We would like to express our thanks to him for supplying us with useful examples pertaining to this proposal, which allowed us to work efficiently. His readiness to inspire us and his valuable time spent conversing with us greatly enhanced our project proposal. Additionally, we appreciate AIMS University’s administration for offering us a serene and picturesque setting, coupled with top-notch amenities and fast Wi-Fi, enabling us to finish this project punctually.
To finalize our project proposal, we made use of the WI connection in the cafeteria and conducted research at the AIMS library. We would like to express our appreciation to our group members who generously devoted their time and resources, demonstrating their proactivity and dedication to completing this project. We sincerely thank each member for their collaboration and active engagement in meetings and discussions, which significantly contributed to the successful completion of this endeavor. A special acknowledgment goes out to Mosses Praying, Yap Hi Ho, Chem. June Seen, Leone Alai Ling, and the fifth individual.
The team, consisting of Chuan Yen Inning, Tan Ann Joe, and The Chining Wee, would like to sincerely thank our family members and friends for their unwavering inspiration and financial assistance during the entire preparation of this project proposal. Thank you.
1. 0 INTRODUCTION
Corn, also known as maize, is a grain plant of considerable size that was domesticated by indigenous people in prehistoric times in the region of Mesospheric. The corn plant’s leafy stalk produces ears that contain kernels commonly used as a cooking starch.
Evidence of corn consumption can be traced back to ancient times. Today, corn is a fundamental food in the modern world and serves as a primary source of carbohydrates and minerals. In Western countries, corn cereal is commonly included in breakfast menus, making it one of the most popular foods globally. However, there is a significant issue when it comes to consuming corn because typically only the kernels are eaten, leaving the corncob and rest of the plant (corn stoves) to be discarded. Interestingly, these corncobs and corn stalks are abundant sources of cellulose – fibrous components found in plants. The diverse arrangements of cellulose contribute to various types of fibers.
The following vegetable fibers are commonly used: cotton, hemp, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, basses, and banana. It is surprising that corn stoves contain 37.4% cellulose and corncobs have 39.1% cellulose content. This suggests that maize plants have great potential in textile production. Our research has demonstrated that Dextrose (also known as corn sugar or D-glucose) can be utilized to manufacture Poly Lactic Acid (PLAN), a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, through a series of processes.
The PLAN polymer has a wide range of applications, including food service ware, fibers, and durables. Unlike traditional petroleum-derived polymers, PLAN is 100% renewable and biodegradable. While PLAN has been in the market for a long time, the potential of corncobs and corn stoves as a plentiful source of cellulose to produce PLAN has not been fully utilized. In this proposal, we aim to extract cellulose from maize plants, hydrolyze it into Dextrose using enzymes, ferment it, and convert it into PLAN. Lastly, we will use the PLAN to create non-woven textiles. Maize plants are tall plants that produce yellow kernels, which are used as vegetables and animal feed. They can grow up to 2.5m (8ft) or even 12m (40ft) in height. The stem resembles a bamboo cane, composed of intercedes that are 18 cm (7 in) in length. Each node produces a leaf that is 9 cm (3 in) wide and 120 cm (4 ft) long. Ears develop above some of the leaves in the middle of the plant and can grow up to 18 cm (7 in), with the maximum observed length being 60 cm (24in). These ears are female inflorescence surrounded by several layers of husks.Certain types of maize have been selectively bred to yield multiple ears. These ears, known as “baby corn,” are commonly used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. The top part of the stem terminates in the tassel, which is a cluster of male flowers.
When the tassel becomes mature and the weather is warm and dry enough, the anthers on the tassel determine and release pollen. Maize pollen is dispersed by wind and is considered amphibious. Due to its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel. Silks, which are elongated stigmas, appear from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. These silks are usually pale yellow and have a length of 7 in (178 mm), resembling tufts of hair. At the end of each silk is a carpel that can potentially develop into a “kernel” if it is fertilized by a pollen grain.
The fruit’s pericardia and seed coat, known as “carrycots”, are fused together, resembling that of grasses. The entire kernel is often referred to as the “seed”. The structure of the cob is similar to a multiple fruit, but the individual fruits, or kernels, do not merge into one mass. The grains are approximately the size of peas and are arranged in orderly rows around a white, spongy substance that forms the ear (the largest kernel size in this subspecies is reportedly 2.5 cm/l). On average, an ear can contain 600 kernels. These kernels come in various colors such as blackish, bluish-gray, purple, green, red, white, and yellow.
When ground into flour, maize produces more flour with less bran compared to wheat. Maize does not contain the protein gluten found in wheat, resulting in baked goods with poor rising capability. There is a genetic variant of maize known as sweet corn, which has higher sugar and lower starch content and is consumed as a vegetable. Young ears of sweet corn can be eaten raw along with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures during summer months, the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries out. Towards the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become hard to chew unless they are cooked tender in boiling water first. Please refer to Diagram 1 for a depiction of a baby maize plant and Diagram 1.2 for a mature maize plant. The density at which maize is planted affects various aspects of its growth. In developed countries, modern farming techniques often use dense planting, resulting in one ear per stalk. Silage maize is planted even denser, which leads to a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. Maize is a facultative short-day plant and flowers when it reaches a certain number of growing degree days (>10°C or 50°F) in its adapted environment. The influence of long nights on the number of days it takes for maize to flower is genetically determined and regulated by the photometer system.
Tropical cultivar can display peculiar photoelectric traits, wherein the lengthy daylight hours typical of higher latitudes cause the plants to grow excessively tall, making it difficult for them to produce seeds before succumbing to frost. Nevertheless, these characteristics can prove advantageous in utilizing tropical maize for pleasurable purposes. Premature maize shoots amass a potent antibiotic substance called 2,4- directory-7-methods-1 ,4-bonanza-3-one (DOMINO). DOMINO belongs to a family of hydrodynamic acids, also known as obnoxiousness, which serve as a natural defense against various pests such as insects, pathogenic fungi, and bacteria.
DOMINO can also be found in related grasses, such as wheat. In wheat, the absence of DOMINO makes the plant susceptible to aphids and fungi. Additionally, DOMINO plays a role in protecting immature maize from the European corn borer. However, as maize matures, levels of DOMINO decrease, making it less resistant to the corn borer. Maize’s vulnerability to droughts, intolerance of nutrient-rich soils, and tendency to be uprooted by strong winds stem from its shallow roots.
The color of yellow maize comes from eluting and examining, while red-clouded maize gets its kernel coloration from anticipations and blasphemes. These substances are synthesized in the flavorings synthetic pathway through the expression of the maize pericardia color (Pl) gene, which encodes an RARE mob-like transcriptional activator of the AY gene. The AY gene encodes for the dehydrogenation 4-reeducates, which is responsible for reducing dehydrogenation into flan-4-Los. Another gene, known as Suppressor of Pericardia Pigmentation 1 or ASPI, acts as a suppressor.
The Pl gene encodes a transcriptional activator similar to Mob, which activates genes involved in producing red paleographer pigments. Conversely, the Pl- war allele causes colorless kernel pericardia and red cobs, with an unstable factor for oranges. The Full factor modifies the expression of the P I-war gene to produce pigmentation in kernel pericardia and other vegetative tissues that do not usually accumulate paleographer pigments. In maize, the P gene codes for a Mob homology that recognizes the ACT/ACE sequence, unlike vertebrate Mob proteins that bind to C/ATTACH. There are diagrams depicting a corn field in America and a harvest scene in India.
Maize is extensively cultivated worldwide, with higher production than any other grain. The United States alone contributes 40% of global maize harvest, while China, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India France, and Argentina are also significant producers. In 2009, global maize production exceeded rice (678 million tons) and wheat (682 million tons), reaching 817 million tons. Approximately 159 million hectares (390 million acres) of land were used for maize cultivation in 2009 resulting in a yield of over 5 tons per hectare (80 buy/acre).
Production in certain regions of the world can vary greatly. For instance, in Iowa, production was predicted to reach 11614 keg/ha (185 buy/acre) in 2009. However, there is contradictory evidence regarding the growth of maize yield potential in recent decades. It is proposed that changes in yield potential are connected to factors such as leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits instead of an individual plant’s increased yield potential.
In 2010, the maize planted area for all purposes in the US was estimated at 35 million hectares (87.9 million cress) following a rising trend since 2008. Approximately 14% of the harvested corn area is irrigated. Diagram 1.5 shows corn production in America during 2010, while Table 1.1 presents the top ten maize producers in 2013 by country and their production in tones. The top ten producers were United States, China, Brazil, Argentina, Ukraine, India, Mexico, Indonesia, France, and South Africa. Diagram 1.6 displays corn stoves in mass form.
Corn stover, also known as maize stover, is the leftover residue from a maize plant (Zea Mays SSP. Mays L.) after the harvest of cereal grain. It consists of the stalk, leaves, husks, and cobs that are left in the field. Corn stover makes up approximately half of the crop yield and is similar to straw. It is a common agricultural product in areas with high corn production. Along with the non-grain part of harvested corn, corn stover may also include other weeds and grasses. It has low water content and a large volume. While it can be used as forage for grazing or collected as fodder, it is typically not utilized. Corn stover can also serve as fuel for pioneering or as feedstock for bio products. Together with other lignocellulosic biomass, maize stover offers a potential of 1.3 billion tons of raw materials for future fuel production over the next 50 years. In the Netherlands and Belgium, significant improvements in yield have been achieved by harvesting the entire plant and crushing it during harvest. Primarily used as winter food for cows, it is referred to as “salamis.”
Field corn and sweet corn, which are two different varieties of maize, have similar corn stover products. However, corn stover is not always harvested in all regions where corn is grown. Some agronomists express concerns about removing stover from the fields every year, as it may negatively impact soil fertility and structure.
The use of corn stover is growing over time. One particular use is for corn producers who also raise cattle. Corn stover can be advantageous for cattle producers since it provides a low-cost feed source for mid-gestation beef cows. Apart from the stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs that remain in the field after harvest, there may also be leftover grain kernels. These leftover kernels, along with the corn stover, serve as an additional feed source for grazing cattle. It is crucial to graze the corn stover soon after harvest as the value of the stalks diminishes over time as a feed option. On average, one to two months of grazing per cow per acre (50 cows on 50 acres) is feasible on a field of corn stover.
Another application for corn stover lies in producing cellulosic ethanol. However, due to the formidable glycoside bonds linking chains of D-glucose units, a substantial portion of the energy potential of cellulose is wasted using current technology. Biomass ethanol, on the other hand, refers to ethanol created from non-grain Lana materials known as biomass.The corn stoves generated from corn crops in the vicinity of ethanol plants are a plentiful source of biomass for ethanol production. These corn stoves are easily accessible and make them an ideal choice for biomass ethanol production. A new DuPont facility in Nevada, Iowa is set to produce 30 million gallons of cellulose befoul annually from corn stoves residues, with an estimated completion date of mid-2014. The table below shows the various components of corn stoves, including Cellulose/Gluten, Galaxy, Arabian, Manna, Galactic, Aligning, Acetate Protein, and corncob, which is the central core where kernels grow on a maize ear (Zee Mays SSP. Mays L.).
The corn plant’s ear is also referred to as a “cob” or “pole.” However, it does not fully become a “pole” until the ear is shucked, or removed from the surrounding plant material. Young ears, also known as baby corn, can be eaten raw. However, as the plant matures, the cob becomes tougher and only the kernels remain edible. When harvesting corn, the corncob may be collected as part of the ear or left in the field. The innermost part of the cob is white and has a foam plastic-like consistency. Although this part of the maize is not widely used, there are some specific applications for corncobs in certain areas.
For example, corncobs have various industrial uses such as being a source of the chemical formula. In addition, they can be used as fodder for ruminant livestock despite their low nutritional value. Boiling corncobs in water results in a thickeners-containing liquid that can be added to soup stock or made into traditional sweetened corncob jelly. Livestock can also benefit from corncobs as they absorb moisture and provide a compliant surface. They can also be used as a mild abrasive for cleaning building surfaces when coarsely ground. Moreover, corncobs can serve as the raw material for making bowls of corncob pipes. Furthermore, they can be burned to provide heat and used in charcoal production.
Cellulose is an organic compound represented by the chemical formula (C6H1005) n. It is a polysaccharide composed of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of ?4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose plays a crucial role as a structural component in the primary cell wall of green plants, various types of algae, and the mastectomy. Certain species of bacteria secrete cellulose to form films. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer found on Earth. Cotton fiber contains around 90% cellulose, wood has a cellulose content of 40-50%, and dried hemp has approximately cellulose Content. The primary uses of cellulose are in the production of paperboard and paper.
Smaller 45% quantities are transformed into numerous derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. The conversion of cellulose, derived from energy crops, into advantageous fuels like cellulose ethanol is currently being investigated. The cellulose utilized for industrial purposes is primarily obtained from wood pulp and cotton. Certain animals, specifically ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the assistance of symbiotic micro-organisms, such as Thyrotrophic, residing in their guts. For humans, cellulose functions as a hydrophilic bulking agent in feces and is commonly referred to as “dietary fiber”.
Cellulose, the main ingredient of textiles made from cotton, linen, and other plant fibers, has a rich history in the development of thermoplastic polymers. In 1870, the Hyatt Manufacturing Company used cellulose to create the first successful thermoplastic polymer called celluloid. Later, in the sass, cellulose was also utilized in the production of rayon, often referred to as “artificial silk.” The invention of cellophane followed in 1912. It wasn’t until 1920 that Hermann Staggering determined the polymer structure of cellulose. Then, in 1992, Sickbay’s and Soda successfully synthesized cellulose chemically, without the use of any biologically derived enzymes.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, cellulose has been transformed into rayon, a significant fiber used in textiles. This process involves dissolving pulp via viscose to create cellophane and rayon, which are referred to as “regenerated cellulose fibers” due to their identical chemical structure. A more eco-friendly alternative known as the Loosely process has been developed to produce a type of rayon. One of the steps in breaking down cellulose, called celluloid’s, involves converting it into smaller polysaccharides called cloistering or completely into glucose units through a hydrolysis reaction.
Celluloid’s breakdown is more challenging compared to other polysaccharides due to the strong binding of cellulose molecules. However, this process can be intensified by using a suitable solvent, such as an ionic liquid. Most mammals have limited capacity to digest dietary fibers like cellulose. Ruminants like cows and sheep have symbiotic anaerobic bacteria, such as Celluloses, in their rumen flora. These bacteria produce celluloses enzymes that aid in the breakdown of cellulose, allowing the microorganisms to utilize the breakdown products for growth.
The bacterial mass is digested by the ruminant in its stomach and small intestine. Similarly, lower termites have flagellate protozoa that produce enzymes for digestion, while higher termites have bacteria for this purpose. Some termites can also produce their own cellulose. Fungi, which naturally play a role in nutrient recycling, can also break down cellulose. The enzymes used to break the glycoside linkage in cellulose include glycoside hydrolysis enzymes, including end-acting celluloses and ex-acting glycoside.
Enzymes that are responsible for breaking down cellulose, such as glucose, are typically released as part of larger complexes that may also contain modules for bonding with other substances like carbohydrates. Diagram 1.9 shows the resulting breakdown product of cellulose – a glucose molecule. Diagram 1.4 depicts dextrose/glucose and diagram 1.10 represents a single glucose molecule. Glucose, also known as dextrose or grape sugar/corn sugar, is a simple carbohydrate found in plants. It is easily absorbed into the bloodstream during digestion and serves as an important source of energy and metabolic intermediate for cells in biology.
Glucose, a main product of photosynthesis, is a fuel for cellular respiration. It has the molecular formula C6H1206 and contains fifteen lodestones. These lodestones differ from glucose only in the positions of the substitutes (-H and -OH) at the four choral centers. When all four choral centers are changed, it creates a mirror image of the original molecule with similar chemical properties. However, its interaction with other compounds, such as in the body, is significantly different.
Only one form of glucose, called D-glucose, is commonly found in nature. Glucose has various structural isomers, such as different hexes and incisions, similar to other lodestones. However, glucose also has unique structural isomers known as the ring-shaped glamorousness and glamorousness. These isomers are quickly formed and interconnected when glucose is dissolved in water, and they can be crystallized as separate compounds. These cyclic forms of glucose were discovered later than regular glucose and are typically referred to as glucose’s cyclic forms.
The open chain form of glucose, known as (OR,AS,OR,OR)-2,3,4,5,6-Phenolphthalein’s, contains the reactive allayed that gives glucose its reducing properties and facilitates these reactions. D-glucose is sometimes called dextrose, a name that comes from declaratory glucose because when D-glucose is dissolved in water, it causes polarized light to rotate to the right (dextrose). However, the “D” in D-glucose actually refers to a chiral chemical configuration in sugars and not the ability to rotate light (for instance, D-fructose rotates light to the left).