Art- Egyptian Essay, Research Paper
“ Fragment Of a Wall Relief ”
As I entered the upper Egyptian gallery at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology I noticed a adult females giving a talk to a little group refering some of the memorials in the gallery. Lucky plenty, I got a opportunity to catch the terminal of her talk, and coincidently it was about this piece entitled “ Fragment of a Wall Relief. ” This peculiar piece is from the Amarna period or 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt, dating from about 1367-1350 BCE.
I picked this piece specifically because of the period in which it derives. The armana period has boggled me of all time since we learned about it in category. In this paper I hope to bring out the historical significance of this piece and how it relates to this most unusual period.
The ” Fragment of a Wall Relief ” was presented free standing, but clamped to the floor with metal braces.
I believe it stands at about seven and a half pess tall and about eight inches thick and is made out of quartzite. This memorial is non placed behind glass or ropes, but merely placed in the center of the floor for people to see from all sides. This was really surprising for me, non merely due to the age of the memorial but besides it ’ s province of saving. I observed that at sometime this piece had been broken in two, and has since been repaired. The “ front ” Of this piece may be good preserved because it had been lying face down in the sand for rather some clip before it had been excavated. This piece in general has been weathered due to sand and weave for some clip, but once more still is in good status.
This “ Fragment of a Wall Relief ’ s ” word picture of the scene at manus is reasonably simple. At the really top of this memorial, in the upper scene is the God Aten, one time the Sun God Ra, is shown as a phonograph record shaped object with it ’ s rays reflecting downward. To either side of Aten are hieroglyphics, most likely saying the scene that ’ s at manus. Atens ’ beams are reflecting downwards towards Akenaten and one of his girls. Akenaten is shown with his manus raised towards Aten, keeping some type of bowl. To the right of these two topics are piled up offerings meant as gifts for the Sun God. In the lower scene, once more is Aten at the top, and harmonizing to the museum, Akenaten is offering a animadversion of firing incense. This portion is ill-defined to me due to the province of the memorial. In both scenes Aten and the hair and vesture of both topics are deep-set alleviation, which at one clip would hold been inlayed with glass. Besides in both scenes Akenaten is represented with his weaponries and custodies raised towards Atens beams. Akenaten is represented with profile caput, frontal trunk, and profile legs. In the top scene he seems to be have oning a kilt type garment and in the lower scene it ’ s unclear the type of garment he ’ s erosion but it seems to cover most of his organic structure. Along the right manus side of the memorial runs a perpendicular set incorporating assorted hieroglyphics and three deep-set alleviation figures that end up interrupting the set into three subdivisions. At the underside of this piece is the base of the memorial, which is handled rather merely. The base is obviously, there is nil written on it, represented on it, it doesn ’ t widen out in any way. The lone point of the base I believe is to raise the capable affair to oculus degree. Along the side borders are hieroglyphics stand foring a swayer of another clip. This is a ulterior add-on to the piece by another creative person at a different clip, it is said that the piece would hold been placed face down and would hold served as a base most likely for a sphinx or other statue.
The creative person who created the “ Fragment of a Wall Relief, ” who is presently unknown, must hold had a clear apprehension of how line breaks up infinite. The artist utilizations line two divide the two scenes and besides to make the base for the memorial. Besides, the horizontal line in the center of the memorial along with the base horizontal line Acts of the Apostless besides as a land line for the two scenes represented. All of the figures seem to be really additive, by this I mean, there is no muscular structure involved nor is at that place facial look. I ’ m non certain if this was ever the instance, but this is what I could detect in it ’ s present form. Equally far as balance is concerned, there is a great trade of weight balanced between the two scenes. In both scenes are the same constellations of topics and offerings conveying the same point of paying court to the divinity Aten. Repeating the same topics and offerings seems to unite the memorial as a whole along with conveying the message at manus, which seems to stand for the Armana period good.
The capable affair is a great representation of what is traveling on during the Armana period. This piece once more represents the swayer, Akenaten, and his girl paying court to the God Aten. Harmonizing to The Dictionary of Art, volume I, “ ? the Armana manner, created during Akenatens reign, harmonizing to which the male monarch, his household and their relationship towards the God Aten, are the lone proper topics for art. ” During his seventeen-year reign,
Amenhotep IV changed the political, religious, and cultural ways of life for the Egyptians of this clip. He fundamentally restructured the authorities to travel along with his ideals. In his 5th twelvemonth of reign he changed the capitol of Egypt from what was Memphis and Thebes to Akentaten, which means “horizon of the Aten.” and besides uniting upper with lower Egypt. Along with consolidative Egypt the most powerful of all the alterations was the changing of the spiritual of spiritual facet of the society. He changed the system into a monotheistic society, the observance of merely one divinity, which of class is Aten. With this came the swayers name alteration from Amenhotep IV or otherwise known as Amenophis IV to Akenaten, which translated agencies “one who is effectual on behalf of Aten.” With all these alterations, besides came the alteration in artistic manner. Akenaten was at this clip is normally depicted as holding really uneven features of a human. For case he has long slender weaponries and legs with the exclusion of his about swollen thigh country. Akenaten besides had a protruding belly, about women-like chests, a long slender cervix, elongated face an caput, along with aslant eyes, thick lips, and a hanging mentum. All this was thought as construing what the king really looked like, but now historians believe it was the creative persons portraiture of “Living in Maat, ” or the Godhead truth which was another of Akenatens beliefs at the clip. During this period the Sun God, one time Ra, was now a handbill shaped disc with its beams reflecting downward stoping in human custodies or the Egyptian symbol for life, the ankh. Besides during this clip Akenaten stresses the importance of household life, ne’er earlier had this been the instance in Egyptian civilization. In many of the memorials of this period, Akenaten is shown with his married woman Nefertitti, sometimes with one of his kids, and sometimes with the whole household. All of this history seems to be represented in “Fragment of a Wall Relief.”
Many illustrations from this period have been recovered from modern twenty-four hours Tell el-Amarna despite the attempts of Akenatens replacements. It ’ s cognize that after Akenatens decease, his positions and ideals were non really accepted with the Egyptians because much of the remains from this period were destroyed or reused for another intent. One New Kingdom alleviation of ” Akenaten and His Wife Nefertti Offering to the God Aten, ” in Vol. 9, in the Dictionary of Art is besides a good illustration of the artistic manner of the Armana period. In this memorial, it shows Akenaten and his married woman paying court to the God aten rendered in carven alleviation. This is carved from limestone and the scene is a focal subdivision of a larger piece, but what is shown is the standard word picture of Aten ’ s beams with the custodies at the terminals along with stoping with a few ankhs. Under those beams is Akenaten standing erect, he is have oning a united Crown, which is a combination of the white Crown of upper Egypt and the ruddy Crown of lower Egypt, and with weaponries outward he is keeping some type vas. On Akenatens right or rear is a somewhat smaller Nefertitti, one time once more demoing hierarchal graduated table. In this representation, the focal point one time once more is paying court to the divinity, and with Nefertti at his side it shows the strong relationship with his household.
Another good illustration of this period is found in our text edition, “ Akenaten and His Family. ” In this memorial Akenaten is shown with his household playing, while the ever-present Aten, reflecting above them. Again Akenaten is represented with the incorporate headgear, and all the placing characteristic given to him, such as the extended cervix, pot belly, ect? Some of Atens beams with the ankh symbols are indicating towards Akenaten and Nefertittis ’ anterior nariss, which depicts the “ breath of life. ” Again Akenaten have oning the incorporate Crown and in this piece, it besides gives us the premise that Nefertitti might hold co-ruled with Akenaten because of the symbols on her throne, the papyrus chaffs and a bird, which is the incorporate symbol of upper and lower Egypt. Again Akenaten is with his household, now it ’ s the whole household, which stresses the importance of household. The representation of the figures is once more in this Armana manner and now holds true to all the topics. In all of theses illustrations including “ Fragment of a Wall Relief, ” the Armana ideals are carried throughout. One thing I noticed, it seems that in all the memorials the hieroglyphics are placed strategically to equilibrate out the scene. Along with this I noticed in both “ Fragment of a Wall Relief ” and “ Akenaten and His household, ” they both had a perpendicular set of hieroglyphs running along the right manus side, both possibly making infinite. All three of these memorials carry out Akenatens wants by conveying Akenatens and his household ’ s relationship to the God Aten.
To reason, Akenaten had a profound influence on the Egyptian civilization from art to their mundane manner of life. Although this manner of life did non predominate after his decease, it still made a great impact on the manner I view Egyptian art. I hope I exposed why this piece is evocative of the Armana period and why it ’ s historically important.
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