Approximately Medical Marijuana Essay, Research Paper
Approximately Medical Marijuana
Marijuana is medicine. It has been used for 1000s of old ages to handle a
broad assortment of complaints. Marijuana ( Cannabis sativa L. ) was legal in the
United States for all intents – industrial and recreational, every bit good as
medicinal until 1937.
Today, merely eight Americans are lawfully allowed to utilize marihuana as medical specialty.
NORML is working to reconstruct marijuana ’ s handiness as medical specialty. Medicative
Value Marijuana, in its natural signifier, is one of the safest therapeutically
active substances known. No 1 has of all time died from an overdose. It is besides
Four of its general curative applications include: alleviation from sickness and
addition of appetency ; decrease of intraocular ( ” within the oculus ” ) force per unit area ;
decrease of musculus cramps ; alleviation from mild to chair chronic hurting.
Marijuana is frequently utile in the intervention of the undermentioned conditions:
Cancer: Marijuana alleviates the sickness, emesis, and loss of appetency caused
by chemotherapy intervention. AIDS: Marijuana alleviates the sickness, emesis,
and loss of appetency caused by the disease itself and by intervention with AZT and
Glaucoma: Marijuana, by cut downing intraocular force per unit area, alleviates the hurting and
slows or hold the advancement of the disease. Glaucoma, which amendss vision by
bit by bit increasing oculus force per unit area over clip, is the taking cause of sightlessness
in the United States.
Multiple Sclerosis: Marijuana reduces the musculus hurting and spasticity caused by
the disease. It may besides alleviate shudder and ricketiness of pace, and it helps
some patients with vesica control. Multiple induration is the taking cause of
neurological disablement among immature and middle-aged grownups in the United States.
Epilepsy: Marijuana prevents epileptic ictuss in some patients.
Chronic Pain: Marijuana reduces the chronic, frequently enfeebling hurting caused by
a assortment of hurts and upsets.
Each of these utilizations has been recognized as legitimate at least one time by assorted
tribunals, legislative assemblies, authorities, or scientific bureaus throughout the United
States. Presently, such good well-thought-of organisations as the National Academy of
Sciences ( 1982 ) , the California Medical Association ( 1993 ) , the Federation of
American Scientists ( 1994 ) , the Australian Commonwealth Department of Human
Servicess and Health ( 1994 ) , the American Public Health Association ( 1995 ) , the
San Francisco Medical Society ( 1996 ) , the California Academy of Family
Doctors ( 1996 ) , every bit good as several province nursing associations have supported
the usage of marihuana as a medical specialty.
In add-on, anecdotal grounds exists that marihuana is effectual in the
intervention of arthritis, megrim concerns, pruritis, catamenial spasms, intoxicant
and opiate dependence, and depression and other temper upsets. Marijuana could
benefit every bit many as five million patients in the United States.
However, except for the eight persons given particular permission by the
federal authorities, marihuana remains illegal-even as medical specialty! Persons
presently enduring from any of the aforesaid complaints, for whom the
standard legal medical options have non been safe or effectual, are left
with two picks: Continue to endure from the effects of the disease ; or Obtain
marihuanas illicitly and put on the line the possible effects, which may include: an
deficient supply because of the prohibition-inflated monetary value or inaccessibility ;
impure, contaminated, or chemically debased marihuana ; apprehensions, mulcts, tribunal
costs, belongings forfeiture, captivity, probation, and condemnable records.
The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 established the federal prohibition of marihuana.
Dr. William C. Woodward of the American Medical Association testified against
the Act, reasoning that it would finally forestall any medicative usage of marihuana.
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 established five classs, or
“ agendas, ” into which all illicit and prescription drugs were placed.
Marijuana was placed in Schedule I, which defines the substance as holding a high
potency for maltreatment, no presently accepted medical usage in intervention in the
United States, and a deficiency of recognized safety for usage under medical supervising.
This definition is merely non accurate. However, at the clip of the Controlled
Substances Act, marihuana had been illegal for more than 30 old ages. Its
medicative utilizations had been forgotten and its “ reefer lunacy ” stigma was still
Marijuana ’ s medicative utilizations were rediscovered as a consequence of the enormous
addition in the figure of recreational users in the seventiess: Marijuana ’ s
popularity compelled many scientists to analyze its wellness effects. They
later discovered marijuana ’ s singular history as a medical specialty, animating
many surveies of its curative potency ; Many recreational users who besides
happened to be afflicted with conditions for which marihuana has curative
possible unwittingly discovered its medicative benefits.
As the intelligence spread, the figure of patients illicitly utilizing marihuana
medicinally began to increase. Because marihuana is a Agenda I substance,
nevertheless, physicians were non allowed to order it, and research blessing an
support were badly restricted.
The Struggle In Court:
In 1972, NORML initiated attempts to reschedule marihuanas by subjecting a
request to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs-now the Drug Enforcement
Administration ( DEA ) .
After 14 old ages of legal maneuvering, the DEA eventually acceded to NORML ’ s demand
for the public hearings required by jurisprudence.
Following the hearings, which lasted two old ages and included 1000s of pages
of certification every bit good as the testimony of legion doctors and patients, a
determination was reached.
On September 6, 1988, the DEA ’ s Chief Administrative Law Judge, Francis L.
Marijuana, in its natural signifier, is one of the safest therapeutically active
substances known. [ T ] he commissariats of the [ Controlled Substances ] Act license and
necessitate the transportation of marihuana from Schedule I to Schedule II. It would be
unreasonable, arbitrary and freakish for DEA to go on to stand between
those sick persons and the benefits of this substance.
[ Docket No. 86-22 ] & gt ;
Marijuana ’ s arrangement in Schedule II would let physicians to order it to
their patients. Bureaucrats in charge of the DEA rejected Judge Young ’ s opinion
and refused to reschedule!
Two entreaties subsequently, NORML experienced its first licking in the 22-year-old
case. On February 18, 1994, the U.S. Court of Appeals ( D.C. Circuit ) upheld
the DEA ’ s determination to maintain marihuana in Schedule I.
It seems that every bit long as the DEA-a jurisprudence enforcement agency-is allowed to put
its ain standards used to find what “ medical specialty ” is, the tribunals will be unable
to necessitate the DEA to reschedule marihuana.
In 1975, Robert Randall, a glaucoma patient, was arrested for cultivating his
ain medicative marihuana. He won his instance by utilizing the “ defence of medical
necessity, ” coercing the authorities to happen a manner to supply him with his
The Compassionate Investigative New Drug ( IND ) plan was therefore created,
through which patients could obtain marihuanas from the authorities. The plan,
while helpful to some, was exhaustively unequal at allowing legal entree to the
1000000s of patients who are in demand of medicative marihuana:
Most patients didn ’ t even see the possibility that an illegal drug might
be their best medical specialty ; Most patients lucky plenty to detect marijuana ’ s
medicative value didn ’ t happen out about the IND plan ; Most of those who did
happen out about the plan couldn ’ t happen physicians willing to take on the grueling,
time-consuming undertaking of registering an IND application.
In June 1991, the Public Health Service announced that the plan would be
suspended because it undercut the Bush disposal ’ s resistance to the usage of
illegal drugs. After that, no new Compassionate INDs were granted, and the
plan was discontinued in March 1992.
On January 4, 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service ( PHS ) announced that it
would reconsider the prohibition. On July 18, 1994, the PHS decided that it would
adhere to Bush ’ s heartless policy and announced that the IND plan would
Soon, eight patients continue to have marihuana under the original
plan ; for everyone else it is officially a out medical specialty.
Hope for reform:
There is an tremendous sum of public support for stoping the prohibition of
medicative marihuana: Between 1978 and 1996, 36 provinces pass statute law
acknowledging marijuana ’ s medicative value. ( They remain stymied by the federal
authorities ’ s cover prohibition of marihuana, nevertheless. ) A 1990 scientific
study of oncologists ( malignant neoplastic disease specializers ) found that 54 per centum of those with
an sentiment favour the controlled medical handiness of marihuana and 44 per centum
had already broken the jurisprudence by proposing at least one time that a patient obtain
marihuana illicitly. These findings are subsequently published in the Journal of
At NORML ’ s urging, U.S. Representative Barney Frank ( D-Mass. ) introduces
statute law in Congress in 1995 ( H.R. 2618 ) to amend the federal jurisprudence to let
physician ’ s to lawfully order marihuana as a medical specialty to patients. NORML
testifies before Congress in 1996 on behalf of medical marihuana. The
legislative assembly of Washington province appropriates over $ 100,000 in 1996 to carry on
clinical surveies on patients to find the effectivity of medical marihuana
in the intervention of serious unwellnesss. The appropriation besides fund research on
cultivating medical marihuana in a tamper-free environment and explores
possible ways in which the province can lawfully administer the drug for medical
usage. Due in portion to the activism of NORML members, a California enterprise to
legalise marihuana for medical intents ( Proposition 215 ) gathers plenty
signatures to be placed on the November 1996 election ballot. In August, both
the San Francisco Medical Society and the California Academy of Family
Physicians — stand foring a combined sum of about 10,000 doctors
statewide — endorse the proposition.
The challenge for compassionate Americans is to interpret this public support
into effectual reform. It may non be easy to interrupt the DEA ’ s stranglehold on
medicative marihuana, but it can be done!