1. In your own words explain the demerit point system and give 10 infractions and how many demerit points it will cost the driver for each. Ans: Demerit points are added to your driver’s licence, if you are convicted of breaking certain driving laws. The rules are different depending on if you are a new driver or have a full licence. The demerit-point system encourages drivers to improve their behaviour and protects people from drivers who abuse the privilege of driving. Drivers convicted of driving-related offences have demerit points recorded on their records. Demerit points stay on your record for two years from the date of the offence. If you accumulate too many demerit points, your driver’s licence can be suspended. The person or office in charge of demerit points is the Ministry of transportation of Ontario. The Ministry of Transportation office controls the Ontario drivers by adding a system of demerit points to traffic tickets for such things as speeding and nearly all other traffic violation tickets.
Demerit points are issued from the Ministry of Transportation office in order to reprimand drivers who collect more than their fair share of driving offenses. Consequences of demerit points include the removal of driving privileges by the Ministry of Transportation office.
Ontario drivers who are considered probationary drivers can accrue up to six demerit points with fully licensed Ontario drivers being allowed to accumulate 15 demerit points before their licenses are suspended. The Ministry of transportation office will suspend a driver’s license for 30 days upon the first offense of 15 accumulated demerit points. They have the power to suspend the license for up to six months for successive collected demerit points. Additionally, once a person has accumulated nine demerit points the Ministry of Transportation office may request the driver to attend an interview. This interview is a chance for the driver to plead their case against having their license suspended.
Besides the possible suspension of one’s license, traffic tickets that contain demerit points have a direct impact on one’s financial situation because the demerit points directly affect insurance rates.
Seven demerit points are the highest amount of one time demerit points received for a single incident and these are given for racing and failing to remain at the scene of an accident. Demerit points can be given in a combination, for example someone can leave the scene of an accident which carries a penalty of seven demerit points in addition to being ticketed for failing to stop for a school bus which carries six demerit points making the total demerit points for one single incident 13 demerit points. This single incident will land a person an interview with the Ministry of Transportation office for possible license suspension.
Demerit points from the Ministry of transportation office stay on someone’s driving record for two years from the offensive date before they fall away.
The following are 10 infractions and the demerit points given. 1. failing to remain at the scene of a collision
2. failing to stop when signaled or asked by a police officer 7 demerit points each
3. careless driving
5.exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/hour or more
6.failing to stop for a school bus
6 demerit points each
7.Failing to stop at an unprotected railway crossing (for bus drivers only) 5 demerit points
8.exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/hour
9 following too closely
4 demerit points each
10 exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/hour
11.driving through, around or under a railway crossing barrier
3 demerit points each
Q2Explain briefly what is safety standard certificate and emission testing?
Ans: According to the Ontario Ministry of Transportation, “A Safety Standards Certificate is a document that certifies a vehicle’s fitness.” A Safety Standards Certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. However, the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the vehicle will stay fit for any period. The Certificate process was designed to ensure that any car changing hands must possess the minimum safety requirements to drive on the road. A safety certificate states that a car meets all legal safety standards and is fit to be driven. Emissions testing is to make sure that a vehicle does not produce more emissions than is allowable by law, for that particular vehicle. If it is failing emissions that means some of your emission equipment is failing and needs to be fixed. These are tests the state use to make sure the cars that are on the road are safe and non-polluting.
A safety test will check things like brakes, headlights, alignment, tires. Emissions test will check the exhaust for smog or pollution levels. A safety standards certificate is a document that certifies a vehicle’s fitness. You can buy and register a vehicle without a safety certificate, but you cannot put your own plates on the vehicle or drive it without one. Any inspection station in Ontario licensed by the Ministry of Transportation can issue a safety standards certificate, provided your vehicle passes an inspection. Many garages are licensed — look for a sign saying it is a Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. A safety standards certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. However, the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the will stay fit for any period. A Safety Standards Certificate is required in the case of any vehicle changing hands to a new owner. This step is required before the new owner’s licence plate can be attached. The car must receive a Certificate before it can be “plated” (receive new plates from the Ministry of Transportation). Q3Explain the legal consequences of driving under the influence of alcohol? Ans: There are different laws for learner drivers and fully licensed drivers when it comes to drinking before driving. If you have a provisional license you cannot have any alcohol in system, no matter your age. Many drivers with a provisional license mistakenly think that they can have a drink before driving if they are old enough to drink. This is not true. If you have a learner’s license make sure that you have a blood alcohol level of 0% before you get behind the wheel of the car. You don’t have to be driving to get in trouble
The car you are in doesn’t have to be moving to get an impaired driving violation? If you are sitting behind the wheel of a vehicle, moving or not, and have too much alcohol in your system you canget a fine, lose your license and face other penalties. Don’t ever sit in the driver’s seat unless you are physically able to drive. Make sure that you understand side effects.
Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a serious crime in Ontario. Make sure that you read the information about side effects before driving if you have taken any prescription or over the counter medications. Never drive after using illegal drugs. You should also know that mixing drugs and alcohol can make side effects and impairment worse. Anything that impairs your ability to drive safely is illegal, even if you are under the legal blood alcohol limit. There are serious consequences to drinking and driving.
Ontario takes impaired driving very seriously. In fact they are known for having one of the strictest laws in all of North America. Drivers under 21 or with a provisional license can immediately have their license suspended if they have any alcohol in their blood. Fully licensed drivers over 21 must have a blood alcohol level that is lower than .05% or they risk a 24 hour road side suspension. In addition to facing suspension you can also get a fine of $60-$500 if convicted and a 30 day suspension. If your blood alcohol level is more than .08% you face more serious charges. Charges will remain on your Ontario driver’s license for at least 10 years.
Getting a citation for drinking and driving is very serious and the consequences can remain with you for a long time. Many drivers have to take alcohol education courses, others have to have ignition interlock devices installed and you can face serious fines. Any convictions will remain on your license for at least 10 years. Breath analysis is mandatory if requested.
If you are asked to take a breath analysis test, you must comply. Refusing to do so can result in an immediate suspension of your license, even if you are not intoxicated. Never let anyone drive your vehicle unless you know they have a license. If you are caught drinking and driving you may be required to get an ignition interlock device on your vehicle. This applies to any car that you will drive. If you drive a vehicle without this device the vehicle will be impounded. Make sure that if you are loaning your car to someone else that you first verify their license or you may be without a car for 7 days while it is in impound.
The consequences for drinking and driving in Ontario get more serious with each offense. While each drinking and driving conviction is serious, you will find that the penalties get worse with each offense. For example if you are caught in what is called the “warn range” (blood alcohol level between .05% and .08%) you will face a $150 fine and a 3 day suspension on the first offense. The second offense you will have the $150 fine, a 7 day suspension and an alcohol education course. The third time you will face the $150 fine, a 30 suspension, a 6 month mandatory interlock device and a mandatory alcohol treatment program. As you can see the consequences get worse each time and these are just the roadside consequences. Others may apply if you are convicted. These cannot be disputed, appealed or overturned. Drinking and driving is expensive. You can face some severe fines and financial charges if you choose to do this. Estimated court costs can be anywhere between $2,000 and $10,000. If you violate the criminal code your fine will be $1,000. A treatment program costs $578. Your insurance will go up, sometimes as much as $4,500 additionally per year. Plus if you have to get an ignition interlock device it can cost $1,300. As you can see, it is much less expensive to avoid drinking before driving.
If you are planning on drinking, don’t take the risk of losing your license. Instead ask someone else to drive. This is by far the easiest way to avoid drinking and driving convictions and problems. If you never drink and drive you will never have to worry about any of these potential consequences.
If you have an Ontario driver’s license, make sure that you don’t risk it by drinking and driving. This is a serious offense and isn’t worth the risk. In addition to the financial and legal problems that you can face you can also find yourself seriously injuring or killing others or yourself. Next time you get ready to drink, make sure that you find someone else to drive you home.
The Ontario Highway Traffic Act (HTA) creates punishments that are in addition to the Criminal Code fines and periods of imprisonment for drunk driving offences, including licence suspensions between 1 year for a first offence to a lifetime for a third offence. In addition to being subject to the suspensions, these drivers have to complete a remedial measures assessment and education or treatment program (for approximately 10 months), and also have to install an Ignition Interlock Device on their vehicles for between 1 year for a first offence to lifetime for a third offence (if the suspension period is reduced to 10 years). The Ignition Interlock Device is a leased breath alcohol monitoring machine wired into your vehicle’s ignition.
However, the HTA is now also allowing for early reinstatement of the suspended licence with the installation of the Ignition Interlock Device – if you meet certain conditions. This program is available for persons convicted of a first impaired or over 80 driving or refuse breath sample offence that did not cause bodily harm or death and did not involve drug impairment.You must have a car and valid insurance to be eligible. Additionally, you must not be under another suspension (such as for dangerous driving or a novice driver disqualification) and you must have your fines fully paid. There are 2 “streams”:
3 months minimum driver’s licence suspension
Followed by a minimum Ignition Interlock Installation Period of 9 months *Stream ‘A’ is only available if you plead guilty and are sentenced within 90 days of being charged* Stream B
6 months minimum driver’s licence suspension Followed by a minimum Ignition Interlock Installation Period of 12 months Q4Explain the different types of car insurance in Ontario. Indicate which one of these is mandatory? Ans: Ontario law requires that all motorists have auto insurance. Fines for vehicle owners, lessees and drivers who do not carry valid auto insurance can range from $5,000 to $50,000. If you are found driving without valid auto insurance, you can have your driver’s licence suspended and your vehicle impounded. If you live in Ontario then there are a number of mandatory and optional car insurance coverage types available to you. Here are the coverage types that are mandatory for all drivers in Ontario. Liability
Every vehicle in Ontario must carry at least $200,000 in third party liability coverage but most people choose to increase that amount to $1 million or $2 million in coverage. Third party liability insurance protects you in the event you damage someone else’s property or if you injure or kill someone. Accident Benefits
Accident Benefits is another mandatory coverage in Canada. It will help cover income replacement, medical needs, rehabilitation, non-earner benefits, and caregiver costs if you are injured or killed in a motor vehicle accident. In 2010, Ontario changed their insurance laws to give you more options when it comes to your accident benefits coverage. Uninsured/Underinsured Driver Protection
This coverage will protect you (and a member of your family) if you are injured or killed by an uninsured driver. It also applies to a driver that is unidentified, such as the case in many hit-and-run incidents. This coverage also protects your vehicle if the driver is identified. Direct Compensation Property Damage
This coverage is included in your car insurance premiums. It pays for damage that your vehicle might sustain in an automobile accident that is not entirely your fault. Optional Insurance Coverage
The following coverage types are optional in Ontario but you should at least consider them when you go to renew your auto insurance. They will increase your overall insurance premiums but they could also save you a lot of money in the long run. Comprehensive Cover
If you want to have your car protected against vandalism, fire, floods, windstorms, lightening, and theft then you should consider comprehensive coverage. It will protect you against damages or loss caused by those things.
This optional coverage will pay for damages to your own vehicle. It is not required by law, but it is recommended, especially if your vehicle would be expensive to replace. Collision coverage will also pay for damages to your vehicle when you roll the automobile or if you hit another object – be it a car, a tree, or a building etc. If you don’t have this coverage and you are entirely at-fault in an accident then you will not be covered. Almost all car leasing and financing companies will require that you purchase collision protection if are to lease or finance a vehicle. Transportation Replacement Coverage
This additional coverage will reimburse you for the money you spend on renting a car, while your vehicle is being repaired or replaced. Depending on the coverage you get it may pay for car rentals, taxis, and public transportation while your car is being fixed, or while you seek out a new vehicle. Depreciation Coverage
This coverage allows you to replace your vehicle with a brand new one, should your car be stolen or deemed a total loss. If you are convicted of driving without valid auto insurance, your insurance company may consider you a “high-risk” driver and charge you higher premiums or refuse to sell you insurance altogether. If you are injured in an accident while driving or occupying an uninsured vehicle:
you may not be entitled to receive income replacement and/or non-earner benefits; and you may not be allowed to sue the at-fault driver for compensation as a result of injuries received in the accident. More importantly, if you are found to be at fault for an accident causing injury or death to another person, you may be held personally responsible for his/her medical costs and other losses.
Homework Day 2
Q.1Explain in no more than 200 words how the knowledge of vehicle components leads to safe driving.
Ans: Knowing your car and its various parts can be a life saver. The more you know about your car, the better equipped you are to handle problems, and the more likely you are to notice when something is wrong. Taking the time to familiarize yourself with your car will make driving it that much more enjoyable. One of the main benefits of knowing your car is being able to tell when your mechanic is trying to scam you. Even the most reputable mechanics have employees who will try to sell you parts and labor that aren’t necessary. Each time you take your car into the shop — whether for a routine oil change or a minor repair — the mechanic is going to look for other problems that can be repaired during that same trip. Sometimes they’ll tell you that something needs to be replaced, such as an air filter, when you’ve still got another 3,000 miles before you need a new one. Not only that, but even when you do need a new part or a repair, the mark-up for what the mechanic will charge you (versus what you would pay retail) is ridiculous. Another benefit to knowing your car is that the more familiar you are with the way your car operates, the more likely you’ll be to notice when something is wrong. For example, I can usually tell just by driving my car when the air in the tires is low. When you pay attention to the way your car is supposed to feel, you’ll feel even the slightest difference when something is amiss. A difference in the hum of the engine or a strange lop-sidedness can make all the difference.
The longer you wait to repair your car, the more damage it might sustain. To get to know your car, start by studying your owner’s manual. It’s that thick book you keep in the glove compartment — you might have never even looked at it before. Take it inside with you after work and look through it. Study the diagrams and text in each chapter and learn about the different aspects of your car. If you aren’t sure what something is, take the book outside and examine that part on your vehicle so you’ll know what it is. If you find that you enjoy knowing about your car, you may be able to learn how to conduct simple repairs on your own. For example, having the brake pads on your car replaced by a mechanic could cost you up to $500. Replacing them yourself, however, will only cost about $50 plus a few hours of your time. The same goes for oil changes, fuse replacements, bulb replacements, your spark plugs and other parts. Once you know how to replace them, you’ll get better and faster each time your car needs a repair. The most important thing is to know when you can do something yourself and when your car needs to be taken to a mechanic. Know your strengths and weaknesses and if you have doubts, haul your vehicle in. It’s far less expensive to have a mechanic do it the first time than to pay someone to fix the damage you caused yourself. If you have friends or relatives that are experienced with cars, you might ask them to assist with DIY repairs until you get the hang of it. It’s also a good idea to know the tools you might need to fix your car.
Keeping a small tool box in your trunk or under the seat will save you if you happen to break down by the side of the road. Make sure you always have a spare tire as well as the equipment needed to change it. You should also keep spare bulbs in your car in case a headlight winks out while you’re on the road. Knowing your car is a good practice regardless of who you are and what kind of car you drive. It isn’t always about saving money, but also about protecting yourself. You wouldn’t want to continue driving your car, completely ignorant to a problem, so learn how your car smells, sounds, feels and looks so you can identify problems immediately. It helps to know how your vehicle works in order to best be able to understand how it will react in certain situations. For instance front versus rear drive. One can “power out” of a skid on pavement with compromised traction with front drive where rear drive will cause the rear wheels to loose traction and thus control. Other examples are; is the parking brake connected to the front or rear wheels? Saabs and Subarus use the front wheels for the parking brake. In an the event of brake failure it is safer to use it in these vehicles rather a parking brake that works off the rear wheels as that can cause the vehicle to spin. It also important to be able to recognize signs that a catastrophic failure is imminent such as the symptoms of failing tires, badly worn ball joints or tie rod ends.
Q.2Briefly explain how highway driving differs from city driving. Give 3 points of difference? Ans:Once on the freeway, a safe driver travels at a steady speed, looking forward and anticipating what’s going to happen on the road ahead. Traffic should keep to the right, using the left lanes for passing. As in city driving, your eyes should be constantly moving, scanning the road ahead, to each side and behind. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 15 to 20 seconds, or as far ahead as you can see, when you travel at faster speeds. Remember to keep scanning and check your mirrors frequently. Stay clear of large vehicles. Because of their size, they block your view more than other vehicles. Leave space around your vehicle. This will let you see clearly in every direction and will give you time and space to react. Click here for following distances. Be careful not to cut off any vehicle, large or small, when making a lane change or joining the flow of traffic. It is dangerous and illegal for a slower moving vehicle to cut in front of a faster moving vehicle. Use the far left lane of a multi-lane freeway to pass traffic moving slower than the speed limit, but don’t stay there. Drive in the right-hand lane when possible. On many freeways with three or more lanes in each direction, large trucks cannot travel in the far left lane and must use the lane to the right for passing. Get into the habit of driving in the right lane, leaving the other lanes clear for passing. Q.3List and briefly explain different warning gauges in a vehicle. Ans:
Oil Pressure Light. This light refers to possible low oil levels, a worn or broken oil pump or excessive main bearing wear. Ignoring it could result in a seized engine or major engine damage.
Brake Warning Light. This could refer to driving with the handbrake engaged, low brake fluid level or worn out brake pads. Brakes are the most important part of your vehicle; they affect the safety of the driver and all occupants. Don’t ignore this light! Air Bag SRS. If this warning light comes on, your air bag is not going to inflate on impact, which could jeopardize your safety. Malfunction is usually caused by a crash sensor fault, bad electrical connection or air bag module malfunction. Engine Temperature Light. This means the coolant level is low, the cooling fan isn’t working or the thermostat is failing to open. If this light flashes on, stop driving immediately, turn off the engine, and seek mechanical assistance. Driving while the temperature light is on can do serious and expensive engine damage. Battery Charging System Warning Light. This usually refers to an alternator failure, loose or torn alternator belt, faulty battery or a broken wire. The light indicates a problem with the charging system; get it repaired at your earliest convenience. Tire Pressure Warning Light. This light could be triggered by a flat tire, low tire pressure, tire pressure light not reset or bad air pressure sensor. Excessively worn tires or insufficient tire pressure not only affects fuel economy, it poses a risk. Q.4 What is ABS and what kind of situations does it prevent?
Ans:Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface according to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than a driver could manage. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle control. Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have evolved considerably. Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under braking, but also electronically control the front-to-rear brake bias. This function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known as electronic brake force distribution (EBD), traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control (ESC). There are many different variations and control algorithms for use in ABS. One of the simpler systems works as follows: 1.
The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in the wheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapid deceleration. If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could. It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96.6 km/h) under ideal conditions, but a wheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second. 2. The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces the pressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it sees the deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantly change speed. The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives the system maximum braking power. 3. When the ABS is in operation the driver will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves. This pulsing also tells the driver that the ABS has been triggered. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 16 times per second. Q.5Give examples of three safety devices and how they contribute to passenger safety? Ans:Top 10 Vehicle Safety Devices
Some people think that these are actually dangerous, but they have in fact saved many, many lives. There are two main types of air bags, dual stage airbags and side airbags. If needed, the dual stage airbags will go off at different times, one in a minor accident and both in a more serious crash. Side airbags help to prevent drivers and passengers from getting head injuries. Small children should be in their car seats, in the back seat of your vehicle, where there are no airbags that can actually injure them rather than save their lives.
Many vehicles are equipped with on/off switches for airbags. This is for the times when children are going to be sitting near them. There have been many instances of airbags injuring children, and you can eliminate this risk by using the switch. There have been many incidents of injuries and even death in small children because of airbags, and this switch will eliminate that problem.
Passenger Sensing System
This has been created to reduce injuries or death to smaller children. This is an advanced airbag system that can tell the size of the person in the seat, with sensors that get information about the front-seat passenger’s weight and the pressure on the seat. This information tells the airbags whether or not to go off in the event of a frontal crash.
Energy-Absorbing Steering System
This is designed so that it will compress upon impact, lessening the risk of rib injuries to drivers. This has been proven to work in many instances, and it has reduced the risk of driver fatalities by 12%, and serious injuries and death risks have been reduced by 38%. When there is a crash, drivers are often thrown forward, and the steering wheel can cause serious injuries, making this feature one that you should look for in your next vehicle. Back Up Sensing System
This is a wonderful little invention that makes it so that when you are backing up, you will be warned if you get too close to another vehicle or other object. This is now an option on a number of larger vehicles, such as RV’s and SUV’s, and it has greatly reduced the number of collisions caused by backing up, and a lot of bicycles in driveways have been saved because of this feature. Electrochromatic Mirror/Auto Dimming Mirrors
One thing that can really be annoying when you are driving at night is the reflection of headlights in your mirrors. This feature will automatically darken the mirrors, which in turn reduces the glare. Today, approximately 10% of all vehicles are equipped with this feature, and many more vehicles are expected to have this technology in the near future. This not only helps to prevent accidents, it also helps people who are extremely light sensitive, and bothered by lights in their mirrors. Head Restraints
Two of the most common injuries that occur due to automobile accidents are head injuries and whiplash. These head restraints, which are on the top of the front seats, will help to hold the head in place, and they reduce these types of injuries. New and more advanced systems make it so the seat will move down and back in the event of a collision, so there will not be as much forward motion, which of course will lessen the risk of head and neck injuries. Heads Up Display
One should never take their eyes off the road while they are driving, but we all do. We must look down to check our speed and other things, and it can only take a split second for an accident to occur. A heads up display (HUD) will put the information you need right across your windshield, so your eyes never have to look anywhere but at the road. You will still be able to watch what you are doing, while being able to find the information you need quickly and easily. Padded Knee Bolster
Knee injuries are a common result of automobile accidents, and this device can greatly reduce the risk of this type of injury. This is another feature that can keep the driver or passengers in the proper position to lessen their chances of being injured. It will also help to keep passengers from sliding beneath the instrument panel and risking becoming trapped or injured even further. Seatbelts
These may have been around for many years, but many advancements have been made so that they will protect automobile occupants even more than the older versions. Unlike in the past, where seatbelts just went around your waist, today’s vehicles are equipped with front and rear seatbelts for both the lap and shoulders, and the locking system insures that those wearing the seatbelts (which is the law in Canada and the US) will not be thrown forward if an accident occurs.