This essay is divided into six paragraphs. The first one, second one and third one will deal with the positive impact, such as quality of living, advanced knowledge and cross-culture understanding. Following paragraphs, it will move to three negative aspects, including ignore local desires, labor demand decrease and dependency increase and unequal relationship. . 1. Positive impact 2. 1. 1 Quality of living One of the main positive impacts is that volunteer tourism alleviates local poverty and facilitates local economic development by providing some development programs for host community. Some development programs introduced micro-finance and marketing and distribution of products (Sahara and McGee, 2013). For instance, Local residents can develop their own business under assistance of micro-credit project (Wearing and McGee, 2013). Beyond that, local revenue rose considerably by mean of housing the volunteers to exchange money (Sin, 2010).
Others volunteer projects involved constructing buildings and provided medical services (Guttering, 2008). In comparison with past few years, increasingly numbers of schools were constructed on a large scale in a remote village with the help of MONGO project (Guttering, 2008). Some old houses were refurnished. The capacity of kindergarten increased twofold from 25 to 50 children (Sin, 2010 p. 968). It is predicted that there will be an increase in the number of children who get an opportunity to acquire education.
Apart from that, the frequency of disease that occurred reduced and improved hygiene condition were in favor Of the extend of local lifespan (Wearing and McGee, 2013). Hence, these volunteer projects portray an essential role in helping impoverished areas to promote better quality of living. 2. 1. 2 Advanced knowledge The majority of host communities that need aid from volunteer tourist are destitute (Callahan and Thomas, 2005). Education resources are extremely limited in these needy areas because that lack enough finance to support the development of educational industry.
Therefore, overall educational level represent inferior situation on these impoverished areas. However, along with the advent of volunteer tourist, the situation of inferior education is changing. Due to the fact that the majority of volunteers from developed country own some advanced knowledge. They can pass on a great deal of basic knowledge to local resident so as to implement educational resource sharing together (Anonymous Personal Communication, 2005 cited in Sin 010). For example, volunteers holstering as teacher impart basic scientific and cultural knowledge to children in classroom.
In the research of Guttering, he found that the number of illiteracy, compared with the past, decreased considerably in Northern Vietnam (2008). Beyond that, volunteers also teach some practical skills, such as farming and fishing skills etc. To help locals boost yield (Sin, 2010). However, some volunteer programs do not have some specific skill and qualification requirements. Some participant with lower education qualification may result in academic misleading for local residents hen they impart knowledge (Wearing and McGee, 2013).
These supporting evidences suggest the role of volunteers served as teacher is a double-edged sword. Even thought they can impart some simple and basic knowledge, they are powerless or even misleading others when they are required to offer some academic suggestions. 2. 1. 3 Cross-cultural understanding. Volunteer tourism is frequently promoted as pursuing international understanding and cultural awareness. Cultural communication are does not only shorten some unnecessary conflicts but also promote better understanding be;en volunteers and local residents (International Institute or Peace, 2006 cited in Raymond and Hall, 2008).
Better understanding facilitates the generation of friendship, and also avails to eliminate cultural and social boundaries, racial problem. Consequently, volunteer tourism is an ideal way to conserve authenticity and cultural substance (Wearing 2001 cited in Raymond and Hall, 2008). Additionally, local people promote pride and recognition of their culture when they celebrate an important event (Wearing and McGee, 2013). Overall, cultural exchange strengthened affiliation between volunteers and local residents.
To a certain extent, it is great benefit Of developing world peace. 2. 2 Negative impact 2. 2. 1 Ignore local desires On the other hand, it is unavoidable that volunteer tourism has negative influence on host community. One of the negative impacts is ignoring local desires. As Wearing stated, participants are not merely stimulated by altruism, but also largely by subjective reasons, which enable them ignore local real desires (2001, cited in Calla and Thomas, 2005).
Volunteer hold hold dissimilar view in some aspects. According to the study of Gray and Campbell (2007, cited in Guttering, 2008) in a volunteer tourism sea turtle inspiration project in Costa Rica, they found that the volunteers and staff members were mainly interested in restricting development in the village on account of environment. Nevertheless, local residents hold completely different view that local accommodation owner were more interested in facilitating tourism development despite of environmental reasons.
In brief, volunteer tourists are more prone to perform work alone centered on their individual view of what is beneficial to the host community, and disagree view voiced by primary members Of host community were regarded as unimportant. 2. 2. Labor demand decrease and dependency increase Other issues related to the negative impact of volunteer tourism are that labor demand decrease as well as the increase of dependency on host community. Work opportunities were numbered in destinations (Wearing and McGee, 2013).
Volunteer tourists continually perform jobs that local residents have ability do it as well (Guttering, 2008). Volunteer tourists unaffectedly work for low pay, which action was deemed undercut competition of local labor force. As stated by Andersen (2008, cited in Guttering, 2008), this phenomenon that volunteer tourists got involved in instruction work competing with local workers took place as well in developing countries (2008, cited in Guttering, 2008). Consequently, the practices of volunteer may issue in the reduction of career opportunities in the destinations ultimately (Sahara and McGee, 2013).
Because the paid careers can be replaced by the volunteer tourists. In another aspect, the desire for volunteer tourism to take care of hosts brings about a series of interrelated issues of stimulate dependency (Raymond and Hall, 2008). Many volunteer tourists may are unaware that their behavior may generate dependency subliminally. In the research of anonymous personal communication, it found once a respondent witnessed that locals anticipated that more and more infrastructural development would be provided by volunteer project for free (2005, cited in Sin, 2010).
Many volunteers always misplaced generosity in the way of donating money, sending sweets and pens to children (Sin, 2010). This liberal behavior may encourage laziness and begging or even possibly undermine the natural of dignity of native residents in the long term. 2. 23 Unequal relationship Volunteer tourism has negative influence on developing equal relationship teen volunteer tourists and host communities (Sin, 2010). It has been criticized because of existing power hierarchy that continues to hurt hosts under certain circumstances (Raymond and Hall, 2008).
Same people are categorized into two kinds of people. One is the rich who deserve to undertake responsibilities and the other is the poor who will remain on accepting responsible action (Sin, 2010). Such assumption of responsibilities of developed world has already placed people who live in developing country in an authoritative position of power. Inversely, lacking responsibilities may enable developing country be normalized and disemboweled. Therefore, volunteer tourism is not acted as kindness or care for the time being.
A typical example from the experience of a respondent in Cambodia, she said that tourists from affluent countries have opposite viewpoint of how the living condition should be during their vocation. People from developed country tend to be more hedonism. However, local residents hold complete view (anonymous personal communication, 2005 cited in Sin, 2010). This example clearly demonstrates it is hard for the superior position of volunteer tourism to fulfill CEQ al relationship. Conclusion To sum up, volunteer tourists provides some benefits related to local quality of living, advanced knowledge and cross-cultural communication. However, it is undeniable that the drawbacks of volunteer tourism also inform considerable proportion. As a result, the emphasis of this essay is mainly arguing that its negative impact outweigh its positive impacts. This is because ignoring local desire, increasing dependency and unequal relationship. In order to overcome these drawbacks, some effective measures should be taken to benefit local communities.
The government should enhance the prevision of volunteer tourism market, and also motivate local resident to work so as to moderate the dependency or some organization should provide some training program for participants to improve skills during their gap year. As above this essay shown, there are limited evidence to explain negative impact. So, It is necessary that more research need to be done to provide a comprehensive explanation.