It would be useful to point out certain chief characteristics of Managerial Economics, inasmuch it’s they throw further light on the nature of the subject matter and help in a clearer understanding thereof.
- Managerial Economics micro-economic in character.
- Managerial Economics largely uses that body of economic concepts and principles, which is known as ‘Theory of the firm’ or ‘Economics of the firm’. In addition, it also seeks to apply Profit Theory, which forms part of Distribution Theories in Economics.
- Managerial Economics is pragmatic. It avoids difficult abstract issues of economic theory but involves complications ignored in economic theory to face the overall situation in which decisions are made. Economic theory appropriately ignores the variety of backgrounds and training found in individual firms but Managerial Economics considers the particular environment of decision-making.
- Managerial Economics belongs to normative economics rather than positive economics (also sometimes known as descriptive economics).
In other words, it is prescriptive rather than descriptive. The main body of economic theory confines itself to descriptive hypothesis, attempting to generalize about the relations among different variables without judgment about what is desirable or undesirable. For instance, the law of demand states that as price increases. Demand goes down or vice-versa but this statement does not tell whether the outcome is good or bad. Managerial Economics, however, is concerned with what decisions ought to be made and hence involves value judgments.
Production analysis is narrower in scope than cost analysis. Production analysis frequently proceeds in physical terms while cost analysis proceeds in monetary terms. Production analysis mainly deals with different production functions and their managerial uses. Supply analysis deals with various aspects of supply of a commodity. Certain important aspects of supply analysis are supply schedule, curves and function, law of supply and its limitations. Elasticity of supply and Factors influencing supply.
Pricing is a very important area of Managerial Economics. In fact, price is the ness of the revenue of a firm and as such the success of a business firm largely depends on the correctness of the pries decisions taken by it. The important aspects alt with under this area is: Price Determination in various Market Forms, Pricing methods, Differential Pricing, Product-line Pricing and Price Forecasting. Profit Management Business firms are generally organized for the purpose of making profits and, in long run, profits provide the chief measure of success.
In this connection, an important point worth considering is the element of uncertainty exiting about profits because of variations in costs and revenues which, in turn, are caused by torso both internal and external to the firm. If knowledge about the future were fact, profit analysis would have been a very easy task. However, in a world of certainty, expectations are not always realized so that profit planning and measurement constitute the difficult are of Managerial Economics. The important acts covered under this area are: Nature and Measurement of Profit.
Profit iciest and Techniques of Profit Planning like Break-Even Analysis. Capital Management Of the various types and classes of business problems, the most complex and able some for the business manager are likely to be those relating to the firm’s investments. Relatively large sums are involved, and the problems are so complex that their disposal not only requires considerable time and labour but is a term for top-level decision. Briefly, capital management implies planning and trolls of capital expenditure.
The main topics dealt with are: Cost of Capital. Rate return and Selection of Project. The various aspects outlined above represent the major uncertainties which a ness firm has to reckon with, viz. , demand uncertainty, cost uncertainty, price certainty, profit uncertainty, and capital uncertainty.