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    Approximately Medical Marijuana Essay, Research Paper

    Approximately Medical Marijuana

    Marijuana is medicine. It has been used for 1000s of old ages to handle a

    broad assortment of complaints. Marijuana ( Cannabis sativa L. ) was legal in the

    United States for all intents – industrial and recreational, every bit good as

    medicinal until 1937.

    Today, merely eight Americans are lawfully allowed to utilize marihuana as medical specialty.

    NORML is working to reconstruct marijuana ’ s handiness as medical specialty. Medicative

    Value Marijuana, in its natural signifier, is one of the safest therapeutically

    active substances known. No 1 has of all time died from an overdose. It is besides

    highly versatile.

    Four of its general curative applications include: alleviation from sickness and

    addition of appetency ; decrease of intraocular ( ” within the oculus ” ) force per unit area ;

    decrease of musculus cramps ; alleviation from mild to chair chronic hurting.

    Marijuana is frequently utile in the intervention of the undermentioned conditions:

    Cancer: Marijuana alleviates the sickness, emesis, and loss of appetency caused

    by chemotherapy intervention. AIDS: Marijuana alleviates the sickness, emesis,

    and loss of appetency caused by the disease itself and by intervention with AZT and

    other drugs.

    Glaucoma: Marijuana, by cut downing intraocular force per unit area, alleviates the hurting and

    slows or hold the advancement of the disease. Glaucoma, which amendss vision by

    bit by bit increasing oculus force per unit area over clip, is the taking cause of sightlessness

    in the United States.

    Multiple Sclerosis: Marijuana reduces the musculus hurting and spasticity caused by

    the disease. It may besides alleviate shudder and ricketiness of pace, and it helps

    some patients with vesica control. Multiple induration is the taking cause of

    neurological disablement among immature and middle-aged grownups in the United States.

    Epilepsy: Marijuana prevents epileptic ictuss in some patients.

    Chronic Pain: Marijuana reduces the chronic, frequently enfeebling hurting caused by

    a assortment of hurts and upsets.

    Each of these utilizations has been recognized as legitimate at least one time by assorted

    tribunals, legislative assemblies, authorities, or scientific bureaus throughout the United

    States. Presently, such good well-thought-of organisations as the National Academy of

    Sciences ( 1982 ) , the California Medical Association ( 1993 ) , the Federation of

    American Scientists ( 1994 ) , the Australian Commonwealth Department of Human

    Servicess and Health ( 1994 ) , the American Public Health Association ( 1995 ) , the

    San Francisco Medical Society ( 1996 ) , the California Academy of Family

    Doctors ( 1996 ) , every bit good as several province nursing associations have supported

    the usage of marihuana as a medical specialty.

    In add-on, anecdotal grounds exists that marihuana is effectual in the

    intervention of arthritis, megrim concerns, pruritis, catamenial spasms, intoxicant

    and opiate dependence, and depression and other temper upsets. Marijuana could

    benefit every bit many as five million patients in the United States.

    However, except for the eight persons given particular permission by the

    federal authorities, marihuana remains illegal-even as medical specialty! Persons

    presently enduring from any of the aforesaid complaints, for whom the

    standard legal medical options have non been safe or effectual, are left

    with two picks: Continue to endure from the effects of the disease ; or Obtain

    marihuanas illicitly and put on the line the possible effects, which may include: an

    deficient supply because of the prohibition-inflated monetary value or inaccessibility ;

    impure, contaminated, or chemically debased marihuana ; apprehensions, mulcts, tribunal

    costs, belongings forfeiture, captivity, probation, and condemnable records.

    Background:

    The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 established the federal prohibition of marihuana.

    Dr. William C. Woodward of the American Medical Association testified against

    the Act, reasoning that it would finally forestall any medicative usage of marihuana.

    The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 established five classs, or

    “ agendas, ” into which all illicit and prescription drugs were placed.

    Marijuana was placed in Schedule I, which defines the substance as holding a high

    potency for maltreatment, no presently accepted medical usage in intervention in the

    United States, and a deficiency of recognized safety for usage under medical supervising.

    This definition is merely non accurate. However, at the clip of the Controlled

    Substances Act, marihuana had been illegal for more than 30 old ages. Its

    medicative utilizations had been forgotten and its “ reefer lunacy ” stigma was still

    prevalent.

    Marijuana ’ s medicative utilizations were rediscovered as a consequence of the enormous

    addition in the figure of recreational users in the seventiess: Marijuana ’ s

    popularity compelled many scientists to analyze its wellness effects. They

    later discovered marijuana ’ s singular history as a medical specialty, animating

    many surveies of its curative potency ; Many recreational users who besides

    happened to be afflicted with conditions for which marihuana has curative

    possible unwittingly discovered its medicative benefits.

    As the intelligence spread, the figure of patients illicitly utilizing marihuana

    medicinally began to increase. Because marihuana is a Agenda I substance,

    nevertheless, physicians were non allowed to order it, and research blessing an

    vitamin D

    support were badly restricted.

    The Struggle In Court:

    In 1972, NORML initiated attempts to reschedule marihuanas by subjecting a

    request to the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs-now the Drug Enforcement

    Administration ( DEA ) .

    After 14 old ages of legal maneuvering, the DEA eventually acceded to NORML ’ s demand

    for the public hearings required by jurisprudence.

    Following the hearings, which lasted two old ages and included 1000s of pages

    of certification every bit good as the testimony of legion doctors and patients, a

    determination was reached.

    On September 6, 1988, the DEA ’ s Chief Administrative Law Judge, Francis L.

    Young, ruled:

    Marijuana, in its natural signifier, is one of the safest therapeutically active

    substances known. [ T ] he commissariats of the [ Controlled Substances ] Act license and

    necessitate the transportation of marihuana from Schedule I to Schedule II. It would be

    unreasonable, arbitrary and freakish for DEA to go on to stand between

    those sick persons and the benefits of this substance.

    [ Docket No. 86-22 ] & gt ;

    Marijuana ’ s arrangement in Schedule II would let physicians to order it to

    their patients. Bureaucrats in charge of the DEA rejected Judge Young ’ s opinion

    and refused to reschedule!

    Two entreaties subsequently, NORML experienced its first licking in the 22-year-old

    case. On February 18, 1994, the U.S. Court of Appeals ( D.C. Circuit ) upheld

    the DEA ’ s determination to maintain marihuana in Schedule I.

    It seems that every bit long as the DEA-a jurisprudence enforcement agency-is allowed to put

    its ain standards used to find what “ medical specialty ” is, the tribunals will be unable

    to necessitate the DEA to reschedule marihuana.

    Impermanent Compasssion

    In 1975, Robert Randall, a glaucoma patient, was arrested for cultivating his

    ain medicative marihuana. He won his instance by utilizing the “ defence of medical

    necessity, ” coercing the authorities to happen a manner to supply him with his

    medical specialty.

    The Compassionate Investigative New Drug ( IND ) plan was therefore created,

    through which patients could obtain marihuanas from the authorities. The plan,

    while helpful to some, was exhaustively unequal at allowing legal entree to the

    1000000s of patients who are in demand of medicative marihuana:

    Most patients didn ’ t even see the possibility that an illegal drug might

    be their best medical specialty ; Most patients lucky plenty to detect marijuana ’ s

    medicative value didn ’ t happen out about the IND plan ; Most of those who did

    happen out about the plan couldn ’ t happen physicians willing to take on the grueling,

    time-consuming undertaking of registering an IND application.

    In June 1991, the Public Health Service announced that the plan would be

    suspended because it undercut the Bush disposal ’ s resistance to the usage of

    illegal drugs. After that, no new Compassionate INDs were granted, and the

    plan was discontinued in March 1992.

    On January 4, 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service ( PHS ) announced that it

    would reconsider the prohibition. On July 18, 1994, the PHS decided that it would

    adhere to Bush ’ s heartless policy and announced that the IND plan would

    remain closed.

    Soon, eight patients continue to have marihuana under the original

    plan ; for everyone else it is officially a out medical specialty.

    Hope for reform:

    There is an tremendous sum of public support for stoping the prohibition of

    medicative marihuana: Between 1978 and 1996, 36 provinces pass statute law

    acknowledging marijuana ’ s medicative value. ( They remain stymied by the federal

    authorities ’ s cover prohibition of marihuana, nevertheless. ) A 1990 scientific

    study of oncologists ( malignant neoplastic disease specializers ) found that 54 per centum of those with

    an sentiment favour the controlled medical handiness of marihuana and 44 per centum

    had already broken the jurisprudence by proposing at least one time that a patient obtain

    marihuana illicitly. These findings are subsequently published in the Journal of

    Clinical Oncology.

    At NORML ’ s urging, U.S. Representative Barney Frank ( D-Mass. ) introduces

    statute law in Congress in 1995 ( H.R. 2618 ) to amend the federal jurisprudence to let

    physician ’ s to lawfully order marihuana as a medical specialty to patients. NORML

    testifies before Congress in 1996 on behalf of medical marihuana. The

    legislative assembly of Washington province appropriates over $ 100,000 in 1996 to carry on

    clinical surveies on patients to find the effectivity of medical marihuana

    in the intervention of serious unwellnesss. The appropriation besides fund research on

    cultivating medical marihuana in a tamper-free environment and explores

    possible ways in which the province can lawfully administer the drug for medical

    usage. Due in portion to the activism of NORML members, a California enterprise to

    legalise marihuana for medical intents ( Proposition 215 ) gathers plenty

    signatures to be placed on the November 1996 election ballot. In August, both

    the San Francisco Medical Society and the California Academy of Family

    Physicians — stand foring a combined sum of about 10,000 doctors

    statewide — endorse the proposition.

    The challenge for compassionate Americans is to interpret this public support

    into effectual reform. It may non be easy to interrupt the DEA ’ s stranglehold on

    medicative marihuana, but it can be done!

    335

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