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Unit 4 Chapter 12- The spine

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Which of these is not part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
spinal cord
In a spinal reflex, information flows from __________ to __________ to __________.
PNS; CNS; PNS
The __________ is part of the CNS and the __________ is part of the PNS.
spinal cord; spinal nerve
The spinal cord is part of the
central nervous system.
The spinal cord consists of __________ segments, each associated with two pairs of nerve roots.
31
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates within the __________.
subarachnoid space
The spinal cord stops elongating at about __________ years of age.

4
The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.
The dorsal root ganglia consist mainly of __________.
cell bodies of unipolar neurons
The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
filum terminale
Spinal nerves are
both sensory and motor.
The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
31
The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
cell bodies of sensory neurons.
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The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of sensory neurons.
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
axons of motor neurons.
The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
dura mater.
After age ________ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
4
If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
sensory input would be blocked.
The subdural space lies between
the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
pia mater.
A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
spinal nerve.
In meningitis,
All of the answers are correct.
Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
All of the answers are correct.
Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
subarachnoid space.
The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
4 years.
The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
spinal meninges.
Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
pia mater.
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
subarachnoid space.
In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
L1.
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
loss of sensation in his torso
The gray horns of the spinal cord contain __________.
The gray horns contain all of these elements.
The CSF is confined between the __________ and the __________.
pia mater; arachnoid mater
The six projections from the gray matter seen in cross-sections of the spinal cord are called __________.
horns
Which of these is absent in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
myelinated axons
The __________ gray horns contain sensory nuclei.
dorsal
The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
myelinated and unmyelinated axons.
The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
nerve cell bodies.
The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
sensory nuclei.
The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
somatic motor nuclei.
Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
white columns.
In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
columns.
The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
horns.
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
gray commissures.
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
Identify the structure labeled “1.”
posterior white column
Identify the structure labeled “4.”
posterior gray horn
Identify the structure labeled “10.”
anterior gray commissure
What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
somatic sensory receiving
What is the function of the structure labeled “14”?
control of visceral effectors
Where do somatic motor neurons reside?
15
Where are the white columns of the spinal cord?
1,2,3
Which structure is indicated by the arrow?
ventral root
Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing to the upper right purple colored thing)
somatic sensory nuclei
Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at far left fallopian tube)
dorsal root ganglion
Which structure is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at the upper left grayish orange butterfly wing)
posterior gray horns
Nerve cells (neurons) that control peripheral effectors are known as __________.
motor neurons
Neural circuits occur in all of these patterns except __________.
multipolar
The most abundant category of neurons is __________.
interneurons
Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following, except
multipolar.
What type of neural circuit is indicated by the arrow?
serial
What type of neural circuit is indicated by the arrow? (arrow pointing at e)
reverberation
Which of the following is the LEAST likely to be structurally affected if spina bifida develops in a fetus?
laminae of thoracic vertebrae
What characteristic does a spinocerebellar tract neuron share with a sensory neuron originating in the quadriceps femoris?
Both neurons carry afferent information.
The fiber tracts indicated by the letter C will terminate in the __________.
cerebellum
Which of the following describes the nerve fibers indicated by the letter A?
first-order sensory neurons
Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons at A located?
in the dorsal root ganglion
What function is most closely associated with the spinal cord tract indicated by the letter C?
coordination of skeletal muscle movements
The fiber tracts indicated by the letter D will terminate in the __________.
thalamus
The pathways indicated in the figure pass from the cerebral cortex through the __________ before entering the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain.
internal capsule
Most of the descending fibers indicated in this figure cross over (decussate) to the opposite side of the body in which of the following?
medulla oblongata
The descending fibers in the figure provide for which of the following functions?
voluntary control of skeletal muscle
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the major spinal cord tracts (pathways)?
memory
Select the true statement regarding first-order neurons.
First-order neuron cell bodies reside in a ganglion.
Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
carry information about muscle or tendon stretch to the cerebellum
Neural tracts that convey information to the brain concerning temperature and pain would be ________.
lateral spinothalamic
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineuronal) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.
vestibular nuclei
Second-order neurons of ascending pathways that contribute to sensory perception terminate in the ________.
thalamus
Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over (decussate) from one side of the body to the other.
True
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
pyramidal and corticospinal
What part of the spinal cord represents an increase in cell body mass for upper limb control?
cervical enlargement
Which of the following statements is correct concerning the spinal cord?
Spinal nerves have mixed motor and sensory function.
Cell bodies of first order sensory neurons are located in ________.
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
An individual accidentally transected (cut across) the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
paraplegia
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
upper motor neurons
Interneurons receiving input from sensory neurons are located in the ________.
dorsal (posterior) horn
Cell bodies of somatic lower motor neurons are located in the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord.
T
The adult spinal cord ends between the level L1 and L2 of the vertebral column.
T
Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Why?
When the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection.

Cite this Unit 4 Chapter 12- The spine

Unit 4 Chapter 12- The spine. (2017, Dec 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/unit-4-chapter-12-the-spine-essay/

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