The United States finally outlawed slavery after a bloody civil war tore the nation apart. After a brief Reconstruction period that allowed a small measure of political and economic participation by Black Men, states began to enact “Black Codes” or laws that were meant to keep the black population from voting, owning property, and other means of citizenship.
The 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson established the separation from whites and blacks. Central Arkansas wanted to do a test of integration of blacks in an all white school after segregation was declared unconstitutional in the 1954 Supreme Court decision from B v. B.
9 students were chosen to be apart of that test and included: Melba Pattillo Beals, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Thelma Mothershed, and last Terrence Roberts. The nine students that attended Central High School in Little Rock faced daily tragedies in their time.
Efforts were made during the Reconstruction Era 1865-1877 that were designed to help free slaves, but failed. And the Thirteenth Amendment was declared in 1865 by The House of Representatives also by Abraham Lincoln, he was president at that time and fought to established free slaves only because it wasn’t easily going by Congressmen.
But in 1864 before the new laws were set Abraham Lincoln prepared to declared the 13th amendment but many Democrats decided not to help and when the law was passed from a vote to 119-56 it was passed throughout the states to be certain; December 1865, these three Amendments failed.
The 13th Amendment States “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction”.
Also the “14th Amendment promises” that African Americans are permitted Citizens and will have the same equal protection just as other citizens which was passed on July 9, 1868. This meant that the 14th Amendment made former slaves Citizens of the United States, also gave them the equal protection by the Law. This law failed because the states did not care to do right by the 14th amendment mainly by southerners also Slaves and African Americans weren’t getting the equal protection that was declared to get by the 14th Amendment .
The 15th Amendment was passed on February 26, 1869 which made promises to black males to vote, and meant that it was “the beginning of a struggle for equality” for African Americans, these laws were all efforts for a start of equal laws for African Americans. The laws were a failure of reconstruction because of Black codes, which were to limit a point against the freedom of black individual slaves formed by Jim Crow’s System “separate but equal” meaning blacks would supposedly have the same equal rights as whites also to be segregated from whites and they were to affect freedom of African Americans. The South was most effective because it was easily passed by their Congress, there wasn’t anybody who cared to say no to that law also it decided where African Americans go to school, eat in restaurants, sit and etc. these three amendments also outlined the free slaves as citizens, and equal protection, and punishment only for the crime they have commited to but when the 14th Amendment was passed throughout the states and it was failed as a law, meaning nobody did right by that law,or contributed to speak up about it. In 1891 many citizens committee’s test the Jim Crow law on the separate car law and the court case of Plessy v. ferguson established the ruling of Jim Crows “separate but equal law” because on June 7, 1892 Plessy sat on a white compartment purposely to stop that law, meaning that it was barley equal but very much separate and he was arrested the same day, argued that the law of Jim Crow was unconstitutional and the Supreme Court ignored Plessy and still charge against him. On May 15th, 1896 The Supreme Court made its decision about the Plessy v. Ferguson case granting it a constitutional law in Louisiana.
Paving its way for African Americans to have equal education with the triumphs that came with Brown v. Board which made The supreme Court decision on segregation in the Civil Rights Movement along with Brown V. Board the NAACP was formed in 1909, February in New York they were a group of interracial activist inspired because of the Springfield race riot in 1908 in Illinois which happened of the murder of two black men being arrested for a crime they did not commit against white people, also they were killed by a mob that managed to burn down forty homes which encourage the form of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP help with the case of McLaurin v. Oklahoma in 1948 this was a Supreme Court case about a student who went to Oklahoma University named George McLaurin in 1948. This case was about how George was getting mistreated by the professor of his school and how he was violating the equal protection of the 14th Amendment by telling McLaurin to sit outside of the classroom, this shows how the professor was keeping him from learning also because he was enrolled as a segregated basis meaning he could not associate, or sit with the other white students and that is being unequal. In 1950 George McLaurin sued the professor, The Supreme Court ruled that the school did violate the 14th Amendment and he got justice because the professor was endangering his education to graduate. “The Supreme Court stated that the restrictions impaired and inhibited his ability to study, to engage in discussion and exchange of views with other students and to learn his profession. The school violated McLaurin’s right to equal educational opportunity”. Which This all was a very important triumph for the NAACP to help end school segregation. Six years later In 1954 on May 17th The Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren made his final decision to declare the segregation of schools unconstitutional in the ruling of Brown v. Board and the Civil Rights Act from violating the 14th Amendment in Topeka Kansas. Which publish the justice for the Plessy v. Ferguson case and ended the “separate but equal” law, set by the Supreme Court 60 years before, this was another triumph for the Civil Rights Movement because in the NAACP and other fought to put a end to the Jim Crow status law. Directly in the year of 1955 on May 31’ Earl Warren had moved in forward and in acted desegregation “with all deliberate speed” from The Brown even though a lot of discussions, opinions, and feeling were almost negative about this new change in law. The new law had been out In Arkansas the southern states began to follow the Brown’s order and start to segregate their public schools. Central High was one of the schools that started to integrate from a test in 1954 Brown v Board, the nine students that attended Central High School in Little Rock faced daily tragedies in their time as in name calling of their race, trash being thrown at them, and also large groups of people staring at them like they were a very big outcast. This encouraged others to fight Jim Crow’s system of segregation, paving triumphs for the Civil Rights Movement. Also after this executive order, was placed on September 23, declaring the Federal Troops to help the peace of Little Rock while Arkansas started integrating.
When African Americans got the right to vote it was automatically gonna be a very large amount of black voters and from that time which paved the way for more equal right meaning blacks also wanted to more equality because African Americans were still being mistreated. And from The Little Rock Nine encouraged The freedom March in Selma and paved its way for more people to support the fighting of equality for blacks fully and turned out to be a important reason for the Federal Government to reconsider more specific, “national” voting rights. This all started with the increasing amount of people that came to the march starting from March 7 when John Lewis lead the march on March 7th and than before the passing of President Kennedy he promise for a new law. This all was established after he died by President Lyndon B. Johnson and declared the new voting bill six days later. The year of the 21st Century is a triumph for Brown v. Board also segregation because some schools in Philadelphia are integrated high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools which is good from the time when slaves were first free to now going into the year of 2019. In conclusion these Civil Rights Acts paved the way for segregation to stop Jim Crow’s law also for the equal rights for African Americans also equal Education which all encouraged people across the nation to speak up and start to desegregate.