Cloning became to be, as a Finn Dorset ewe would provide the mammary cell forthe cloning process. Secondly the mammary cell containing all copies of everygene that is needed to make the sheep. Although the only genes for proteins thatare required by mammary cells are active. Thirdly the cells grow and then theyare divided, by making carbon copies of themselves. But if the cells are starvedof there nutrients, they will soon enter a quiescent state. When it gets to thispoint all of their genes are most likely already activated. In the fourth stagethere is an egg from a Scottish Blackface ewe that provides the egg. Then in thefifth stage the egg or oocyte, is being kept alive in a laboratory dish. Sixth,the nucleus is taken from the egg. Seventhly, the mammary cell and the egg arefused with a bolt of electricity. The molecules that are in the egg then beginto program the genes in the mammary cell to produce the lamb embryo. Then in theeight stage the clusters of the embryonic cells are finished processing. In theninth stage the embryos are inserted into the surrogate mother. Finally thetenth stage where the lamb is a result of a clone of the donor ewe. That lambwas Dolly. Dolly was the first mammal cloned from a cell from an adult animalThis all relates to Chemistry because Chemistry involves finding cures, doingexperiments, and combining chemicals. The way scientists started doing cloningwas through Chemistry by experimenting with different chemicals to get the rightreaction. One reason people have given for the invention of cloning is to makespare parts in the future. Once an embryo has been twinned, one embryo can beimplanted and allowed to develop into a baby, while the other is frozen. If thechild later develops an illness such as leukemia, then the frozen twin could bethawed and implanted into a surrogate mother, to be culled for spare parts aftera few months’ gestation. It is also believed that the technique could be adaptedto grow human organs such as hearts, kidneys, liver and pancreases in anembryonic sac living in an artificial womb. This means you could clone your deadfather. This could be done so long as living cells have been kept in culture,taken from before death, or have been frozen in an appropriate manner. This allaffects today’s world. Time-warp twins have already been born – non-identicaltwins conceived in the laboratory on the same day, but implanted 18 monthsapart. Geep have already been born – half sheep and half goat – and camels andlamas have also been combined to make camas. Cloning has always caught thepublic imagination. We now have the technology to take a few cells from a modernday Einstein, or a musical genius or a child prodigy and to create hundreds ofbabies that have exactly the same genes. Of course, as identical twins, cloneswill have individual differences, separate identities – separate souls. As faras future plans, genes from humans are already working in fish, rabbits, mice,pigs, sheep and cows. Some of these humanized pigs may be providers of hearttransplants in the future. It is predicted headless human clones will be used togrow organs and tissues for transplant surgery in the next 5-10 years. It isalso predicted there will be great pressure to combine cloning technology withthe creation of partial foetuses, missing heads, arms or legs, as organfactories for tomorrow’s people. For this reason President Clinton imposed afive-year ban on human cloning research funded by federal government dollars.
Even without legislation, the Food and Drug Administration has said that itwould shut down anyone who tries human cloning. Federal regulations require thatscientists seek approval before attempting cloning, and the FDA has indicatedthat it is highly unlikely they would grant such a request.
BibliographyNewsweek “Can We Clone?” New York, published 1997 Internet Cloning.