Blood force per unit area is the measuring of arterial force per unit area as a consequence of the contraction and relaxation of the bosom. The force per unit area upon the contraction of the bosom is usually defined as the systolic force per unit area while the force per unit area upon relaxation is referred to as the diastolic force per unit area.
Both are measured in millilitres of quicksilver ( mm Hg ) and are most of import in mensurating a healthy blood force per unit area. The bosom rate, which is normally expressed in beats per minute, is besides of import when mensurating the strength and health of a bosom.
An person with a healthy bosom will normally hold a systolic force per unit area of 120 mmHg and a diastolic force per unit area of 80 mmHg ( Bishop 2009 ) . A normal bosom rate is within the scope of 60 beats per minute and 80 beats per minute ( Weedman 2009 ) . The most common manner to mensurate an persons blood force per unit area and bosom rate is with a sphygmomanometer, a machine that when used right is able to accurately find a individual ‘s blood force per unit area.
Both blood force per unit area and bosom rate are unfixed and invariably altering in response to the organic structure. Factors such as diet, exercising and physical and psychological emphasis can change the arterial force per unit area. An person ‘s blood force per unit area will increase when the vass in the organic structure constrict while the bosom tries to continually pump the same sum of blood throughout the organic structure. The blood force per unit area will diminish when the vass addition in diameter and blood is able to flux through them with easiness. High blood force per unit area is referred to as high blood pressure while low blood force per unit area is referred to as hypotension. An person ‘s organic structure might respond to trouble or emphasize with an addition in blood force per unit area or respond to constant and frequent exercising with an over all lessening in blood force per unit area over a period of clip.
Hydration is an of import portion of the circulatory system. Appropriate hydration is important for normal organic structure map. Hydration helps to administer the necessary foods, modulate organic structure temperature and dispose of waste within the organic structure ( Patterson, 2005 ) . Water should do up about 60 % of an grownups organic structure weight. A deficiency of proper hydration can impact blood volume, plasma volume and the volume of ruddy blood cells in the organic structure ( Costill 1974 ) .
In the experiment we designed and performed in category, we wanted to detect different factors impacting blood force per unit area. We asked the inquiry, “Does hydration consequence an persons blood force per unit area and bosom rate? ” We so generated a testable hypothesis that the ingestion of H2O will increase blood force per unit area every bit good as bosom rate.
Materials and Methods:
We began the experiment by taking two variables, dependent and independent. The independent variable was consumption of 16 ounces of H2O in order to hydrate an person ; the dependent variable was the mensural bosom rate and blood force per unit area. We besides designated our experimental replicates groups. All together there were a sum of 26 persons in the experimental group. The full experimental group was divided into braces. When blood force per unit area and bosom rate were taken throughout the experiment, they were taken by the person ‘s spouse. We took three basal / resting blood force per unit area readings. To make so we placed the blood force per unit area turnup on the left arm of the person tested and used the sphygmomanometer to find the person ‘s resting systolic and diastolic blood force per unit area every bit good as his/her bosom rate. To right locate the force per unit area turnup on the arm, we assured that the turnup was placed about 3 centimeters above the cubitus. We made certain there was no bulky vesture between the person ‘s arm and the turnup. The tubing taking from the sphygmomanometer to the turnup was situated on the inmost side of the arm, near the brachial arteria ( Weedman 2009 ) . When wrapping the force per unit area turnup around the arm, we assured that it was neither excessively snug or to free. We pumped the turnup with the gum elastic bulb until it reached 150 millimeter Hg. To make so needed that we squeeze the bulb while our finger covered the air hole and let go ofing to let the bulb to replenish. Once at 150mm Hg, the sphygmomanometer bit by bit released the force per unit area until the digital reading came up on the screen. We so recorded the informations and repeated this measure two more times to hold a sum of three basal readings.
After recovering the resting blood force per unit area, we had the single consume about two cups ( 16 oz ) of H2O rapidly ( less than one minute ) and the spouse instantly took a blood force per unit area reading with the sphygmomanometer. We followed the initial station reading with four more readings in clip intervals of three proceedingss exchanging off between spouses. We recorded the systolic, diastolic, and bosom rate for each of these readings. The turnup was taken off after each reading to let the force per unit area to be reestablished in the person between each reading.
Throughout the experiment, the information was collected by each person and so collected and put into an excel spreadsheet. The information that was collected included each topic ‘s basal and experimental blood force per unit area and bosom rate readings along with the comparative temperature of the H2O consumed ( cold or room temperature ) . The gathered information was so analyzed utilizing different signifiers of statistics. We used a “T test” every bit good as spliting relevant informations into subgroups and found the scope and norm of the informations.
In this experiment, we exposed a group of 26 persons to desiccation and so had them devour a sum of 16 ounces to rehydrate. Their blood force per unit area was so taken instantly every bit good as in intervals of three proceedingss for a sum of 12 proceedingss. We predicted that hydrating an person would increase their blood force per unit area and diminish the bosom rate, nevertheless, we found that hydration in fact does the antonym.
When forming and reexamining the information for this experiment it is clear that our consequences for this experiment were relevant. Our information was calculated based on norms of pulse rates and blood force per unit areas. Our averaged informations was so organized in graphs and tabular arraies that were divided into subgroups based on the temperature of the H2O consumed ( cold, room temperature, and unknown temperature ) . Finally, the scopes of each subgroup and T-tests were calculated based off of our informations. We calculated three T-tests from our informations. One T-test used consequences of mean pulse rate readings from the cold, room temperature, and unknown H2O consumed. Another T-test was calculated from the mean systolic consequences from the cold H2O, room temperature H2O, and the unknown H2O consumed. The concluding T-test used the mean diastolic consequences from the cold H2O, room temperature H2O, and unknown H2O consumed. The values for each T-test can be seen in Tables 1, 2, and 3, T-tests. Because the values for each of the T-test was less than 5 % , it can be concluded that the information collected shows a correlativity between hydration and blood force per unit area and bosom rate.
In graph 1, the room temperature graph, the bosom rate overall decreased. In graph # 2, the 2nd room temperature graph, the systolic and diastolic force per unit areas besides decreased. In the cold H2O bosom rate graph, graph # 3, the bosom rate drastically increased. In graph # 4, both the systolic and diastolic force per unit areas decreased. Finally, in graph # 3, the graph demoing unknown temperatures of the H2O, the bosom rate had an overall lessening. Graph # 4 showed that the diastolic force per unit area had an overall lessening in force per unit area while the systolic had an overall little addition.
Originally, we hypothesized that blood force per unit area and bosom rate would be affected by hydration. We predicted that an addition in hydration would proportionately increase the blood force per unit area and bosom rate. Our consequences do to some extent back up our hypothesis and anticipations. Our consequences show that hydration does impact blood force per unit area and bosom rate. Our informations collected by and large shows that hydration, over a short period of clip, will overall diminish the arterial force per unit areas ( systolic and diastolic ) as seen in Graphs 2, 4, and 6. The information in each subgroup besides shows that pulse rate will be affected otherwise by different temperatures of H2O. When consuming cold H2O, the pulsation rate by and large increases, while those that consumed room temperature H2O have a decreased pulsation rate as seen in Graph 1 and 3.
A hypothesis that would right back up the consequences of this experiment would be, “Hydration ( the ingestion of H2O ) will diminish blood force per unit area while cold H2O will increase bosom rate.” Though this hypothesis is accurately supported by the consequences, this hypothesis may besides be wrong. One manner it can be determined that our consequences entirely back up our hypothesis is the value of the T-tests calculated for this experiment. The value of the T-tests based off of the mean pulse rate, systolic force per unit area, and diastolic force per unit area were all below 5 % . This shows low variableness within the experiment and suggests that our experimental consequences are valid. Because the T-test was below 5 % , it can be concluded that our consequences from this experiment are important.
Our consequences back up the fact that hydration does diminish blood force per unit area. After much research, it is shown that, “dehydration and blood force per unit area are linked – that it is non aging that leads to High Blood Pressure, but instead dehydration.” ( Healthy Water 2007 ) . Our consequences for our experiment relate to this statement because our informations shows that hydration lowers blood force per unit area, and reciprocally suggests that desiccation would make the antonym by increasing blood force per unit area. When an person is dehydrated, their blood vass compensate the deficiency of H2O by undertaking and rising blood force per unit area. When an person is sufficiently hydrated their vass are filled with a high blood volume that holds the vass unfastened and relaxed while transporting H2O to cardinal variety meats and systems throughout the organic structure.
There were many failings and defects in our experiment and experimental design. One defect in experimental design was the deficiency of a control group. Though radical readings were taken prior to the experiment, there was no separate group that was non treated with the independent variable and measured throughout the experiment. Besides, our experiment was done in a haste that could hold affected the blood force per unit area and bosom rate throughout the experiment. The sphygmomanometers that were used frequently came up with “error” which may hold contributed to the insignificance of our informations. Finally, there was no manner of mensurating the degree of desiccation of the experimental group prior to imbibing the 16 ounces of H2O. The information will change with the different degrees of hydration and without cognizing the exact degree of hydration of each person it would be impossible to group them together.
Though our consequences did non fit our hypothesis, they were comparable to similar experiments. Our informations did demo that an addition in hydration will diminish blood force per unit area. However, our informations and experimental design is neither accurate or acceptable due to mistakes in experimental design and experimental defects.
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Healthy Water. 2007. Dehydration and Blood Pressure upsets are linked. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthy-water-best-filters.com/dehydration-blood-pressure.html. February 20, 2009.
Patterson SM, Rochette LM. 2005. Hydration position and cardiovascular map: effects of hydration sweetening on cardiovascular map at remainder and during psychological emphasis. International Journal of Psychophysiology 56: 81-91.
Weedman D, Sokoloski ES. 2009. Biology of Organisms. 5th Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. P 173-184.
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