The Noble Experiment Apush

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After the civil war, America experienced major changes that have influenced the country we currently recognize. Industrialization and arbitration, movements for equal rights, and the effects of significant world wars all contributed to shaping our present understanding of America.

The African American community in America has experienced significant changes throughout history. From 1619 to 1865, a large number of African Americans came to the United States as slaves. The beginning of their journey towards progress was marked when the first African Americans arrived at Point Comfort, now called Fort Monroe in Hampton. However, it wasn’t until 1865, with the end of slavery, that substantial advancements began to be made.

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This article delves into the timeline of African Americans starting from 1865, centering on a crucial occurrence that greatly influenced their community. It was during this year when the Civil War, also referred to as the North-South conflict, came to an end. The aftermath of this era brought about immense upheaval throughout American society as it endeavored to bring together and harmonize. Eventually, the South consented to amalgamate with and become part of the Union, signifying a significant milestone in African American history (Fagin, 2014).

In the same year, President Lincoln was assassinated and the Civil War ended, leading to a period of construction. This era was characterized by upheaval as the nation sought to reintegrate itself and incorporate the southern region. It represented a fresh start for the whole country (Gates, 2012). The Constitution was amended during this time through the ratification of the 13th amendment, which abolished slavery in the United States of America. This significant event holds great importance in African American history (Fagin, 2014).

From 1865 to 1876, African Americans went through a series of significant events during the Reconstruction era. These events had a profound impact on their lives as they actively participated in reintegrating into society and adapting to an unfamiliar system. It is important to emphasize that this period was not just about reintegration for white individuals but for the whole nation as well (Fagin, 2014). As African Americans sought to assimilate into a society that subjected them to severe discrimination, they encountered substantial challenges.

During the period of reconstruction, there was disagreement regarding political and social matters, specifically voting rights (Gates, 2012). Debates arose about granting the right to vote to Confederate members, former slaves, or enslaved individuals who had fought in the war. The reintegration process for African Americans was further complicated by President Lincoln’s assassination and Andrew Johnson’s subsequent presidency (Fagin, 2014). In 1866, nearly all white legislators from the former Confederate States implemented legislation known as the ‘Black Codes’.

Gates (2012) states that the black codes posed a significant obstacle for African Americans in their efforts to reintegrate into society. In 1868, the year when Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, Fagin (2014) argues that African Americans achieved equal rights and freedoms as white individuals. Furthermore, Gates (2012) highlights how the 14th amendment granted citizenship to African Americans and reversed the Dred Scott decision.

The United States Constitution’s 14th amendment enhanced the civil and legal rights of African Americans, ensuring that no state could deny them due process or equal protections under the law (Fagin, 2014). This amendment played a critical role in safeguarding their civil rights and overturning the Supreme Court’s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sanford, which had denied African Americans citizenship (Fagin, 2014). Ultimately, the impact of the 14th amendment on the lives of African Americans was profound.

The 14th amendment, according to Gates (2012), played a crucial role in the integration of African Americans into society by reversing the previous decision that they were not American citizens. It also prohibited both national and state governments from unlawfully violating the rights of individuals, including African Americans, with regards to freedom, life, and property. In addition, it imposed sanctions on states that deprived African Americans of their voting rights, which included losing electoral votes and seats in Congress.

The 14th amendment granted legal protection to all Americans, regardless of their racial affiliations (Fagin, 2014). This protection played a vital role in the reversal of the segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. Additionally, the 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, gave African Americans the right to vote. As the last amendment ratified during the reconstruction era, it prohibits both national and state governments from denying voting rights based on color, race, or servitude (Fagin, 2014).

The African American communities and abolitionist societies celebrated the adoption of the 15th amendment. African Americans felt a sense of having their rights protected and secured. This amendment marked a crucial event in African American history, as it completed a series of civil changes. It also signified that the African American communities no longer needed government protection (Fagin, 2014).

Tensions between the North and South remained towards the end of the reconstruction era, despite the South acknowledging its need to rely on more than just the North for rebuilding. Although African Americans received equal rights, they did not fully experience their benefits. It was only with the passage of almost a century and the Civil Rights Movement that all of reconstruction’s achievements were finally recognized (Fagin, 2014).

The period of reconstruction concluded in 1877 when Democratic leaders in the southern states reached an agreement. This agreement resulted in Rutherford B. Hayes assuming the presidency and marked the end of federal troops’ presence in the South as well as the discontinuation of endeavors to safeguard civil rights for African Americans. Subsequent to reconstruction, a swift period of industrialization ensued. In response to oppression, numerous African Americans residing in the South opted to migrate northwards (Gates, 2012).

During the year 1879, there was a notable increase of African Americans migrating to northern regions in the United States due to industrialization. This era witnessed swift industrial development and advancement in major cities across the nation. The construction of railroads was extensive and had a crucial role in expanding and progressing cities (Gates, 2012). As a result, numerous African Americans relocated to urban areas seeking employment in manufacturing and production companies. In 1881, Tennessee formally enacted segregation laws known as the ‘Jim Crow’ laws that specifically impacted state railroads.

Over the course of the next 15 years, laws resembling those already passed in the southern States were enacted. As a result, African Americans were compelled to relocate to the northern States (Gates, 2012). The Jim Crow laws of segregation established an equal but separate status for African Americans. However, in reality, this division created circumstances for African Americans that were inferior to those provided to white Americans, effectively institutionalizing various economic, educational, and social disadvantages. While De jury was implemented in the southern states, De facto was the prevailing standard in the northern states (Fagin, 2014).

The Jim Crow segregation laws enforced racial segregation in housing through the use of covenants, job discrimination, and discriminatory lending practices by banks. Additionally, African Americans also faced discrimination in labor unions (Gates, 2012). As industrialization took place, companies emerged in different cities, leading to an increasing urbanization of African Americans. Many left their farms and homes and relocated to urban areas and ghettos. In 1887, the ‘standing Lincoln’ statue was revealed at Augustus Saint gardens in Chicago (Fagin, 2014). The case of Peoples v.

The Ferguson case, which was a significant ruling in the United States, upheld the legality and implementation of ‘Jim Crow’s separate but equal segregation policies. These policies denied African Americans equal opportunities to use public establishments. In the 1950s, the civil rights movement gained traction throughout the country. In 1954, the Supreme Court declared segregation in educational facilities unconstitutional and effectively put an end to it through the Brown v. Board of Education case (Fagin, 2014).

In 1955, Rosa Parks’ refusal to give up her seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama led to her arrest. This act of defiance ignited the civil rights movement that swept through the United States. While Parks was not the first African American to resist surrendering a seat to a white individual, her action took place during a time when African Americans were becoming more and more frustrated and resentful due to their ongoing mistreatment as second-class citizens. The news of Parks’ mistreatment and subsequent arrest in Montgomery spread rapidly (Fagin, 2014).

In support of Rosa Parks, the Women’s Political Council, Martin Luther King Jr., and the African American community joined forces to initiate a bus boycott on December 5th. This aligned with Parks’ trial and resulted in the creation of the Montgomery Improvement Association (AIM). AIM was dedicated to putting an end to Jim Crow segregation laws through continued boycott efforts. The goal extended beyond desegregating public transportation and society as a whole; it also sought to secure employment opportunities for African-American drivers in Montgomery (Fagin, 2014).

The Montgomery bus company suffered significant financial losses during the 382 days of public unrest. Despite this, the city remained steadfast in refusing to concede (Fagin, 2014). The leaders of the Montgomery protest took the issue to a national court, arguing that the city’s segregation policies violated the 14th Amendment. Eventually, in 1956, the national court declared these policies illegal; however, lawyers from Montgomery County appealed this decision. On November 3rd, 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation laws in Montgomery were unlawful. Throughout this protest period, local authorities made numerous arrests (Fagin, 2014).

In the past, African Americans waiting for carpool pick-ups faced police detainment. The court jury deemed the boycott illegal, resulting in 115 protest leaders being arrested. In 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. established the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which became a driving force in the civil rights movement. The SCLC played a crucial role in organizing protests nationwide to fight against different forms of discrimination and advocate for equal treatment of all races in America.

The civil rights movement took place between 1955 and 1968 and included various campaigns and protests of civil resistance (Fagin, 2014). It was characterized by acts of civil disobedience and nonviolent demonstrations. The civil rights act was ratified in 1964, making it illegal to discriminate against anyone. Similarly, the Voting Rights Act was ratified in 1965 to prevent attempts in the South from suppressing the participation of black voters in elections. Additionally, Edward W. Brooke became the first African American senator in 1967 and served for two terms (Fagin, 2014).

The assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Tennessee was a tragic event in African American history. However, the election of Barack Obama in 2008 was a major milestone for both the United States and the African American community. Not only did Obama become the first African-American president, but his election also helped bridge the racial divide between African Americans and white Americans, leaving a lasting impact (Fagin, 2014).

President Barack Obama’s second term in office witnessed a rise in perceived power within the African American community (Fagin, 2014). This period underscored the increased availability of opportunities for African Americans compared to his initial term. President Obama instilled a sense of inspiration and faith among them, empowering them with the belief that they possess the capability to achieve their dreams and make their goals more reachable. Consequently, the African American community has triumphed over the longstanding weight of slavery and currently embraces their civil rights and freedoms wholeheartedly.

Throughout more than three centuries, African Americans have played a crucial role in the struggle for their civil rights and liberation, leaving a profound impact on all aspects of American history. Their involvement dates back to the American Revolution of 1776, when they actively joined the fight against British abolitionism despite opposition from slaveholders. Furthermore, their contribution during the Civil War proved pivotal. Consequently, African Americans have encountered numerous obstacles while advocating for equal rights and liberties within their community.

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The Noble Experiment Apush. (2018, May 03). Retrieved from

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