The instrument used for the data collection in this study is “Transactional Styles Inventory – Managers (TSI – M)” It helps the respondents examine their interaction and transactional styles. Transactional Analysis concepts are quite popular and two basic concepts can be used to understand interaction styles, the Ego States and the Existential positions. Transactional Analysis (TA), originated and developed by Eric Berne, is a new theory of personality structure and a method of treatment through which one can become aware of problems in one’s own personality and thereby have a better control over interpersonal relationships.
There are some ideas and theories in the Western version of TA, which are not in exact tune with the Oriental mind. An ego-State is defined as a coherent system of: oThoughts, oFeelings, and oBehaviors Each person involved in transactions with others has three ego states: Fig. Some functions of the Parent Ego-State are: oTo maintain values that have been thoughtfully evaluated and found to be worth keeping. To test and acquire new values that reflects basic dignity and generates growth and change for the person. oTo initiate, to start, to be first, to care, to risk for others etc
Some functions of the Adult Ego-State are: oTo maintain a rational and thoughtful attitude by using enough information, maintaining a wide perspective, and thereby avoiding snap judgments, blame and guilt. oTo get, to organize, and to use accurate information to protect the Child from illusion, prejudice, hate, violence, bigotry, intolerance, discrimination, and needless fear. Some functions of the Child Ego-State are: oTo enjoy the goods things that life offers. To deal with the suffering that life presents with dignity and courage. oIn childhood – to do what they ave to do to thrive in good times, survive in bad times—and make the best of that until they are on their own and can make their own changes. oIn adulthood- to change surviving to thriving by examination of their childhood – keep the best – dump the rest draw upon inner strength of spirit and integrity. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS Transactional Analysis is basically the study of how people take on certain behaviors, either by accident or from their early caretakers or authority figures and then continues to play them out in their adult lives.
It is a model for people to use to work towards ‘autonomy’, a place from where they can choose to live the way they want to and not to be still acting as if they are controlled by past events or messages. Transactional Analysis then is a modern psychotherapy model, which has its own particular language and theory of personality. It states that the person transacts with a person in certain ways, structures their time between life and death in a particular way, plays their own particular games and lives out their own unique script.
An understanding of Transactional Analysis can give hope for the person in that they can change their script and choose the way they want to re-write their own life plan, without hanging on to inappropriate behaviors of the past. Each ego state is important. However, the functional or dysfunctional role of these ego states depends on the general life position a person takes. Harris (Pareek, 2002) has conceptualized four primary existential or life positions: I’m OK — you’re OK. I’m not OK — you’re OK.
I’m OK — you’re not OK. I’m not OK —you’re not OK. James (ibid) has suggested that, in general, the concepts of OK and not OK can be used to understand how bosses behave. Avary (ibid) has similarly proposed OK and not OK dimensions of the six ego states; and Savorgnan (ibid) has discussed the OK and not OK dimensions of the two parent ego states. The figure below shows the four life positions in terms of interaction styles. Fig. The four general interaction styles can be elaborated by combining them with the ego states.
Two dimensions of the parent ego state (critical or regulation and nurturing), three of the child ego state (adaptive, reactive and free or creative) and the adult ego state are used. All three-ego states and the sub-ego states are important and perform distinct functions. Each ego state meets a basic need. Avary (ibid) has proposed that six basic needs are met by the six ego states, which can be OK or not OK: Fig.? -Supportive style: In this style, support is provided when needed. James uses the term supportive coaches for managers with this style.
They encourage their subordinates and provide the necessary conditions for continuous improvement. Consultants in this style show patience in learning about the problems of their client and have empathy with them. -Sulking style: People with this style keep their negative feelings to themselves, find it difficult to share them, and avoid meeting people if they have not been able to fulfill their part of the contract. Instead of confronting problems, a person with this style avoids them and feels bad about the situation, but does not express these feelings openly. Normative style: These managers are interested in developing proper norms of behaviors for their subordinates and in helping them understand why some norms are more important than others. A consultant with this style not only helps clients solve a specific problem, he helps them develop ways of approaching a problem and raises questions about relevant values. Such a consultant emphasizes the development of a general approach to the problem. Trainers with this style influence participants through modeling behavior.
They also raise questions about the appropriateness of some aspects of behavior and work. -Aggressive style: People with this style are fighters. They may fight for their subordinates, clients of participants or for their ideas and suggestions, hoping that this will help them achieve desired results. Their aggressiveness, however, makes people avoid them and not take them seriously. -Problem-solving style: In this style the manager is concerned with solving problems, but does not see them as being merely confined to the task. For such persons, problems have various dimensions.
The focus of the manager, consultant trainer is on dealing with and finding solutions to problems. In this process they solicit the help of and involve subordinates, clients, trainees and participants. -Bohemian style: The creative child is active in this style. The person has lots of ideas and is impatient with current practices. The person is less concerned with how the new ideas work than with the ideas themselves. Such people are nonconformists and enjoy experimenting with new approaches, primarily for fun. They rarely allow one idea or practice to stabilize before going on to another. Resilient style: In this style persons show creative adaptability— learning from others, accepting others’ ideas and changing their approach when required. -Rescuing style: Such a style indicates a dependency relationship in which the manager, trainer or consultant perceives his or her main role as rescuing the subordinate, participant, trainee or client, who is seen as being incapable of taking care of him or herself. Another characteristic of this style is that support is provided conditionally, contingent on deference to the provider.
The general attitude is one of superiority; the person’s support constantly reminds others of their dependence. Obviously, this style does not help other people to become independent and to act by themselves. -Assertive style: In this style the person is concerned with the exploration of a problem. Such persons confront the organization to get things done for their subordinates or clients. They are more concerned with confronting problems than with confronting others for the sake of confrontation. A consultant with this style may also confront the client in order to help explore various dimensions.
Such people are frank and open, but also perceptive and sensitive. They respect the feelings of others. -Prescriptive style: People with this style are critical of the behavior of the others; they develop rules and regulations and impose them on others. Managers using this style make quick judgments and insist that all subordinates follow certain norms. A consultant may give advice and prescribe solutions for clients rather than help clients work out alternative solutions. -Innovative style: Innovators are enthusiastic about new ideas and approaches and enthuse others, too.
Unlike the bohemian, they pay enough attention to nurturing their ideas so that they result in concrete action and become internalized in the system. -Task-obsessive style: People with this style are more concerned with the task. Matters not directly related to the task are ignored; they are not concerned with feelings and in fact fail to recognize them since they do not perceive them as related to the task. They attempt to function like computers. A task-obsessive trainer is insensitive to the emotional needs, personal problems and apprehensions of participants.