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Unit 4 Chapter 12- The spine

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    Which of these is not part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
    spinal cord
    In a spinal reflex, information flows from __________ to __________ to __________.
    PNS; CNS; PNS
    The __________ is part of the CNS and the __________ is part of the PNS.
    spinal cord; spinal nerve
    The spinal cord is part of the
    central nervous system.
    The spinal cord consists of __________ segments, each associated with two pairs of nerve roots.
    31
    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates within the __________.
    subarachnoid space
    The spinal cord stops elongating at about __________ years of age.
    4
    The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.
    The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.
    cell bodies of unipolar neurons
    The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
    filum terminale
    Spinal nerves are
    both sensory and motor.
    The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
    31
    The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
    cell bodies of sensory neurons.
    The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
    axons of sensory neurons.
    The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
    axons of motor neurons.
    The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
    dura mater.
    After age ________ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
    4
    If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
    sensory input would be blocked.
    The subdural space lies between
    the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
    The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
    pia mater.
    A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
    spinal nerve.
    In meningitis,
    All of the answers are correct.
    Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
    All of the answers are correct.
    Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
    subarachnoid space.
    The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
    4 years.
    The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
    spinal meninges.
    Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
    pia mater.
    Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
    subarachnoid space.
    In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
    L1.
    Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
    loss of sensation in his torso
    The gray horns of the spinal cord contain __________.
    The gray horns contain all of these elements.
    The CSF is confined between the __________ and the __________.
    pia mater; arachnoid mater
    The six projections from the gray matter seen in cross-sections of the spinal cord are called __________.
    horns
    Which of these is absent in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
    myelinated axons
    The __________ gray horns contain sensory nuclei.
    dorsal
    The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
    myelinated and unmyelinated axons.
    The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
    nerve cell bodies.
    The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
    sensory nuclei.
    The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
    somatic motor nuclei.
    Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
    white columns.
    In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
    columns.
    The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
    horns.
    Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
    gray commissures.
    The white matter of the spinal cord contains
    bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
    Identify the structure labeled “1.”
    posterior white column
    Identify the structure labeled “4.”
    posterior gray horn
    Identify the structure labeled “10.”
    anterior gray commissure
    What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
    somatic sensory receiving
    What is the function of the structure labeled “14”?
    control of visceral effectors
    Where do somatic motor neurons reside?
    15
    Where are the white columns of the spinal cord?
    1,2,3
    Which structure is indicated by the arrow?
    ventral root
    Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing to the upper right purple colored thing)
    somatic sensory nuclei
    Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at far left fallopian tube)
    dorsal root ganglion
    Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at the upper left grayish orange butterfly wing)
    posterior gray horns
    Nerve cells (neurons) that control peripheral effectors are known as __________.
    motor neurons
    Neural circuits occur in all of these patterns except __________.
    multipolar
    The most abundant category of neurons is __________.
    interneurons
    Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following, except
    multipolar.
    What type of neural circuit is indicated by the arrow?
    serial
    What type of neural circuit is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at e)
    reverberation
    Which of the following is the LEAST likely to be structurally affected if spina bifida develops in a fetus?
    laminae of thoracic vertebrae
    What characteristic does a spinocerebellar tract neuron share with a sensory neuron originating in the quadriceps femoris?
    Both neurons carry afferent information.
    The fiber tracts indicated by the letter C will terminate in the __________.
    cerebellum
    Which of the following describes the nerve fibers indicated by the letter A?
    first-order sensory neurons
    Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons at A located?
    in the dorsal root ganglion
    What function is most closely associated with the spinal cord tract indicated by the letter C?
    coordination of skeletal muscle movements
    The fiber tracts indicated by the letter D will terminate in the __________.
    thalamus
    The pathways indicated in the figure pass from the cerebral cortex through the __________ before entering the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain.
    internal capsule
    Most of the descending fibers indicated in this figure cross over (decussate) to the opposite side of the body in which of the following?
    medulla oblongata
    The descending fibers in the figure provide for which of the following functions?
    voluntary control of skeletal muscle
    Which of the following is NOT a feature of the major spinal cord tracts (pathways)?
    memory
    Select the true statement regarding first-order neurons.
    First-order neuron cell bodies reside in a ganglion.
    Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
    carry information about muscle or tendon stretch to the cerebellum
    Neural tracts that convey information to the brain concerning temperature and pain would be ________.
    lateral spinothalamic
    Important nuclei of the indirect (multineuronal) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.
    vestibular nuclei
    Second-order neurons of ascending pathways that contribute to sensory perception terminate in the ________.
    thalamus
    Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over (decussate) from one side of the body to the other.
    True
    Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
    pyramidal and corticospinal
    What part of the spinal cord represents an increase in cell body mass for upper limb control?
    cervical enlargement
    Which of the following statements is correct concerning the spinal cord?
    Spinal nerves have mixed motor and sensory function.
    Cell bodies of first order sensory neurons are located in ________.
    the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
    The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
    myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
    An individual accidentally transected (cut across) the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
    paraplegia
    Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
    upper motor neurons
    Interneurons receiving input from sensory neurons are located in the ________.
    dorsal (posterior) horn
    Cell bodies of somatic lower motor neurons are located in the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord.
    T
    The adult spinal cord ends between the level L1 and L2 of the vertebral column.
    T
    Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Why?
    When the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection.

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