School of Languages, Humanities and Social Sciences Mapua Institute of Technology A Research Draft on “Vulgarized Filipino Identity: Development of Filipino Profanity” Introduction Vulgarity of Language Humans express their feelings in many different ways physically, mentally or verbally. Vulgar words, also known as swearing or cursing exists in all human languages that perform certain functions. One study found that swearing is not merely a common reaction to pain; it actually functions as a pain reliever where psychologist would advise people to swear than to hurt someone or yourself.
However, the overuse of swear words tends to diminish their beneficial effect and will result in bad moral attitude. Swearing is a widespread but underappreciated anger management technique. Significance of the Study In this society, there are different views whether overused of profanity words are good or bad according to the person’s belief. But the only thing that would clarify whether is good or bad is through extensive research work. Is it good or bad in the eyes and ears of the people in terms of overusing it? What are its purposes?
Have we learned this from others or it is already in us as a Filipino? What are the reasons why people use it? Does the Church or other religious groups ignores and agrees that it is a good thing? Does it affect the moral standards of a person using and overusing it? How many people use vulgarity of words in terms of conversation, emotions or actions? Where does one learn how to use vulgar words? Is it an appropriate and normal way to use in conversations? Where the early and ancient Filipinos have some vulgarity of their language? How do early and ancient Filipinos express themselves?
When and how did we learn how to use profane words? Is this because of the influence of other countries or is it created in a natural way? What exactly does swearing, profanity and cursing do to a person’s life? What is the true Filipino identity in terms of the manner on how to use their language? These are one of the many questions that this research will be able to answer. It is an important study to execute because today’s generations have been influenced by the used of vulgar words not just outside the community but inside a family.
It is important to know whether a person especially the young ones would affect their perceptions in life and their respective attitude towards the people. With this research, the people can realize that words are the most powerful gift that has been given to us. Words can create and thus can destroy. Plans of Research The topic will only cover a significant place wherein surveying and other forms of researching would be more efficient and easy to accumulate ideas and results. Searching for Related Research or Articles: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday * Compiling the Researched Materials and Finalizing the needed requirement before the midterm exams: Wednesday, Friday and Sunday * Completing the Research Work: after the mid term exams * Surveying and Interviewing: Free time after mid term exams Methodology This section presents the method of study, instrument used, the procedures in the preparation and administration of the instruments and the treatment of the data that will be gathered in the study.
The data that will be used in this research work will be taken from different sources namely the internet, observation of the researcher, articles, commentary, opinions, books, interviews and the selected 60 college students of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) of Intramuros, Manila in the School Year 2011-2012 who were present and was given the chance during the administration of the questionnaire and the personal interview and if time permits, professors can also be surveyed upon his/her permission.
The selected 60 respondents of MIT belonged to different department, course or degree as the researchers will be gathering data to random sampling or searching the campus for respondents who have the time to take the questionnaire or personal interview by the researcher. The 60 respondents will be divided into two to differentiate them depending on their gender or sex to have a more reliable data for the said study. The questionnaire that will be given is in multiple-choice format, checklist format and scale type which is in structured type as it best fits the type of research the researcher is studying on.
No particular qualifications or instructions were given in the selection of students to answer the questions except the randomness of the sampling and gender should be observed. The interview on the other hand will be conducted on some selected students; most likely those who have taken up the questionnaires, and professors or person who knows a thing or two about the topic that will give the researcher valuable information that cannot be found on other gathered sources. Its purpose is to clarify and understand more about the students reasoning on the questions that the interviewer will ask.
Due to the fact that the research work is a simple study or project and not needed or required in getting a degree namely thesis and dissertation, the researcher will not analyze his data through high and complex statistical methods. Only the numbers of answers will be given and analyzed by the researcher. Furthermore, only the tallying and percentage will be conducted by the researcher. The researcher believe it to be the most effective method of study due to the fact that we are still new in doing research and also it’s more easy and manageable to process.
Reviews of Related Literatures: “Vulgarized Filipino Identity: Development of Filipino Profanity” Foreign Literatures The review of the literature for this study focuses on the studies and observations conducted by different personalities that have an interest in the said subject wherein one may have gotten the information or results through experiments, surveys, interviews, opinion and many other else.
The review focuses on the swearing, profanity or cursing of the people from yesterday and tomorrow wherein it also discusses the origin, causes, effects and issues regarding the said topic. To widen the perspectives of the researcher and organize them in the process, he included the literatures and studies made outside the country as to support and compare the information with the local literatures and studies. The chosen format for this review was thematically done to connect other studies to another for the purpose of having a concrete discussion.
The chapter begins with the literatures that came from foreign countries wherein it first discusses the origin then the causes and effects as the same with the next section wherein it shows the local literatures and studies but was added with the reasons on how the Filipinos got influenced in swearing. Please be informed that some content of this chapter may not be applicable for children as it contains foul, obscene and vulgar words, Parental Guidance is advised. Profanity as what was defined by Wikipedia (2009), a free encyclopedia, is a show of disrespect, or a desecration or debasement of someone or something.
Profane language often takes the form of cursing, swearing, expletives, bad words, dirty words, nasty words, cussing, blasphemy, and irreverent, obscene, foul, indecent, strong, pejorative, disgusted choice, bad, or adult language, and sometimes even “immature” language but all of them have the same history on how they began. Studies and observations conducted by both foreign and local researchers’ shows that there have been an increasing number of Filipinos together with other people around the world especially those who have a high level of society in the usage of vulgar words.
What’s alarming is that even the children of this generation have been influenced by these bad words in such a fast manner which may be due to many factors surrounding them. Officials are beginning to worry to what will these behavior lead to the evolution of different languages. But where did it first began and originated and why do we use it? William Dwight Whitney, who, in the 1890’s, was professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at Yale, had stated that when men hadn’t developed an articulate means of communication with each other, there where already in existence certain emotionally high charged sounds and expletives.
These sounds were not invented by the humans but rather a physiologically determined to them by the shape of their chest and the form of their nasal cavities, throat and larynx. As such that it can be said that profanity is as old as man whom philologists have held that speech originated in utterances closely akin to swearing. With that in mind, the theories involving the origin of speech might be the same with swearing. He also said that ancient humans do swear as a response to the need of relieving certain emotions such as anger or annoyance and it can also be an expression of one’s feelings upon sudden shock or surprise.
Profanity were also regarded as an explanation some origin of the words and processes of language. With this, Ashley Montagu, author of the book “Anatomy of Swearing” published in 1968 and was re-published by the University of Pennsylvania Press on 2001, concluded that profanity and swearing are coeval to the birth of language; however, it cannot be regarded as a sole or even the primary stimulus to the origin of speech but at most it can be an important factor in development. Profane words have there own history of making in which some were associated with sexuality, filth, discrimination and Deities and Gods.
Although the Church disagrees to the use of profanities, still some Christians would defend these words as an opposition to “anti-intellectual”. The church stated that it is a blasphemy to use the name of God in vain but the current culture does not regard cursing as hate speeches towards God (Machado, 2010). Other profane words have reasons why they were created, some might have been created due to the evolution of language and some were created by means of insulting just like some of the swear words today wherein its content talks about women.
Cattleya (2011) asserted swear words that talks about women were made due to the thinking of the early people that men are more superior than women while Natalie Angier (2005) added that it is for the purpose of hating women because men considered women as pure but would react violently if the woman shows defects. In the present, profanities are used just like the how ancient humans used it but some other reasons were added due to the evolution of the lifestyle of the humans through the passage of time.
Forni (2002) explained that humans would commonly used profanities as a decoration or filler to what they say while other researchers would say that it is for the purpose of adding humor to the subject, used also as a way of blending with the society especially with group of friends, a form of rebellion towards their parents, other would say that it made them cool but other stated that they use it to emphasize things that they want to say which as other calls it as a sentence enhancer. SpongeBob, 2001) Due to the widespread use of these profanities in the public especially in schools, media, and literatures and in family affairs, there is an increase in the numbers of people using these words preferably to the teens and children. Timothy Jay (2001), a psychology professor at Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, suggested the rise in profanity among children is not surprising, given the general rise of the use of swearing among adults during the same time period.
One of the reasons for the uprising use of profanity among the youths might be due to the presence of group of friends; Angier (2005) studied and stated that a person will use these words more frequently if in a group of friends especially if it’s according to their sex affiliation. The child can also be influenced by the group. Floyd Trosper (2005), principal of Jimtown High School said that it started in social groups and then it isn’t corrected at home, and it inevitably follows into the school. The media has a big impact to a child’s thinking as their minds are still very immature.
Media have shown an increase in showing profane acts and words as where it leaves the child vulnerable to such behavior. Same with the idols of the society that doesn’t hesitate to use these words. (Psych Central News Editor, 2010) Even William Shakespeare had used it in his works. (Wikipedia, 2009) With this, it can be concluded that profanity have been accepted overtime not like in the past where it were condemned by the people. Thus, making it acceptable would also mean thinking of it as part of every language that is ok to say ( McMillen, 2005). But is it really a good thing to use profanity in a person’s language?
In the essay uploaded by Anil Machado (2010), profanity is the most important element that will hinder ones spiritual journey. Think the words as a vehicle, if the vehicle has any intent to hit that person, then it may be considered as an evil intent just like in words which you utter. As other bible passages that talks about the use of the tongue would state that one should always avoid swearing as it will not lead to one’s holiness and righteousness. Speech is a blessing from God; we must use it to help one another and not to push them away with our words.
We must keep our words pure, as our words convey our hearts. However, in the article created by Stephen De GreenWood (2010), researchers indicated that swearing is a natural occurrence of the human being; it is either right or wrong. But linguists are worried because they have seen that there have been general downward declines in language and are heading to a disturbing path. Language researchers stated that our behaviors reflect our words, so how we use our words will change who we are tomorrow. But experts would say that this “degradation” is in fact an evolution of the language.
On the contrary, Angier (2005) had stated in her article that some researchers are so impressed by the depth and power of strong language that they are using it as a peephole into the architecture of the brain, as a means of probing the tangled, cryptic bonds between the newer, “higher” regions of the brain in charge of intellect, reason and planning, and the older, more “bestial” neural neighborhoods that give birth to our emotions. They conducted and studied it on patients that have coprolalia, a disease that urge a person to swear a lot. They have found out that a person can be very affected if one sees and hears profane words.
Another finding is that profanities are more remembered than any other words. It was indicated that if one uses profanity towards others with no malicious intent, it can be seen as the person is very calm, peaceful and is experiencing tranquility. Men have been found to swear more frequently than woman, unless said women are in a sorority, and that university provosts swear more than librarians or the staff members of the university day care center. According to the published results in NeuroReport, a journal, reported that swearing can be used as an actual pain reliever.
Frederik Joelying’s (2009) article published in Scientific America Magazine has added the warning of Richard Stephens of Keele University in England where Stephen explained that the more we swear, the less emotionally potent the words become. And without emotion, all that is left of a swearword is the word itself, unlikely to soothe anyone’s pain. Local Literatures Ancient Filipinos are gifted with their rich culture, traditions, environment, beliefs and literatures, even though they don’t have a system of writing, it didn’t stop them in making magnificent literature through means of oral literature.
Their way of life is governed by discipline, love and religiosity. No articles or information were found regarding the use of profanities by the Ancient Filipinos but it can be compared to the study conducted by Donald Thomson (1933) in the place of Cape York wherein he studied the foul languages practiced by the tribal people there where he explained this tribes use foul languages frequently and consider it as an important part of their life. Their foul words are associated with exual body parts of a human, by male and female in quarrels and mostly when there is a fight to serve as a mockery but this were developed due to the stress of pain, fear and surprise although these are freely under other circumstances. But further studies will be conducted in term of the profanities of ancient Filipinos. In the present, modern Filipinos are now exposing their lifestyle with profanities and experts are alarmed to the increasing number of people who used this in the public. Youths in school and homes have shown usage of these profane words.
Profanities are everywhere in the mouths of the adults, TV, radio, movies coming from other countries with profane words, actors and actresses that are supposed to be a role model, in contemporary literatures preferably the work of Bob Ong which use it as a decoration to make it more appealing and the literatures of gays, music with vulgar words and parents that should be teaching good manners to their children. Even some of the government officials have shown a sign of vulgarity among their languages.
Children thought that using these words would make them cool and feel grown-up but they never used it in front of a girl, teacher, parent or adult as they still respect them. (Montemayor, 2011) Meanwhile, Cattleya (2011) explained that it is also use to add feeling when in an conversation for the person that listens will understand what was being said but others use this when they are annoyed. Cattleya (2011) had always argued the issue about bad words, children were taught not to say bad words but she didn’t understand why people have created it in the first place.
Profanity of Filipinos might have started during the pre-colonial times or the colonial times. According to JK Rubian (2010), Filipino Swear words are not pure Tagalog, it is a combination of Spanish and Filipino and others are translation of the English swear words. For example, “puta” is Spanish swear words that means whore which is used by the Filipinos. Other swear words that are derived are as follows; “hiju de puta”(Bicol), “punyeta”, “leche”, “cono” and “pendejo”.
Swear words translated from English to Filipino are as follows; paksyet (FuckShit), Tae (Shit) and puta (Bitch). Actually, Romy Cayabyab (2002) explained that Filipino language is consists of words integrated from various Philippines Dialects as well as from foreign languages. According to the research conducted by Renato Perdon based on the official dictionary issued in 1991 by the Commission on Filipino Language, there are a total of 5,120 loaned words from the Spanish Language and 1,907 words from the English language.
It was shown that the Spaniard and American Regime during their colonization have influenced our way of life specifically with the language we used nowadays. But how were we influenced? One answer might be found from the famous work of Jose Rizal, El Filibusterimo (1891). During the Spaniard Colonization, the friars were the one who led the different societies of the early Philippines. They taught the early Filipinos of many different agricultural techniques and other ideas in life together with their greatest achievement of converting Filipinos to Christians.
But according to Jose Rizal’s Book, some of the friars were harsh to “indios” or Filipinos that they even utter foul words in their faces like the one in Chapter 13 of El Filibusterismo: Ang Klase the Pisika wherein Placido were repeatedly scolded with multiple foul words by Padre Millon. Other ways that they influence other Filipinos in swearing might be the masses that were held everyday conducted by the friars, there is a possibility that some friars would say foul words during their sermons when completely irritated but no actual evidence have been found.
English swear word on the other hand might have influenced us during their occupation of the Philippines in the past. In the present, they are influencing us through their movies, music and known personality that uses foul words. (Montemayor, 2011) With the colonial mentality that the Americans gave us, we also patronize and practice their foul words together with the combination of Spanish and Tagalog swear words. It can be concluded that profanity, swearing and cursing have been a natural function of humans beings thus its origin is also natural.
But as to the stand of the Roman Catholics and religious or righteous groups that disagrees, the use of this words are very immoral and unrighteousness as it destroys the spirit of a person and lose his/her virtues in the process and as it darkens the mouth with foul words with the heart being corrupted by the unintended actions. As the Church had said that there are many other words that one can utter or even do. In terms of influence, profanity is everywhere as people who use it are everywhere.
Profanity cannot be clearly clarified as to the aspect of describing it as good or bad, but the researcher would find a way to break the chain holding them together for once and for all. References: Angier, Natalie. “Cursing is a normal function of human language, experts say. ” New York Times. 25 ……September 2005. SFGate. 17 August 2011. < http://articles. sfgate. com/2005-09-……”25/news/17390497_1_linguistic-language-dialect/> Cattleya. “Shitness. ” Twisted Writings ni Toyang. July 2011. Tumblr. com. 17 August 2011. ……<http://www. tumblr. com/tagged/twisted+writings+ni+toyang>.
Cayabyab, Romy. “The vibrancy of Filipino as a Language”. My Filipiniana. 3 December 2002. ……Emanila. com. 17 August 2011. <http://emanila. com/philippines/2008/04/18/the- ……vibrancy-of-filipino-as-a-language/>. De GreenWood, Stephen. “Is Profanity Becoming The Way of Life?. ” EzineArticles. 10 May 2010. ……EzineArticles. com. 17 August 2011. <http://ezinearticles. com/? Is-Profanity-Becoming-the-……Way-of-Life? &id=4262585>. Joelving, Frederick. “Why the #$%! Do We Swear? For Pain Relief. ” Scientific American. 12 July 2009. ……ProQuest. Galileo. 17 August 2011. lt;http://www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm? id=why-……do-we-swear>. Machado, Anil. “Profanity. ” Document. 5 July 2010. Scribd. com. 17 August 2011. ……<http://www. scribd. com/doc/46735681/Profanity>. MaCoy. “On Cursing and Profanity. ” Christian Teen Quick Answers. 17 November 2008. Blogspot. com. ……17 August 2011. < http://www. livescience. com/8667-3-kids-learning-swear-earlier. html>. Madden, Melissa. “Say what? Profanity has become part of many teens’ everyday language. ” eThruth. 19 ……May 2005. eThruth Forum. 17 August 2011. ……;http://www. etruth. com/Know/News/Story. spx? ID=348420; . Montagu, Ashley. The Anatomy of Swearing. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ……2001(Paperback Edition). ;http://books. google. com/books? id=QERsPn0nN-……YC;printsec=frontcover#v=onepage;q;f=false;. Montemayor, Tony. “Dirty Finger. ” The Philippine Star. 19 July 2011. philstar. com. 17 August 2011. ……;http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=707480;. Neil. “Bad Words. ” Sa Lipunan. 26 June 2010. Blogspot. com. 17 August 2011. ……;http://neildalanon. wordpress. com/2010/07/26/bad-words/;. Psych Central News Editor. Oh $#*! , I’m 3! Kids Learning to Swear Earlier. ” LiveScience. 23 ……September 2010. 17 August 2011. <http://www. livescience. com/8667-3-kids-learning-swear-……earlier. html>. Rubian, JK. “Halika, Mura Dito!. ” BlogSpot. 5 February 2010. WordPress. com. 17 August 2011. ……<http://jknewest. wordpress. com/2010/02/05/halika-mura-dito/>. Questionnaire This has the form of being a structured type of questionnaire as it will be more accurate and easier than that unstructured type. The questionnaires are consisting of Multiple-Choice Format, Checklist Format and Scale type.
This is the best type of questionnaire to be conducted by the researcher as it matches his capabilities and limitations. Questionnaire This has the form of being a structured type of questionnaire as it will be more accurate and easier than that unstructured type. The questionnaires are consisting of Multiple-Choice Format, Checklist Format and Scale type. This is the best type of questionnaire to be conducted by the researcher as it matches his capabilities and limitations. Males Only Mapua Institute of Technology Intramuros, Manila Instructions: Put a check mark in your desired answers.
Please answer them in all honesty. For questions, please ask the one who gave you the questionnaire. 1. How often do you practice saying vulgar words (mura)? Everyday (Many Times) rarely Everyday (Sometimes) Never 2. If answer is NOT “Never”, what is your reason on why you say vulgar words? Check the three (3) most used reason. To blend in the society Emphasize Something Habit Adds humor Express my feelings (ex. angry, sad, bad trip, shocked or hurt…) I don’t know others: please specify:________________________ 3. If “Never”, why?
Degrading can inflict pain to others Unpleasant to hear or say not used to saying it * for those who answered no. 3, please proceed to the last question. 4. How did you learn to say vulgar words? Choose the two (2) most influential answers. Parents Surroundings Peers/Friends Teacher Class/Block mates Media 5. Is it effective or useful? Yes No 6. Does it affect your life? Yes No 7. Is it good or bad? Good Bad Thank you! Females Only Mapua Institute of Technology Intramuros, Manila Instructions: Put a check mark in your desired answers.
Please answer them in all honesty. For questions, please ask the one who gave you the questionnaire. 1. How often do you practice saying vulgar words (mura)? Everyday (Many Times) rarely Everyday (Sometimes) Never 2. If answer is NOT “Never”, what is your reason on why you say vulgar words? Check the three (3) most used reason. To blend in the society Emphasize Something Habit Adds humor Express my feelings (ex. angry, sad, bad trip, shocked or hurt…) I don’t know others: please specify:________________________ . If “Never”, why? Degrading can inflict pain to others Unpleasant to hear or say not used to saying it * for those who answered no. 3, please proceed to the last question. 4. How did you learn to say vulgar words? Choose the two (2) most influential answers. Parents Surroundings Peers/Friends Teacher Class/Block mates Media 5. Is it effective or useful? Yes No 6. Does it affect you as a woman? Yes No 7. Is it good or bad? Good Bad Thank You!
Presentation and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the data and information obtained from the questionnaire returns of 6 respondents (Mapuan Students, Male or Female) that comprise of 30 male and 30 female respondents. Vulgar Student and Non-Vulgar Student: Table 1 presents the no. of male and female students who often say vulgar words and does not say vulgar words. Table 1 Mapua College Student who often say and do not say vulgar words Sex| Everyday(Many Times)8 and above times| Everyday(Sometimes)4 – 8 times| Rarely1 – 4 times| Never| Male| 6 (20%)| 18 (60%)| 6 (20%)| 0|
Female| 4 (13%)| 11 (47%)| 10 (33%)| 5 (17%)| Total (%)| 10 (17%)| 29 (48%)| 16 (27%)| 5 (8%)| As presented in Table 1, majority of the 60 respondents belong to the people who say vulgar words sometimes everyday at 4 – 8 times which have 29 of the respondents, 48% of the total no. of respondents and both female and male have the top counting on the sometimes everyday but is completely different from the “never” choice as the male have 0 respondents who never say vulgar words while 5 on the females. Table 2 presents the no. f male and female students’ causes of saying vulgar words. They were allowed to choose three answers. Those who never use vulgar words are not included. Table 2 Mapua College Student’s causes of saying vulgar words Sex| to blend in the society| Habit| Express my feelings| Emphasize Something| Adds Humor| I don’t know| Male| 0 | 9 | 30 | 19| 11| 21| Female| 0 | 5 | 24 | 21 | 9| 16| Total (%)| 0| 14| 54| 40 | 20| 37| As presented in Table 2, majority of the 60 respondents chose the “Express my feelings” as their cause for using vulgar words which have 54