heart rate measured will be from the multicultural stimulus and the lowest will be at the black and white stimulus. (Due to the visual stimuli causing different amounts of adrenaline being released from the adrenal glands, referred to as the flight or flight’ response) Background Information/ Theory The Heart is a vital organ within the human body (C.
J. College). Its main purpose within he human body is to pump blood through the entire human body (Seymour, 2007). Blood contains white and red blood cells, which the human body uses for different reasons (Seymour, 2007). As the heart is quiet a small organ In relation to the body size, it would be difficult for just the heart to pump all the blood around the body, but, within many different places within the human body, there are smaller organs called pulses which helps push the blood through the veins (Seymour, 2007).
These pulses are completely In sync with the heart, beating at the same rate at which the heart does (Seymour, 2007). The Pulses are In some locations (specifically the wrist) where they are very close to the skin, thus enabling a measurement of the heart rate to be possible (Race, 2007). Heart rate can be measured by many different methods, but the popular way of measuring heart rate Is with a heart rate monitor strapped to the wrist (Kumar, Bass, & Faust, 2005). Light, in which humans are able to perceive, is referred to as “visible light” which has sun in which Earth orbits (ICE, 1987).
The reason behind Earth having so many colors is due to the absorption spectrum, where different colored materials absorb ND radiate different wavelengths, for example, the color blue absorbs the suns light at wavelengths of Mann-?Mann and radiates the rest of the light shined upon (Loafer, 2013). When humans are placed in different situations where they have to make an immediate decision, the heart rate of the particular individual will increase due to the adrenalin secreted from the adrenal glands within the body, this is referred to as the fight or flight response (C. J. College).
This response is caused by the visual perception of the person experiencing the situation and their reaction to it (C. J. College). Some types of lights, when flashed in a certain tempo, can cause this response to occur in a slight amount (Kumar, Bass, & Faust, 2005). This is due to certain colors having a connection to certain emotions that the person has experienced (Kumar, Bass, & Faust, 2005). From this information, I have gathered the hypothesis of this investigation “If the speed and the color brightness of the light is increased, then the heart rate of the viewer will be increased”.
Table 1. Variables for Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Investigation Type of Variable Variable Identified Independent The types of light being projected to the viewers. The lights have different colors and different flashing speeds (measured in flashed per second (e. G. 1 Is)). (White Los (control), White and Black 1 Is, Blue 2/s, Red 3/s, Green ass and Multicultural 5/s) Dependent The heart rate of the viewer after they have viewed the visual stimuli measured using a heart rate monitor. Controlled The light source of the visual stimuli.
The time of day that the experiment is conducted on. The method of measuring heart rate of the group of viewers. The colors of light being projected to the viewers for the visual stimuli. The visual stimuli duration. The speed of light flash (flashes per second). The type of light of the visual stimuli. The temperature of the room were the experiment will be conducted. Uncontrolled Previous factors that may alter heart rate, this includes any activities the viewer may have done previous to entering the experiment.
Any heart conditions the viewer may have that could affect their reaction to the visual stimuli. As heat increases heart rate, the clothing that the viewer chooses to wear into the experiment will be unaltered. 1. 2 Controlling Variables Treatment of Controlled Variables Variables Control Treatment The Light Source Conduct the experiment using only the projector in the experimentation room as the light source for the visual stimuli. Method of Measuring Heart Rate Only measure heart rates using a heart rate monitor. This will be given to the viewers prior to entering the experiment.
The Experimentation Room Temperature The experiment is to be conducted within a room with a constant temperature of ICC. This temperature will be kept constant through the use of an air conditioner. Environmental Factors Conduct experiment in the same room (Bal 52) at all times. The Duration of the Visual Stimuli Each trial of flashing lights are to be kept at a 45 second duration. Control Experiment The control for this experiment was a plain white light. For the control experiment for this investigation, the white light had no flashes (remained a constant solid light for 45 seconds).
To keep the control experiment the same as all the other experiments, the same controlled variables were implemented. To ensure this experiment did not have any environmental factor that could potentially affect the conduction of the experiment, the control experiment remained in the same room that all the experiments were conducted within. Participants Within this experiment, the participants involved were in the ages of 14 to 17 and there will be at minimum 10 participants. The participants were both female and male.
The participants had a variety of nationalities. The target population of this experiment was participants between the ages of 14 to 17 and females and males of varied nationalities. 1. 3 Experimental Method Materials Table 3 The Materials Used Within the Conduction of the Experiment of Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Apparatus Required Quantity Projector Computer with Visual Stimuli and Microsoft Excel Chairs 10 Risk Assessment Refer to Appendix A – SHAHS STUDENT ACTIVITY RISK ASSESSMENT and PARA ORDER FORM. Ethics: Human research guidelines were followed.
Before the experiment, all the participants were given a consent form that clearly stated: any information about the study is obtainable, their rights within the experiment and the availability to withdraw any information they have included within the experiment. These consent forms were approved by the biology teacher and the schools principal prior to the experiment. Method 1 . Turn on the air conditioning to the experimentation room for ICC. 2. Power on the Projector. 3. Power on the computer. 4. Connect the computer to the projector. 5.
On the computer, open the visual stimuli, but don’t play it. 6. Open a new Microsoft excel spread sheet. 7. Invite the 10 participants in. 8. Seat the participants in no random order. 9. Initiate briefing statement 10. Equip the participants with their heart rate monitors and test that they are working correctly. 1 1 . Start the first visual stimulus of the experiment (control, White O flashes per second). 12. After the visual stimulus is finished, gather all of the heart rates again. 13. Place the new heart rates data within the spread sheet. 14.
Repeat until all of the visual stimuli (White Los (control), White and Black Xi’s, Blue 2/s, Red 3/s, Green ass and Multicultural 5/s) have been played in front of the participants and all of the heart rates of the participants are collected. 15. Initiate debriefing statement. Diagram Diagram 1: Experimental Set up for Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Investigation. Visual Stimulus – The visual stimulus that will be played to the participants involved within this investigation are White Los (control), White and Black Xi’s, Blue 2/s, Red 3/s, Green ass and Multicultural 5/s.
Where the light flashes are measured in flashes per second, for example, the third trial of this experiment, blue, will have two flashes of blue light per second. Heart Rate Monitor – The heart rate monitor will be used within the experiment as the measurement of the heart rate of the participant. The data Participant – The participants involved within this experiment will be within the age group of 14-17 and will be students within Queensland Academy for Health Sciences. 2 Data Collecting and Processing 2. 1 Recording Raw Data Quantitative Data Table 4: Experimental Raw Data for Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Qualitative Raw Data
Picture 1: Qualitative Observations During the Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Experiment The photo above was taken during the briefing statement of the experiment, prior to the first visual stimulus. Black boxes have been used to keep the participants anonymous. 2. 2 Processing Raw Data Statistical Processing – Calculations Average To determine the average of the sets of data recorded, the following calculations were needed to be made. The sum of the change of heart rate for the repeats of the trials divided by the number of results. E. G. / n +68)/ 10 This data was obtained from Trial 1 (control) of this experiment. 0. 8 Standard Deviation is a statistical measure of the precision for a series of repetitive measurements. It is an effective way to show uncertainty in an average taken from a set of results. Standard Deviation has been used to show error bars on the graphed results. S = standard deviation x = each individual value = mean of all measurements = deviation from mean = degrees of freedom These calculations were made using Microsoft excel. The above picture is the standard deviation formula for the control trial of this experiment. All data was processed using this formula. . 3 Presenting Processed Data Results Table Table 5: Processed Data for Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate Conditions Mean Heart Rate (BPML В± 1. 0) Standard Deviation Control White Los 70. 8 2. 485513584 Black and White Xi’s 79. 6 1 . 712697677 Blue 75. 3 Red 81 . 5 2. 549509757 Green ass 82. 2 1 . 813529401 Multicultural ass 76. 9 2. 558211181 Results Graph Graph 1: The Relationship Between Different Visual Stimuli and Heart Rate This graph is a representation of the relationship between heart rate and different types of visual stimuli (of many flashing colors).
As the experiment contained a total of 6 trails, the trail number 1 within this graph is a representation of the control of his investigation. The data presented shows that the highest average heart rate was recorded after watching the fourth (trial number 5) trial of this investigation. This graph also showed that the increase of flashing colors has no effect on heart rate. This is evident in the graph with trial numbers 1, 3 and 6 as these have a lower average heart rate recording. A further explanation of this trend will be discussed within the conclusion aspect of this investigation report.
Small error bars indicate a small standard deviation and therefore greater degree of precision, whereas, large error bars indicates a large standard deviation / low degree of precision. 3. Conclusion and Evaluation 3. 1 Conclusion Conclusion Statement The focus question for this investigation is as follows: “What is the effect of a timed visual stimuli (45 seconds), in the form of flashing colored lights (White Los (control), White and Black 1 Is, Blue 2/s, Red 3/s, Green ass and Multicultural 5/s) on the effect of the fight or flights response on the heart rate of the viewer? From the data gained within this investigation, it is evident to say that there is, to some extent, a allegations between visual stimuli and heart rate However, the data from this experiment does make the hypothesis of this experiment: “If the speed and the color brightness of the light is increased, then the heart rate of the viewer will be and the lowest will be at the black and white stimulus (due to flight or fight response) prove to be incorrect. Conclusion Explanation The results formed from this investigation show that in an extent there is a relationship between visual stimuli and heart rate.
Within graph 1 of this investigation report, the line of best fit has a positive trend. This is a visual representation of overall trend of the averaged data. As this representation is positive, it is evident to say that there is a relationship. It is also evident to say that the colors used within this experiment for the visual stimuli had a large effect on the heart rate. This is evident within table 5 where trial numbers 2 and 5 had data that was significantly lower from the rest of the data. This data is visually represented in graph 1 of this investigation report (numbers 3 and 6 on the graph).
The cause for the increase in heart rate is due to the fight or flight response after exposure to the visual stimuli. The fight or flight response is a reaction to an external stimuli, this can be in the visual, auditory or sensory (touch) form (Martin, 2013). From this response, the body releases adrenaline, which is a hormone that increases the heart rate very rapidly (Martin, 2013). Within this investigation, the fight or flight response is present as the visual stimuli contains many colors that can affect the emotions of the viewer.
The types of colors used within the experiment have affected the heart rate collected within the experiment of this investigation. This can be noticed within rape 1 of this experiment where the data’s average heart rates are fluctuating. A low point observed in graph 1 is trial number 3, which involved a blue light to be flashed two times per second for forty-five seconds. The color blue has an effect on human emotions as it can be related to sad and depressing themes, causing the participants in this experiment to feel a negative emotion when exposed to this stimuli (C. J.
College). A negative emotion can cause a lowered heart rate (Mandrill, 2011). This theory can also be Justified with the opposite emotion; anger, which was used in this experiment s anger is associated with the color red (trial 3 of the experiment and number 4 on graph 1) (Mandrill, 2011). This trial had the second highest reading of the investigation, which shows the correlation between the color red and angers effect on heart rate. However, the highest recorded average heart rate was recorded after the fourth trial of this experiment with an average heart rate of 82. Bomb.
This trial involved a green flashing light that was flashed four times per second. The color green has an affect on the heart rate as it correlates to fast pace themes, as a green eight is a common indicator for the commencing of many things (Mandrill, 2011). Examples of greens lights that we are exposed too everyday are: traffic lights, electrical appliances and external media such as videotapes. As these green lights are exposed to the average person everyday numerous times it is a learned behavior to react quickly to it, thus giving a higher heart rate measurement (C. J. College). Rates measured.
This is evident within graph 1 where, as the data points increased, so did the number of flashes per second. As can be observed, the heart rates measured don’t increase with the flashes per second. This is most observable with number 6 on graph 1 . This point represented trial number 5 which contained the colors: red blue green purple and white all flashing within a second, had one of the lowest averages in the graph. This is due to the brain not having enough time to react to the stimuli and thus causing very little reaction to the adrenaline release equaling small heart rate increase from control (Martin, 2013) and (Mandrill, 2011).
Upon observations of the data tables and graphs, one might observe the data for the red 3 flashes per second stimulus (trial 3 and number 4 on graph) and green 4 lashes per second (trial 4 and number 5 on graph) to be close in numerical terms. This may be caused by possible errors within the conduction of the experiment and will be discussed later on within the report in the reliability section. 3. 2 Evaluating Procedures Reliability The experiment that took place can be portrayed as valid data as many factors were made to keep accuracy and precision of the data at the most highest capability.
Some of these factors include increased number of repetition of the trials. This was done by using 10 participants, rather than using 3. An increased number of petition of the trials was a necessity as repeating the visual stimulus to a smaller group of participants numerous times would have been both boring to the participants, causing inaccurate data and will drag out the experiment by an extra few minutes, which isn’t appealing to the participants.
By using more trials (10 rather than the usual 5) within the experiment, there is less of a chance for a significant error to occur within conduction. Although the experiment has ten repeats of each trial one more trial was added for a comparison within the processing data aspect of the experiment. This comparative trial is called the control trial because it is in a controlled environment. Within the set of data acquired from the experiment, a very noticeable data point stands out form the rest. This data being the standard deviation from the graph 1.
The third trial on the graph (blue 2 flashes per second) has a large standard deviation; this is due to the data collected from the investigation having a wide range. The cause of a high standard deviation may also be from being incorrectly measured or from the heart rate monitors being incorrectly used within conduction on the experiment. Limitations and Weaknesses Throughout the conduction and data processing aspects of this experiment, the conductors observed many significant limitations. Such observations have been made into a table for organizational purposes.
Limitation Observed Evidence of Limitation Possible Solution Setting of the Experiment As the classroom was quite small and compact, a lot of the participants got distracted whilst watching the stimulus due to their friends being close to them and the availability of looking away from the stimulus. Have each participant an individual viewing window that is free from possible distractions, such as friends or other callousness classroom items Time Taken to Measure the Heart Rate After the stimulus was presented to the participants, it was their role to pump the heart rate monitors enough so that an accurate reading could be read.
Some participants started to pump the heart rate monitor a few seconds after the stimulus had finished, this may have caused an inaccurate reading as after the stimulus has finished, the heart rate will lower to adapt to the original environment. Whilst the stimulus is taking place, have the heart rate monitored pumped so that when the stimulus was finished the heart rate could be measured instantaneously. Social Aspects As the experiment was conducted within a group environment, there is a social factor in the heart rate of the participants.
Conduct the experiment individually with the participants to minimalism the social factor on the heart rate. Previous Activities Affecting Heart Rate The experiment was conducted late afternoon (2 pm) during a regular school day. This means that the participants could have done many things throughout the day that could have potentially affected their heart rate prior to entering the experiment thus affecting the data within the experiment. Have the participants undergo a alleging activity for 5 minutes prior to visual stimuli of the investigation.
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