Explain the three major principles of cell theory in your own words. 2. What characteristics are shared by most cells? 3. How did improvements in the microscope help scientists form the cell theory? 4. How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ? 5. Today, scientists can study human cell grown in Petri dishes. Explain how this technique builds on the work of early scientists. 6. In what way are cells similar to atoms? 7.
Suppose a certain poison kills human cells by blocking pores in the nuclear membrane. Explain why it would or would not kill bacteria. 3. 2 Cell Organelles: 8. What are the differences between plant and animal cells? 9. What problems might a cell experience if it had no cytokines? 10. How are the nucleus and a vesicle similar and different in structure and function? 1 1 . In what ways are lissome, vesicles and the central vacuole similar? 12. Would it be accurate to say that a chloroplast makes energy for a plant cell? Explain your answer. 13.
What are the functions of the cytokines? 14. Describe the structure of the nucleus. 15. Explain the structure and function of the mitochondria. 16. What function does the cell wall perform in a plant? 17. What similarities do mitochondria and chloroplasts share? 18. Describe how the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Googol apparatus are structurally similar. 19. Medicine, alcohol and many drugs are detoxified in liver cells. Why do you think the liver cells of some people who abuse alcohol and drugs have an increased amount of smooth ERE? 3. 3.
Cell Membrane: 20. Describe a semi-permeable membrane with which you are already familiar. 21 . How do intracellular receptors differ from membrane receptors? 22. Why do phosphoric form a double layer? 23. Explain how membrane receptors transmit messages across the cell membrane. 24. Describe the similarities between enzymes and receptors. 25. If proteins were rigid, why would they make poor receptors? 26. Insulin helps cells take up sugar from the blood. Explain the effect on blood sugar levels if insulin receptors stopped working. 3. 4 Diffusion and Osmosis 27.
How would adding salt to the isotonic solution surrounding a red blood cell affect the cell? 28. What will happen to a houseplant if you water it with salt water (a hypersonic solution)? 29. Explain why transport proteins are needed in the cell membrane. 30. Explain what a concentration gradient is and what it means for a molecule to diffuse down its concentration gradient. 31 . Explain why facilitated diffusion does not require energy from a cell. 32. A cell is bathed in fluid. However, you notice that water is flowing out of the cell. In what kind of solution is this cell immersed?
Isotonic, hypotonic, or hypersonic? 33. How are receptors and transport proteins similar. 34. When a person becomes dehydrated due to loss of fluids and solutes, saline solution (water and salts) is infused into the bloodstream by medical personnel. Why is saline solution used instead of pure water? 3. 5 Active Transport, Endometriosis and Exoticism 35. In what ways are active transport proteins similar to enzymes? 36. What might happen if vesicles in your neurons were suddenly unable to fuse with the cell membrane? 37. How do transport proteins that are pumps differ from those that are channels? . How do endometriosis and exoticism differ from diffusion? 39. Small lipid molecules are in high concentration outside a cell. They slowly cross the membrane into the cell. What term describes this action? Does it require energy? 40. Ions are low in concentration outside a cell. They move rapidly into the cell via protein molecules. What term describes this action? Does it require energy? 41 . Suppose molecules were unable to diffuse into and out of cells. How might life be different if cells had to use active transport to move every substance?