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Biology Exam Quiz: Anatomy Questions

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    The two types of cells of the nervous system are

    axons and dendrites.

    neurons and neuroglia

    motor neurons and sensory neurons.

    Schwann cells and microglia.

    neurons and neuroglia

    Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands are

    sensory neurons.

    interneurons.

    motor neurons.

    unipolar neurons.

    motor neurons.

    every neuron has

    many axons.

    a cell body.

    myelin.

    a neurilemma.

    a cell body

    A myelinated nerve fiber is ______, whereas an unmyelinated nerve fiber is ______.

    gray, and composing the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord; white, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord

    white, and composing the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord

    white, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray, and composing the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord

    white, and composing the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord; red, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord

    white, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray, and composing the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord

    Which cells produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord?

    Schwann cells

    Astrocytes

    Microglia

    Oligodendrocytes

    Oligodendrocytes

    Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord are

    bipolar.

    unipolar

    multipolar.

    nonpolar.

    multipolar

    Which of the following neuroglia are not part of the CNS?

    Ependymal cells

    Astrocytes

    Satellite cells

    Microglia

    Satellite cells

    Action potentials are related to impulses conducted along an axon in that

    many impulses are required to cause one action potential.

    active transport of Na+ and K+ are required for impulse conduction but not for an action potential.

    impulses are stronger responses than are action potentials.

    propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.

    propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.

    If a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is

    depolarized.

    hyperpolarized.

    repolarized.

    summated.

    hyperpolarized.

    What is the correct sequence of events along an axon that follows a membrane reaching threshold potential?

    1. The membrane depolarizes.

    2. Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward.

    3. The membrane repolarizes.

    4. Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward.

    3, 2, 4, 1

    2, 1, 4, 3

    1, 2, 4, 3

    4, 1, 3, 2

    2, 1, 4, 3
    Myelin is composed largely of carbohydrates.
    True
    False
    false
    Nodes of Ranvier lie between neurons.
    True
    False
    False
    Because the response of a nerve fiber is all-or-none, a greater intensity of stimulus does not produce a stronger impulse.
    True
    False
    true

    The meninges consist of

    the brain and spinal cord.

    the membranes that delineate all of the major brain parts.

    the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater.

    nerve tracts that run up and down the spinal cord.

    the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater.

    Most cerebrospinal fluid is secreted from the choroid plexuses in the

    lateral ventricles.

    third ventricle.

    fourth ventricle.

    cerebral aqueduct.

    lateral ventricles

    Which of the following lists the parts of a reflex arc in the correct sequence?

    Receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron, effector

    Effector, receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron

    Effector, sensory neuron, receptor, interneuron, motor neuron

    Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector

    Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector

    Gray matter of the spinal cord is mostly composed of

    interneurons.

    cerebrospinal fluid.

    axons.

    myelin.

    interneurons

    The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the

    cerebrum.

    brainstem.

    cerebellum.

    corpus callosum.

    cerebellum

    Which of the following parts of the mature brain develops from the forebrain?

    Midbrain

    Pons

    Cerebellum

    Thalamus

    thalamus

    Injury to the visual cortex of the right occipital lobe can cause

    partial blindness in the right eye only.

    total blindness in the left eye only.

    partial blindness in both eyes.

    total blindness in both eyes.

    partial blindness in both eyes

    The area of skin that sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate is called a

    dermatome.

    myotome.

    sensory body.

    nerve body.

    dermatome

    Bob witnesses an auto accident and impulses from the ___________ division of the autonomic nervous system increase his heart rate.

    spinal

    parasympathetic

    sympathetic

    cranial

    sympathetic

    Over a lifetime, the brain shrinks by about ___ percent.

    1

    5

    10

    40

    10
    The dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges.
    True
    False
    True
    Brain damage to the temporal lobe, where recent memory is processed, can impair long-term memory.
    True
    False
    true

    Sensory receptors include

    mechanoreceptors.

    chemoreceptors.

    photoreceptors.

    all of the above.

    All of the above

    The sequence of information flow in response to biting into a slice of pizza is

    perception, sensation, impulse send to CNS, sensory receptors activated.

    sensory receptors activated, impulse sent to CNS, sensation, perception.

    impulse sent to CNS, sensory receptors activated, perception, sensation.

    impulse sent to CNS, sensory receptors activated, sensation, perception.

    sensory receptors activated, impulse sent to CNS, sensation, perception.

    Question 28

    Another name for pain receptors is

    tactile corpuscles.

    lamellated corpuscles.

    nociceptors.

    mechanoreceptors.

    nociceptors.

    As a result of the tympanic reflex,

    the bridge of auditory ossicles becomes less rigid.

    vibrations are transmitted more effectively to the inner ear.

    the malleus is pulled toward the eardrum.

    vibrations are transmitted less effectively to the inner ear.

    vibrations are transmitted less effectively to the inner ear.

    The hearing receptors are most closely associated with the

    ampulla.

    spiral organ.

    utricle.

    saccule.

    spiral organ

    Visual sensations from images focused on the side of the retina are blurred because

    there are no rods in this region.

    there are more cones than rods in this region.

    there are more rods than cones in this region.

    the optic disc is located on the side of the retina.

    there are more rods than cones in this region.

    The taste receptor that amino acids such as glutamic acid activate is

    sour.

    salty.

    bitter.

    umami.

    umami

    Movement of hair cells in the semicircular canals signals

    sound waves to the brain.

    the direction of motion.

    the frequency of the sound.

    the velocity of the movement.

    direction of motion
    General senses result from stimulation of receptors in the head only.
    True
    False
    False
    Stretching of tissues can cause pain sensations to arise from visceral organs.
    True
    False
    True
    The conjunctiva is a layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers most of the anterior surface of the eye.
    True
    False
    True
    Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but cones are important for color vision.
    True
    False
    True
    A bone shaft is the diaphysis; the expanded parts at the ends are the epiphyses.
    True
    False
    True

    At what age are nearly all bones completely ossified?

    Birth

    5 years

    15 years

    25 years

    25 years
    In a push-up, the elbow joint flexes as the person lowers.
    True
    False
    True

    At a neuromuscular junction

    actin and myosin filaments slide past one another.

    troponin and tropomyosin exchange places.

    neurotransmitters are released.

    intercalated discs are synthesized.

    neurotransmitters are released.

    A gomphosis is a ______ joint.

    fibrous

    cartilagenous

    synovial

    synchondrosis

    fibrous

    The buccinator muscle is in the

    buttocks.

    chest.

    bladder.

    cheek.

    cheek
    The number of bones in most people is 206.
    True
    False
    true

    Which of the following correctly lists the steps of fracture repair in sequence?

    A hematoma forms, granulation tissue and fibrocartilage develop, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, bony callus forms.

    A hematoma forms, osteoblasts arrive and produce new bone tissue, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, granulation tissue forms.

    Phagocytes clear away debris, osteoblasts remove damaged bone tissue, and a hematoma forms.

    A hematoma forms followed by formation of a bony callus that fibrocartilage replaces.

    A hematoma forms, granulation tissue and fibrocartilage develop, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, bony callus forms.

    Movement that brings the foot farther from the shin is a(n)

    plantar flexion.

    hyperextension.

    rotation.

    dorsiflexion.

    plantar flexion.

    In a child, a vitamin D deficiency results in ______, whereas a vitamin A deficiency results in ______.

    pituitary dwarfism; rickets

    rickets; retardation of bone development

    excess calcium absorption; osteomalacia

    soft bones; rickets

    rickets; retardation of bone development

    Endochondral ossification ______, whereas intramembranous ossification ______.

    replaces hyaline cartilage; replaces undifferentiated connective tissue

    forms bone in broad, flat areas of the skull; occurs in the limbs

    inhibits osteoblast activity; activates osteoclast activity

    activates osteoclasts; inhibits osteoblast activity

    replaces hyaline cartilage; replaces undifferentiated connective tissue
    Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers from each other.
    True
    False
    True

    Osteoblasts are ______, whereas osteocytes are ______.

    bone-forming cells; bone-dissolving cells

    mature bone cells; bone-forming cells

    bone-forming cells; mature bone cells

    bone-dissolving cells; mature bone cells

    bone-forming cells; mature bone cells

    The increase in the number of motor units activated as a result of more intense stimulation is called

    latency.

    recruitment.

    threshold stimulation.

    sustained contraction.

    recruitment

    Which of the following describes a female’s pelvis compared to a male’s pelvis?

    A cavity that is wider in all dimensions, with lighter bones.

    A cavity that is narrower in all dimensions, with lighter bones.

    A cavity that is wider in all dimensions, with heavier bones.

    A cavity that is narrower in all dimensions, with heavier bones.

    A cavity that is wider in all dimensions, with lighter bones.

    Which of the following groups of bones, based on shape, is associated with an incorrect example?

    Long bones – forearm bones

    Short bones – wrist and ankle bones

    Flat bones – thigh bones

    Irregular bones – vertebrae

    Flat bones – thigh bones

    Which of the following is not found associated with spongy bone?

    Trabeculae

    Osteons

    Canaliculi

    Osteocytes

    Osteons

    Oxygen debt in muscles may develop because of

    the inability of respiratory and circulatory systems to supply enough oxygen to skeletal muscles when used strenuously for a minute or two.

    the inability of myoglobin molecules to store enough oxygen when skeletal muscles are used strenuously for a minute or two.

    too much oxygen used in forming pyruvic acid when skeletal muscles are contracted strenuously for a minute or two.

    too high a concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere.

    the inability of respiratory and circulatory systems to supply enough oxygen to skeletal muscles when used strenuously for a minute or two.

    A bone thickens

    as a result of cell division in the medullary cavity.

    due to increased production of bone matrix by osteoclasts.

    as a result of increased activity within the epiphyseal plate.

    as compact bone is deposited beneath the periosteum of the diaphysis.

    as compact bone is deposited beneath the periosteum of the diaphysis.

    The axial skeleton includes

    the upper and lower limbs and pelvic and pectoral girdles.

    the skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, and vertebral column.

    the radius, ulna, carpals, and phalanges.

    the femur, tibia, and fibula.

    the skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, and vertebral column.

    The acetabulum is

    a depression in the hip bone that receives the head of the femur.

    a protuberance in the hip bone that attaches to the head of the femur.

    the prominence of the hip.

    the anterior portion of the hip bone.

    a depression in the hip bone that receives the head of the femur.

    Transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well developed in

    smooth muscle fibers.

    skeletal muscle fibers.

    cardiac muscle fibers.

    skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers.

    skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers.
    A meniscus cushions articulating surfaces of bones.
    True
    False
    true

    Classifying joints as synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, or diarthrotic represents

    location in the body.

    the composition of the joint.

    the number of bones that the joint affects.

    the degree of movement possible at the joint.

    the degree of movement possible at the joint.

    The soleus is a muscle that forms part of the

    calf.

    buttocks.

    thigh.

    shoulder.

    calf

    The skin appears yellowish if a person eats too much

    collagen.

    carotene.

    cyanin.

    melanin.

    carotene

    Homeostasis is the

    inability to keep body weight within normal limits.

    room temperature decreasing because a window is open.

    ingestion of more food than you need to eat.

    tendency of the body to maintain a stable internal environment.

    tendency of the body to maintain a stable internal environment.

    Involuntary muscle tissues are

    smooth muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.

    cardiac muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

    A cell that can divide to give rise to any cell type is

    pluripotent.

    multipotent.

    totipotent.

    a differentiated cell.

    totipotent

    In treating a burn patient, the “rule of nines” is used to estimate the

    depth of the burn.

    surface area of the burn.

    degree and source of the burn.

    type of scar that will form.

    surface area of the burn.

    The relationship of osmotic pressure and the number of solute particles in a solution is the

    lower the number of solute particles, the greater the osmotic pressure.

    greater the number of solute particles, the lower the osmotic pressure.

    greater the osmotic pressure, the lower the number of solute particles.

    greater the number of solute particles, the greater the osmotic pressure.

    greater the number of solute particles, the greater the osmotic pressure.

    Epithelial tissue functions in

    secretion, absorption, and protection.

    contraction, movement, and reflexes.

    reacting to stimuli, thinking, and remembering.

    nourishing and hydrating tissues.

    secretion, absorption, and protection.
    Three physiological factors that affect the color of skin are: volume of blood in dermal vessels, carotene in the subcutaneous layer, and various diseases.
    True
    False
    True

    Which of the following groups of compounds is hydrophobic?

    Carbohydrates

    Lipids

    Proteins

    Nucleic Acids

    lipids

    Skin wrinkles with age because

    collagen degrades in the subcutaneous layer as the epidermis shrinks.

    fat is lost from the subcutaneous layer and the dermis shrinks.

    the number of sweat glands diminishes.

    epidermal cells undergo a burst of cell division.

    fat is lost from the subcutaneous layer and the dermis shrinks.

    An organic compound always contains

    carbon and hydrogen.

    oxygen and nitrogen.

    carbon and oxygen.

    nitrogen and hydrogen.

    carbon and hydrogen.
    The process by which cells specialize is called differentiation.
    True
    False
    true

    The human integumentary system includes

    skin, nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands.

    the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer.

    bones and muscles.

    only one type of tissue.

    skin, nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands.

    Skin cells play an important role in producing

    vitamin A.

    vitamin B.

    vitamin C.

    vitamin D.

    Vitamin D

    Which of the following correctly describes the structural organization of the cell membrane?

    A solid, rigid layer of phospholipid with loosely bound protein molecules

    A bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which protein molecules are embedded and can move

    Rigid layers of protein molecules in which carbohydrate molecules are suspended

    Three layers; lipid on the inside, protein in the middle, and carbohydrates (and polysaccharides) on the outside

    A bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which protein molecules are embedded and can move

    The arrector pili muscle is attached to

    the nail bed.

    a sebaceous gland.

    the hypodermis.

    a hair follicle.

    a hair follicle.

    A (An) ______ gland does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory part.

    simple

    compound

    tubular

    alveolar

    simple

    Stages of the cell cycle unfold in the following order:

    differentiation, cytoplasmic division, mitosis, interphase

    interphase, differentiation, cytoplasmic division, mitosis

    interphase, mitosis, cytoplasmic division, differentiation

    mitosis, interphase, cytoplasmic division, differentiation

    interphase, mitosis, cytoplasmic division, differentiation

    “Cutaneous membrane” refers to

    skin.

    bones.

    cartilage.

    mucus.

    skin.
    Cilia and flagella extend from certain cells, enabling them to move.
    True
    False
    True

    A chemical reaction in which parts of different molecules trade positions is a(n)

    decomposition reaction.

    exchange reaction.

    reversible reaction.

    synthesis reaction.

    exchange reaction.

    Reddened skin reflects

    dilated blood vessels with more blood entering the dermis.

    eating too many carrots.

    inheriting extra melanin.

    constricted blood vessels with more blood entering the epidermis.

    dilated blood vessels with more blood entering the dermis.

    Which of the following organs is in the abdominopelvic cavity?

    The heart

    The trachea

    The thymus

    The liver

    The liver
    Cardiac muscle can function without nervous stimulation but skeletal muscle cannot.
    True
    False
    True
    The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    True
    False
    True

    Metabolism is defined as _____.

    the removal of wastes produced by chemical reactions

    the breakdown of substances into simpler forms

    the taking in of nutrients

    all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism that support life

    all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism that support life
    Melanin production is greater in the skin of people who live outdoors all the time than in people who do not.
    True
    False
    True
    A DNA molecule is a double helix in which A pairs with C and T pairs with G.
    True
    False
    False

    Which of the following transport processes does not require expenditure of cellular energy?

    Phagocytosis

    Active transport

    Pinocytosis

    Facilitated diffusion

    Facilitated diffusion

    A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in

    glycolysis.

    the citric acid cycle.

    gluconeogenesis.

    the electron transport system.

    glycolysis.

    Lipids

    are insoluble in water.

    include phospholipids, cholesterol, and fats.

    contain C, H, and O, but with proportionately less oxygen than in carbohydrates.

    all of the above.

    all of the above.
    The tissue that forms the outermost layer of the skin is a type of connective tissue.
    True
    False
    False

    Cutaneous carcinomas are usually caused by regular exposure to

    X-rays.

    gamma radiation.

    ultraviolet light.

    mutagenic chemicals.

    ultraviolet light.

    A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by

    A + B → C + D.

    A + B → AB.

    AB → A + B.

    C + D → AB.

    AB → A + B.

    An active site of an enzyme is

    the part of the enzyme that binds ATP.

    a sequence of DNA nucleotides that encodes a protein molecule.

    the part of a substrate that combines with an enzyme.

    the part of an enzyme that combines with a substrate.

    the part of an enzyme that combines with a substrate.

    Which choice lists structures in order of increasing size?

    nitrogenous base – nucleotide – gene – chromosome – genome

    nitrogenous base – nucleotide – gene – genome – chromosome

    genome – nucleus – chromosome – nucleotide – gene

    cell – organelle – tissue – organ

    nitrogenous base – nucleotide – gene – chromosome – genome

    Which of the following is not true of organelles?

    They carry on specific activities.

    They are only in cells of humans.

    They are composed of aggregates of large molecules.

    They are found in many types of cells.

    They are only in cells of humans.

    Extracellular matrix consists of

    ground substance and protein fibers.

    fixed cells and wandering cells.

    heparin and keratin.

    lacunae and lamellae.

    ground substance and protein fibers.
    Catabolism builds up molecules and anabolism breaks down molecules.
    True
    False
    False

    A _______ membrane lines tubes and cavities that open to the outside of the body.

    serous

    cutaneous

    synovial

    mucous

    mucous

    The activities of an anatomist consist of ______, whereas those of a physiologist consist of _____.

    observing body parts; studying functions of body parts

    conducting experiments; making microscopic examinations

    studying molecules; observing forms of the body parts

    sketching; dissecting

    observing body parts; studying functions of body parts

    The type of intercellular junction that consists of fused membranes is a(an)

    desmosome.

    gap junction.

    tight junction.

    ion channel.

    tight junction.

    In negative feedback mechanisms changes away from the normal state

    stimulate changes in the same direction.

    inhibit all body reactions.

    stimulate changes in the opposite direction.

    stimulate a reduction in all requirements of the body.

    stimulate changes in the opposite direction.
    During interphase, a cell rests.
    True
    False
    False

    The type of epithelium that secretes into ducts that open onto surfaces like skin or into body fluids is

    simple squamous epithelium.

    transitional epithelium.

    stratified cuboidal epithelium.

    glandular epithelium.

    glandular epithelium.

    Smooth muscle is found in the wall of the

    stomach.

    intestine.

    stomach and intestine.

    kidney and liver.

    stomach and intestine.

    The secondary structure of a protein molecule is the result of

    oxygen double bonds.

    covalent bonds.

    ionic bonds.

    hydrogen bonds.

    hydrogen bonds.

    Eccrine sweat glands differ from sebaceous glands

    in type of secretion.

    in their location.

    in whether or not they are associated with hair follicles.

    all of the above.

    all of the above.

    Three general functions of the nervous system are

    sensory, motor, and predictive.

    integrative, motor, and sensory.

    predictive, manipulative, and integrative.

    reflexive, sensory, and predictive.

    integrative, motor, and sensory.

    Action potentials are related to impulses conducted along an axon in that

    many impulses are required to cause one action potential.

    active transport of Na+ and K+ are required for impulse conduction but not for an action potential.

    impulses are stronger responses than are action potentials.

    propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.

    propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.

    A stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached _________.

    recruitment

    threshold

    summation

    tetanus

    threshold

    The most rapid conduction of an impulse along an axon occurs on a fiber that is

    thick and myelinated.

    thick and unmyelinated.

    thin and myelinated.

    thin and unmyelinated.

    thick and myelinated.

    The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle contraction is

    beta endorphin.

    nitric oxide.

    acetylcholine.

    GABA.

    acetylcholine.
    The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system.
    True
    False
    True
    During the absolute refractory period, a stimulus of high intensity may trigger a nerve impulse.
    True
    False
    False

    The ____________ is the thin meninx attached to the surface of the brain, containing many nerves and blood vessels.

    dura mater

    arachnoid mater

    pia mater

    subdural mater

    pia mater

    Cerebrospinal fluid

    informs the autonomic centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus about the internal environment.

    provides a pathway for waste to enter the blood.

    protects the brain and spinal cord.

    all of the above.

    all of the above

    The expected response to the triceps-jerk reflex is

    flexion of the forearm.

    extension of the forearm.

    plantar flexion.

    plantar extension.

    extension of the forearm.

    The simplest level of CNS function is the

    ability to talk.

    ability to work.

    spinal reflex.

    cerebral reflex.

    spinal reflex

    Which lobe of your brain are you using when you answer this question?

    Frontal

    Parietal

    Temporal

    Occipital

    frontal

    The ___________ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

    lateral sulcus

    central sulcus

    longitudinal fissure

    transverse fissure

    transverse fissure

    The part of the brain that assigns value to a memory is the

    cerebral cortex.

    amygdala.

    medulla oblongata.

    pons.

    amygdala.

    The somatic nervous system consists of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the ______, whereas the autonomic nervous system consists of fibers that connect the ______.

    skin and skeletal muscles; brain to the spinal cord

    visceral organs; CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles

    heart and intestines; CNS to the cardiac and smooth muscles

    skin and skeletal muscles; CNS to the visceral organs

    skin and skeletal muscles; CNS to the visceral organs

    Aging of the brain begins

    before birth.

    at birth.

    at age 30.

    after age 50.

    before birth

    Symptoms of concussion include all except

    disturbed sleep.

    decreased sensitivity to light and sound.

    memory lapse.

    balance problems.

    decreased sensitivity to light and sound.
    The choroid plexuses project into the ventricles.
    True
    False
    true

    The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates

    general adaptation.

    receptor integration.

    interpretive assimilation.

    sensory adaptation.

    sensory adaptation.

    Olfactory receptors, which provide the sense of smell, are

    thermoreceptors.

    mechanoreceptors.

    chemoreceptors.

    proprioceptors.

    chemoreceptors.

    Temperature senses use two types of

    chemoreceptors.

    proprioceptors.

    tactile corpuscles.

    free nerve endings.

    free nerve endings.

    Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?

    Sweet

    Salty

    Pungent

    Sour

    pungent

    Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye?

    Retina

    Cornea

    Choroid coat

    Sclera

    retina

    Rhodopsin is found in ____ cells.

    cone

    lens

    rod

    olfactory receptor

    rod

    Bitter receptors sense

    alkaloids.

    acids.

    inorganic salts.

    carbohydrates.

    alkaloids

    Glaucoma is usually caused by

    clouding of the lens.

    clouding of the lens capsule.

    accumulation of vitreous humor.

    accumulation of aqueous humor.

    accumulation of aqueous humor.
    Receptors that are stimulated by changes in chemical concentrations are called thermoreceptors.
    True
    False
    false

    Question 34

    Referred pain occurs when the brain projects the sensation back to the original source in the body from which the pain originated.
    True
    False

    false
    Tears contain an enzyme that reduces the risk of eye infection.
    True
    False
    true
    Floaters are bowel movements that float due to a fatty diet.
    True
    False
    false

    Binding sites on the surface of actin allow the formation of cross-bridges with molecules of

    ATP.

    myosin.

    troponin.

    tropomyosin.

    myosin
    Fibrous joints are the first to change with age.
    True
    False
    true

    Articular cartilage is

    fibrocartilage.

    found only in the knees and elbows.

    elastic cartilage.

    hyaline cartilage.

    hyaline cartilage.

    A joint capsule is reinforced by

    tendons binding articular ends of bones together.

    articular cartilage cushioning ends of bones.

    ligaments binding articular ends of bones together.

    hyaline cartilage providing strength to the capsule walls.

    ligaments binding articular ends of bones together.

    Arrange the following steps of muscle fiber contraction in the correct sequence.

    1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.

    2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.

    3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.

    4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.

    5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.

    6. Myosin heads bind to exposed active sites on actin, forming cross-bridges.

    6, 3, 1, 4, 2, 5

    2, 5, 3, 1, 4, 6

    4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5

    3, 5, 2, 1, 6, 4

    4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5

    The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the

    epimysium.

    perimysium.

    endomysium.

    sarcomysium.

    epimysium

    The capitulum and trochlea are located

    at the proximal end of the humerus.

    at the distal end of the humerus.

    at the distal end of the ulna.

    in the hand.

    at the distal end of the humerus.

    When a muscle undergoes atrophy in response to disuse

    there is a reduction in capillary networks.

    the size of actin and myosin filaments decreases.

    the muscle gets smaller.

    all of the above.

    all of the above.
    The parietal bones meet each other along the sagittal suture.
    True
    False
    true

    Compact bone has ________, whereas spongy bone has __________.

    spaces that reduce the weight of bone; tightly packed matrix that is solid

    osteons; trabeculae

    trabeculae; osteons

    osteocytes; no osteocytes

    osteons; trabeculae

    The joint between adjacent vertebral bodies is a

    symphysis that is amphiarthrotic.

    symphysis that is synarthrotic.

    symphysis that is diarthrotic.

    synovial that is synarthrotic.

    symphysis that is amphiarthrotic.

    The amount of oxygen liver cells require to support the conversion of lactic acid to produce glucose or glycogen is the

    refractory quantity.

    oxygen debt.

    anaerobic concentration.

    aerobic conversion.

    oxygen debt
    In the initiation of muscle fiber contraction calcium ions bind to tropomyosin, exposing active sites on actin for cross-bridge formation.
    True
    False
    false

    The hard palate is composed of the

    sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

    nasal conchae and vomer bones.

    zygomatic and lacrimal bones.

    maxillary and palatine bones.

    maxillary and palatine bones.

    Types of fibrous joints include

    synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, and diarthrotic joints.

    syndesmosis, suture, and gomphosis joints.

    synchondrosis, symphysis, and synovial joints.

    pivot, condylar, and ellipsoidal joints.

    syndesmosis, suture, and gomphosis joints.

    The muscle that causes an action is the

    synergist.

    antagonist.

    agonist.

    mediator.

    agonist.

    All of the following are functions of bones except

    to protect certain internal organs.

    to provide a source for red and white blood cells.

    to provide a set point for the control of blood pressure and body temperature.

    to store inorganic salts.

    to provide a set point for the control of blood pressure and body temperature.
    Synovial fluid moistens and lubricates the cartilaginous surfaces in a joint.
    True
    False
    true

    Which of the following statements is correct?

    Tropomyosin molecules move and expose specific sites on myosin filaments.

    Actin filaments slide along myosin filaments.

    Cross-bridges form between actin and the sarcolemma.

    Filaments of troponin and tropomyosin slide past one another.

    Actin filaments slide along myosin filaments.

    In which of the following is rotational movement possible?

    Ball-and-socket joint

    Condylar joint

    Hinge joint

    Pelvic joint

    Ball-and-socket joint

    Most of the joints in the ankle and wrist are

    hinge joints.

    pivot joints.

    plane joints.

    condylar joints.

    plane joints

    Which of the following movements could occur at the hip joint?

    Abduction and adduction

    Rotation

    Flexion and extension

    All of the above

    all of the above

    The more movable end of a muscle is its

    origin.

    fulcrum.

    insertion.

    source.

    insertion
    Osteoarthritis is caused by a bacterial infection.
    True
    False
    false

    The hardness of a nail comes from

    carotene.

    collagen.

    calcium.

    keratin.

    keratin.

    Involuntary muscle tissues are

    smooth muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.

    cardiac muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue.

    smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

    Tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of

    dense irregular tissue.

    reticular connective tissue.

    muscle tissue.

    dense regular connective tissue.

    dense regular connective tissue.

    A water solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is

    acidic.

    basic.

    alkaline.

    neutral.

    neutral

    Nucleic acids are

    very small, simple molecules.

    structural molecules that have no function other than support.

    composed of building blocks called nucleotides.

    primary sources of cellular energy.

    composed of building blocks called nucleotides.

    Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration?

    Oxygen

    Glucose

    ATP

    Glycogen

    ATP

    Adipose tissue is a form of

    epithelium.

    muscle.

    nervous tissue.

    connective tissue.

    connective tissue

    Which of the following is not correct concerning the skin?

    The dermis is usually thicker than the epidermis.

    The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium.

    The subcutaneous layer is between the dermis and the epidermis.

    The dermis contains smooth muscle and nervous tissue.

    The subcutaneous layer is between the dermis and the epidermis.

    Hypothermia is

    associated with exercising vigorously in the heat.

    accompanied by fever.

    a lowered body temperature.

    a form of hair loss.

    a lowered body temperature.
    An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates.
    True
    False
    true

    “Cutaneous membrane” refers to

    skin.

    bones.

    cartilage.

    mucus.

    skin

    Saturated fats _______ than unsaturated fats.

    contain more water

    have more glycerol

    have more single carbon-carbon bonds

    have fewer hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms

    have more single carbon-carbon bonds

    A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____.

    an inorganic molecule that all enzymes require; cholesterol and calcium

    an inorganic molecule that some enzymes require; vitamin B12 and B6

    a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc

    a molecule that destabilizes substrates; carbonic acid

    a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc

    ATP is important to cellular processes because it

    is formed by muscles contracting or whenever cellular work occurs.

    provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.

    releases oxygen when high-energy phosphate bonds are broken.

    is a by-product of all catabolic reactions.

    provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.

    Bone cells form concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called

    osteons.

    central canals.

    lacunae.

    canaliculi.

    central canals.

    The anatomical term that indicates a structure close to the surface is

    anterior.

    proximal.

    superficial .

    superior.

    superficial

    A burn affecting only the epidermis is a

    superficial partial-thickness burn.

    deep partial-thickness burn.

    second degree burn.

    third degree burn.

    superficial partial-thickness burn.

    The tissue through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in the lungs is

    stratified squamous epithelium.

    simple squamous epithelium.

    simple cuboidal epithelium.

    simple columnar epithelium.

    simple squamous epithelium

    Which of the following happens first after a scab forms?

    phagocytic cells remove dead material.

    the scab sloughs off.

    fibroblasts from the wound edge form new collagenous fibers.

    blood vessels send out new branches under the scab.

    fibroblasts from the wound edge form new collagenous fibers.

    Cancer can result if

    mitosis is too infrequent.

    mitosis is too frequent or does not stop.

    the cell cycle runs backward.

    the cell cycle stops.

    mitosis is too frequent or does not stop.

    A _______ membrane lines tubes and cavities that open to the outside of the body.

    serous

    cutaneous

    synovial

    mucous

    mucous

    Chemistry is important to the study of physiology because

    the foods that we eat are chemicals.

    body functions depend on cellular functions that reflect chemical changes.

    chemical reactions enable our bodies to extract energy from nutrients.

    all of the above.

    all of the above

    What characteristic do simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion share?

    Both require cellular energy for the transport of substances.

    Both move water across a semipermeable membrane.

    Both require a special carrier molecule to move substances across the membrane.

    Both move a substance from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration without cellular energy.

    Both require a special carrier molecule to move substances across the membrane.

    Two thieves steal jewelry, and then drop it as they are escaping. The police recover the jewelry, and an officer explains on the evening news that fingerprints were obtained from the back of a watch. The thieves, whose prints are not on file, believe that they can escape prosecution by using acid to remove the epidermis on their fingerpads, so as not to be a match for the fingerprints on the watch. They are wrong because

    the prints arise from the subcutaneous layer, which is not destroyed.

    the prints arise from friction ridges of the dermis, which are not destroyed.

    the epidermis will regrow the friction ridges in a day.

    the friction ridges will not grow back in the same pattern.

    the prints arise from friction ridges of the dermis, which are not destroyed.
    An electrolyte ionizes in water.
    True
    False
    true
    The elbow is distal to the wrist.
    True
    False
    false

    A serous membrane consists of a

    layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thin layer of areolar tissue.

    layer of pseudostratified epithelium and a thick layer of areolar tissue.

    layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thick layer of dense connective tissue.

    layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thick layer of cartilage.

    layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thin layer of areolar tissue.

    What determines the color of skin?

    The number of melanocytes in the epidermis.

    The thickness of the epidermis.

    The amount of melanin that melanocytes produce.

    The density of hair.

    The amount of melanin that melanocytes produce.
    What characteristic is shared by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?
    A) Both require cellular energy for the transport of substances.
    B) Both involve the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.
    C) Both require a special carrier molecule to move substances across the membrane.
    D) Both involve the movement of a substance from regions of a higher concentration to lower concentration without cellular energy.
    D) Both involve the movement of a substance from regions of a higher concentration to lower concentration without cellular energy.

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