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Dalandan peels as foot powder

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“COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF CITRUS AURANTIUM PEELS IN POWDER FORM AND THE POSITIVE CONTROL FOOT POWDER AT THREE DIFFERENT MIXTURES AS
FOOT ODOR AND SWEAT MINIMIZER”

A Thesis Presented
to the Faculty
of Virgen Milagrosa Special
Science High School

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In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements
In Science Research II

By:
KATHLEEN MAE S.

Cancino

November 2009
APPROVAL SHEET
This thesis proposal entitled “Comparative Effects of Citrus aurantium Peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder at three different mixtures as Foot Odor and Sweat Minimizer”, prepared and submitted by KATHLEEN MAE S. CANCINO has been examined and hereby recommended for approval and acceptance as a partial fulfillment of the requirements in Science Research II is recommended for oral examination.

MR.MILOU C. MERCADO Thesis Adviser
________________________________________________________

Approved by this committee on the Final Examination on with a grade of_____.

MRS. JOYCE D. LORENZO
Chairperson

MRS. DECY SANTIAGO MRS. SHIRLEY FLORES-CASTRO Panelist Panelist ________________________________________________________

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements in Science Research II.

RIA S. CAGUIOA, MSc. Principal

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost the researcher offers her sincerest gratitude to Mr. Milou C. Mercado, for his patience and knowledge. His undying energy and enthusiasm in research had motivated all his students, including the researcher. In addition, he was always approachable and willing to help his students with their research. Mr. Alison Gutierrez, Research Director of Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation, deserve a special thanks for his guidance and insights to develop an understanding of the researcher’s study. Mrs. Ria S. Caguioa, her principal, who gave the researcher the courage to work on this study. And above all, to the Almighty God for giving strength, knowledge and courage to the researcher.

Kathleen Mae

iii
Dedication
This thesis
is affectionately dedicated
to my ever supportive and loving
family, teachers, friends and schoolmates
whose unconsuming love and care have always been a
well-spring of my inspiration during the completion of this study. And most
of all, to our Almighty God for all his blessings and guidance.

Kathleen Mae

iv
RESEARCH ABSTRACT
Title: “COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF CITRUS AURANTIUM PEELS IN POWDER FORM AND THE POSITIVE CONTROL FOOT POWDER AT THREE DIFFERENT MIXTURES AS FOOT ODOR AND SWEAT MINIMIZER”

Researcher: KATHLEEN MAE S. CANCINO

Research Adviser: MR. MILOU C. MERCADO

School: VIRGEN MILAGROSA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
SPECIAL SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL
M.P. POSADAS AVENUE, SAN CARLOS CITY, PANGASINAN

The objective of this research is to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form with the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. The main problem of this study is to test the Citrus aurantium peels in powder form as a foot odor and sweat minimizer. Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub problems. 1. What are the active constituents present in the Citrus aurantium peels? 2. What are the effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot powder

from Citrus aurantium peels.
b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
3. Is there any significant difference in the effect of Citrus aurantium
peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: v
a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
In this study, the null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance in which it states that there is no significant difference in the effect of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures. It is a known fact that people from all walks of life experience excessive perspiration in the body especially those who are physically active and those involved in sports, and one part of the body wherein this problem is not uncommon is the feet. When feet produce sweat and are acted upon by bacteria, this leads to foot odor. There are many available foot powders in the market to minimize the odor and perspiration of the feet. However, because of the economic crisis the country is facing nowadays, not everybody can afford to buy these foot powders. This is the reason why people should think of a cheaper, yet affordable remedy in place of the commercially prepared foot powders which are rather expensive. The use of Citrus aurantium peels is one of the best remedy for this problem. The study aims to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form with the commercially available foot powder as a foot odor and sweat minimizer. If the proposition is proven, people can utilize it as an alternative foot powder. Specifically, the following people will benefit most from the results of the proposition: Sports enthusiasts, which include track athletes and vi

basketball players, cannot deny the fact that they could have foot odor and foot sweating brought about by excessive perspiration since they often use closed shoes. With this, they are one of those who will benefit most in the study. They can use the Citrus aurantium peels in powder form as a foot odor and sweat minimizer; and the Students who spend more time in school wearing
closed shoes, so they can have a bigger chance of having foot odor and foot sweating. The study aims to help them minimize odor and perspiration in the feet if not eliminated, thus solving their problem on foot odor and foot sweating. The study’s aim focused on foot odor and sweat minimization. The researcher conducted the experiment in the Research laboratory at the VMUF Centrum. The product was tested to 6 respondents only. These respondents were selected by network sampling in Barangay Galarin Urbiztondo, Pangasinan and in Barangay Pagal San Carlos City, Pangasinan. The researcher combined the positive control foot powder and the foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels at three different mixtures and compared it to a pure positive control foot powder. Each respondent applied one of the three mixtures in one foot and the pure positive control foot powder on the other foot. The process of application was made once a day in one week to the soles of the feet and between the toes carried by the bacterial activity which flourished warm part of the feet where the perspiration cannot evaporate promptly especially when wearing shoes. Determining the duration of the product was not a part of this study. The researcher did not perform a Phytochemical screening as to the constituents present on the Citrus aurantium peels. The research was prepared during the school year 2009-2010 at Virgen Milagrosa Special Science High School.

vii
Experimental Method of research was used in this study. It was designed to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the commercially prepared foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. An experimental method of research consists of manipulation and an experimental variable under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular event occurs. The subjects of this study were the research participants who are affected from the odor and excessive perspiration of the feet. These participants were selected by network sampling. The study needed the following for the experiment: Citrus aurantium peels, laboratory drying oven, electric grinder, electric weighing balance, spatula and beaker. In the study, the researcher gathered Citrus aurantium peels. These fresh peels were dried in a laboratory dying oven for 6 hours at 100 degrees. When ready to be powdered, the dried peels
were pounded in a fine powder with the aid of the electric grinder. When pounding was finished, the powder was transferred in a beaker and was covered. The process of application should be made once a day in a week. Ensure that feet are dry and clean. Just apply the Citrus aurantium peel powder freely between the toes and on the soles of the feet. The researcher used 6 respondents:

2 respondents – used the mixture of 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels. 2 respondents – used the mixture of 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels. 2 respondents – used the mixture of 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels.

viii
Each respondent applied one of the three mixtures in one foot and the pure positive control foot powder on the other foot. Based on the experiments and observations conducted by the researcher, the following were drawn: 1. Based on the research work gathered by the researcher the active constituents present in Citrus aurantium peels were citric acid, volatile oil-citral, geraniol, d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranillic acid methyl ester, linalyl acetate, pectin and neroli. 2. Based on the experimentation conducted, the effect of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form on patient’s feet is effective as positive control foot powder in terms of minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 3. Based on the Kruskal Wallis ANOVA test performed, the H computed value 6.25 is greater than the H tabular value 4.5714. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The active constituents that are found out to be responsible for minimizing the foot powder and sweat were citric acid, volatile oil-citral, d- camphene, linalyl acetate, geraniol and neroli. 2. It was concluded that the Citrus aurantium peels is effective in minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 3. There is a significant difference between the Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. The null hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted. Based on the findings of the study the
following recommendations are hereby offered: 1. It was recommended by the researcher that the powdered Citrus aurantium peels can be used as an alternative foot powder in minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 2. The researcher further recommends that the use of powdered Citrus aurantium peels must gain importance because it is effective as the positive control foot powder in

ix
terms of minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 3. The researcher recommends that the powdered Citrus aurantium peels should be used in further studies to discover and develop the use of this product as an alternative foot powder.

x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………i Approval sheet……………………………………………………………………………….ii Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………….iii Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………..iv Research Abstract………………………………………………………………………….v Table of contents………………………………………………………………………………….xi CHAPTER

I. THE PROBLEM
Background of the study…………………………………………………………….1
Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………………..3
Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………4
Null Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………..5
Significance of the study……………………………………………………………..5
Scope and Delimitations………………………………………………………………6
Definition of terms……………………………………………………………………….7 xi
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Professional Literature……………………………………………………………..9
Related Literature…………………………………………………………………….11 Related Studies………………………………………………………………………..11
Synthesis of the study……………………………………………………………..12 III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design…………………………………………………………………….14
Research Subject……………………………………………………………………..14 Materials and Instruments………………………………………………………14
Data Gathering Procedures…..………………………………………………..15 Application………………………………………………………………………………15
Biostatistical Treatment…………………………………………………….…….16 IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Active Constituents of
Citrus aurantium peels…………………………………………………………..18

Effect of Citrus aurantium peels
on minimizing foot odor and foot
sweating………………………………………………………………………………..19

xii

V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………….24

Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………24

Recommendations………………………………………………………………..25

APPENDICES
Appendix A ………………………………………………………………..………26 Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………..28 Appendix C…………………………………………………………………………..30 Appendix D…………………………………………………………………………..31 Appendix E…………………………………………………………………………..33

Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………..34 Curriculum Vitae …………………………………………………………………35

xiii
Chapter I
The Problem
Background of the Study
Whatever be the source of bad smell, people tend to stay away from it. Once they smell the odor, humans tend to search where it comes from and they gear away from it. It will be very embarrassing if the source is your feet, after removing your shoes and socks. Foot odor is actually a type of body odor that affects the feet of humans and is generally considered to be unpleasant. Its odor quality is often reported as a thick, cheesy smell. Some describe the smell like that of malt vinegar, but can sometimes be ammonia-like. Foot odor can sometimes be caused by wearing the same socks too many times in a row. Since socks directly contact feet, their composition can have an impact as foot odor. Polyester and nylon are common materials used to create socks but don’t provide as much ventilation as cotton, another common sock material. So, wearing polyester or nylon socks may increase perspiration and therefore may intensify foot odor. Since socks absorb varying amounts of perspiration from feet, wearing shoes without socks may increase the amount of perspiration contacting feet and thereby increase bacterial activities that cause odor (epodiatry.com). People wearing nylon stockings or pantyhose may experience increased foot odor. Wearing shoes or socks with inadequate ventilation for many hours also results to excessive perspiration of the feet since human feet are densely covered with sweat glands. Hair on the feet, especially on the toes, may also add to odor intensity by adding increased surface area for the bacteria to thrive in. The feet sweat a lot during hot weather, 1

especially when closed shoes are used. When sweat or perspiration mixes with bacteria, foot odor results. Thus, the roots of the problem are bacteria and sweat. Sweat or perspiration is really not avoidable. But even though this cannot be prevented, the presence of bacteria or odor can be minimized if not eliminated. So in connection with the study, the researcher gained interests conducting an experiment on Citrus aurantium peels in powder form as a foot odor and sweat minimizer, which is much more convenient and affordable. Likewise, the researcher know that foot deodorants are not that bought in the market because of its high prices that is why the researcher became interested producing a cheaper, yet effective foot deodorants that
can minimize the bad odor and sweating of feet. The researcher used Citrus aurantium peels in the study as a substitute that contains oil capable in minimizing odor for it has a distinctive essence or scent. Conducting the study can help those who are affected by great perspiration of the feet due to wearing closed shoes. This includes the sports enthusiasts, and even students, specifically high school and college students. Likewise, the study can help those who are hygiene-conscious, since hygiene is very important and should always be a priority.

2
Conceptual Framework
In this framework, the researcher had to explain their research study to have an insight to the problem. A paradigm representation of this is shown below.

3
Statement of the Problem
The study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form with the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the active constituents present in the Citrus aurantium peels? 2. What are the effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot power

from Citrus aurantium peels.
b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
3. Is there any significant difference in the effect of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot power

from Citrus aurantium peels.
b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.

4
Null Hypothesis
In the study, the researcher tested the following null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. 1. There is no significant difference in the effect of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures.

Significance of the Study
It is a known fact that people from all walks of life experience excessive perspiration in the body especially those who are physically active and those involved in sports, and one part of the body wherein this problem is not uncommon is the feet. When feet produce sweat and are acted upon by bacteria, this leads to foot odor. There are many available foot powders in the market to minimize the odor and perspiration of the feet. However, because of the economic crisis the country is facing nowadays, not everybody can afford to buy these foot powders. This is the reason why people should think of a cheaper, yet affordable remedy in place of the commercially prepared foot powders which are rather expensive. The use of Citrus aurantium peels is one of the best remedy for this problem. The study aims to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form with the commercially available foot deodorants as a foot odor and sweat minimizer. If the proposition is proven, people can utilize it as an alternative foot powder. Specifically, the following people will benefit most from the results of the proposition: Sports enthusiasts. Sports enthusiasts, which include track athletes and basketball players, cannot deny the fact that they could 5

have foot odor and foot sweating brought about by excessive perspiration
since they often use closed shoes. With this, they are one of those who will benefit most in the study. They can use the Citrus aurantium peels in powder form as a foot odor and sweat minimizer. Students. Students spend more time in school wearing closed shoes, so they can have a bigger chance of having foot odor and foot sweating. The study aims to help them minimize odor and perspiration in the feet if not eliminated, thus solving their problem on foot odor and foot sweating.

Scope and Delimitations
The study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. Its aim focused on odor and sweat minimization.

The researcher conducted the experiment in the Research laboratory at the VMUF Centrum. In the study, Citrus aurantium peels were gathered. These peels were dried in a laboratory dying oven for 6 hours at 100 degrees. The product was tested to 6 respondents only. These respondents were selected by network sampling in Barangay Galarin Urbiztondo, Pangasinan and in Barangay Pagal San Carlos City, Pangasinan. The researcher combined the positive control foot powder and the foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels at three different mixtures and compared it to a pure positive control foot powder. Each respondent applied one of the three mixtures in one foot and the pure positive control foot powder on the other foot. The process of application was made once a day in one week to the soles of the feet 6

and between the toes carried by the bacterial activity which flourished warm part of the feet where the perspiration cannot evaporate promptly especially when wearing shoes. Determining the duration of the product was not a part of this study. The researcher did not perform a Phytochemical screening as to the active constituents present on the Citrus aurantium peels.

The research study was prepared during the school year 2009-2010 at Virgen Milagrosa Special Science High School.

Definition of Terms
To have a Hippocratic view regarding the study, the following are hereby defined conceptually and operationally. Active Constituents. These are the components present in a particular plant. In the study, the active constituents of dalandan peels are citric acid, 0.29%; volatile oil-citral, 4%; geraniol,12%; d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranilic acid methyl ester, 0.3%; linalyl acetate, 6.35%; pectin, 6%; and neroli. Dalandan. A juicy citrus fruit with a spherical shape; any of various trees or shrub of the genus Citrus, especially C. aurantium. In the study, the peel of this fruit will be used for an experiment. Dalandan Peel. The skin of a dalandan. In the study, this will be dried and powdered producing a foot powder. Effect. This is the result in an experiment. In the study, this is the minimized odor and minimized sweating. Foot Powder. A substance rubbed on to the feet to remove unpleasant smells or to minimize sweating. In the study, this is the product produced from the powdered citrus aurantium peels. 7

Phytochemical screening. It is a screening used to enumerate the chemicals or nutrients derived from a plant source. In the study, it is a qualitative test used to determine the presence of active constituents or secondary metabolites of citrus aurantium peels.

8
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies

As a result of the surveys made by the researcher, some related literature and studies which are relevant to the problem, are hereby presented. These literatures and studies include materials written and published by authorities in the field of Botany as well as report from scientific researchers compiled in the library. This chapter also presents a historical background regarding the study which came from different books and references, and the synthesis of related studies.

Professional Literature
Taxonomic Description
Scientific Name: Citrus aurantium
Family Name: Rutaceae
Common Name: Dalandan
Other Names: Coolie Orange, Sour Orange, Sweet orange, Kahel

Botanical Description
Dalandan, as the fruit itself, is spherical in shape and about 5 to 9 cm in diameter. Its skin is green in color and tight. It is partitioned inside with yellowish juice sacks. Dalandan came from a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spine scent thorns. Leaves are oblong to sub elliptic, about 4 cm wide to 10 cm long, with narrowly winged petioles. Flowers are white, solitary or few clustered, smooth and growing from the uppermost leaf axils.

9
Historical Background
Dalandan is found in all warm countries and in native of the odd world. Nutritional Value
Dalandan is a good source of vitamin C. Its dried flowers are pleasant flavoring agent

Medicinal Value
The whole plant has been noted for its medicinal value.
– Gas pains: Take decoction of rind as tea
– Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation – Food-refreshing drink flavor, source of vitamin C
– Dried flowers are used as preventive for dysentery
– Dalandan peel is used in preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian
– Dried rind is used as tonic dyspepsia and for general debility – Dried rind is rubbed on the face for acne or eczema
– Water distilled from the flowers is used as stimulant

Chemical Constituents
Citric acid, 0.29%; volatile oil-citral, 4%, geraniol, 12%, d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranilic acid methyl ester, 0.3%, linalyl acetate 6.35%; indol; stachydrine(alkaloid); hesperidin; fatty oil; carotene; pectin, 6%; vitamins A, B, and C; enzymes; sugar The flowers and rind of the fresh fruit contain neroli, a volatile oil, a fragrant yellowish liquid with a bitter and aromatic taste. The leaves and young unripe fruit contain a volatile oil, the oil of 10

orange leaf or “neroli petit” grain or essence de”pettitgrain.” The oil consists of limonene, 20%, nerolo, 30%, nerolyl-acetate, 40% and geranio, 3%.

Related Literature
Coolie Oranges (Dalandan) are widely used edible fruits of plants belonging to Citrus and related genera of the family Rutaceae (orange family). Included are the tangerine, citrange, tangelo, orange, pomelo, grapefruit, lemon, lime, citron, and kumquat. Almost all the species bearing edible fruits are small trees native to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, or Malaysia. The citron was introduced to the Mediterranean area from Asia before the advent of Christianity; the others were spreaded chiefly by the Arabs during the Middle Ages. Introduced throughout Europe during the Crusades, they were brought by Portuguese and Spanish explorers to the West Indies, when they were introduced into North and South America. Commercially they are now the most important group of tropical and subtropical fruits in the world. The fruits are rich in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and fruit sugar. The rind, which contains numerous oil glands, and the fragrant blossoms of some species are also a source of essential oils used for perfumes and similar products. Dalandan, which is a citrus fruit can be damaged by freezing temperatures, pests (scale insects, rust mites), and various bacterial, viral, fungal diseases.

Related Studies
According to Rodrigo M. Ramos, orange peel is also capable in deodorizing the feet. It contains an active constituent which is the volatile oil. He further stated that this oil is essential because it has 11

bactericidal and fungicidal properties, hereby acting as a barrier in the production of odor coming from the sweat our body produces. Ramos conducted many experiments or procedures before producing a foot deodorant. He collected many peels of oranges, dried it under the sun for two weeks, then he grinded those peels using the mortar and pestle. He then added a talcum, usually perfumed, to add fragrance without performing any laboratory analysis. After finishing all the procedures needed, he then tested his product to 20 respondents which were randomly selected. Result of the test is effective and he concluded that orange peel is an effective agent in minimizing foot odor and foot sweating. According to Wehemr, peels of citrus fruits are capable in minimizing foot odor because it has active constituents which could prevent the growth of bacteria. He made laboratory analysis and he come up with a result and recorded the constituents of as follows: Citric acid, 0.29%; volatile oil-citral, 4%, geraniol,12%, d-camphene,d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranilic acid methyl ester, 0.3%, linalyl acetate 6.35%; indol; stachydrine(alkaloid); hesperidin; fatty oil; carotene; pectin, 6%; vitamins A, B, C. and C; enzymes; sugar. Yoshimisa and Trier reports the percent of one stachydrine in the peel. He also concluded that citrus fruits like oranges and dalandan are effective in minimizing foot odor and foot sweating.

Synthesis of the Study
The study of Ramos is similar in this study in the sense that he also conducted a research regarding foot odor and foot sweating. He used the peel of the fruit and made different experiments. And he concluded that the peel is effective for it contains an essential oil which 12

is the volatile oil. It is different in the sense that he added a talcum powder to add fragrance. The study of Wehemr is similar in this study in the sense that he also conducted a research with regards to foot odor and foot sweating. He studied the peels of citrus fruits and reported its constituents capable in the said study. He also concluded that these peels are effective. In generalization, the studies of Ramos and Wehemr are related in this study because they conducted a research on foot
odor and foot sweating. They have used peels and reported it to be effective in minimizing foot odor and foot sweating, and prevent the growth of bacteria.

13
Chapter III
Research Methodology

This chapter briefly discusses the methods and procedures to be done in conducting the study. This includes Research Design, Research Subject, Materials and Instruments, Data Gathering Procedures and Biostatistical Treatment.

Research Design
Experimental Method of research was used in this study. It was designed to determine and compare the effectiveness of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. An experimental method of research consists of manipulation and an experimental variable under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular event occurs.

Research Subject
The subjects of this study were the research participants who are affected from the odor and excessive perspiration of the feet. These participants were selected by network sampling.

Materials and Instruments
The study needed the following for the experiment: dalandan peels, laboratory drying oven, electric grinder, electric weighing balance, spatula and beaker.

14
Data Gathering Procedures
In the study, the researcher gathered Citrus aurantium peels. These fresh peels were dried in a laboratory dying oven for 6 hours at 100
degrees. When ready to be powdered, the dried peels were pounded in a fine powder with the aid of the electric grinder. When pounding was finished, the powder was transferred in a beaker and was covered.

Application
If the affected areas of the feet shows a sign of perspiration or sweating and is coupled with an unpleasant odor, a foot powder is needed. The process of application should be made once a day in a week. Ensure that feet are dry and clean. Just apply the Citrus aurantium peel powder freely between the toes and on the soles of the feet. The researcher used 6 respondents:

2 respondents – used the mixture of 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels. 2 respondents- used the mixture of 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels. 2 respondents- used the mixture of 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot power from Citrus aurantium peels.

Each respondent applied one of the three mixtures in one foot and the pure positive control foot powder on the other foot.

15

Biostatistical Treatment
The statistical test used in this study was the Kruskall- Wallis ANOVA, a test for more than two independent samples where variables are measured in the ordinal level. Below is the formula:

1 2 k Ri2
H = N ( N + 1 ) ∑ 3( N + 1)
Where:
H = Kruskall Wallis H- test
Ri = sum of ranks of each category
Ni = number of respondents or observations each category
N = total number of respondents or observations

16
In the study, the research participants used the following rating scales to determine the level of effectiveness: Rating Scale
Range
Description
4
3.26 – 4.00
Ineffective
3
2.51 – 3.25
Somewhat effective
2
1.76 – 2.50
Effective
1
1.00- 1.75
Very effective

Legend:
ODOR
4- odor is very irritating to smell
3- odor is irritating but somewhat tolerable
2- odor is distinctive but negligible
1- no unpleasant odor is observable
SWEAT
4- sweat is profuse
3- sweat is moist
2- sweat is present but almost negligible
1- sweat is absent

17
Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data gathered by the researcher.

Table 1. Active and Chemical Constituents of Citrus aurantium Peels Citric acid
0.29%
Volatile oil-citral
4%
Geraniol
12%
d-camphene
d-limonene
d-linalool
anthranilic acid methyl ester

0.3%
linalyl acetate
6.35%
pectin
6%
neroli

The table shows the active and chemical constituents of Citrus aurantium peels. Based on the research conducted by the researcher the active and chemical constituents present in Citrus aurantium peels were citric acid that is used extensively in foods, beverages, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries; volatile-oil citral that is used in making perfumes, cosmetics, bath products and for scenting incense; gereniol used in perfumes that has a rose-like odor ; d-camphene used in treating injuries; d-limonene used as a secondary cooling fluid and used in making paint solids; anthranilic acid methyl ester; linalyl acetate used as cleaning products and cosmetics; neroli used as skin cell regeneration.

The geraniol contains the highest percentage while the citric acid has the
lowest percentage of the active and chemical constituents of Citrus aurantium peels.

Table 2. The effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form mixed with the positive control foot powder at three different mixtures as foot odor and sweat minimizer.

Legend:
CP- commercially prepared foot powder
DDP- dried dalandan peel foot powder
R1- respondent one
R2- respondent two
ODOR

The three different mixtures

Pre-admin
Post- admin

Day
1
Day
2
Day
3
Day
4
Day 5
Day
6
Day
7
25% CP – 75% DDP
R1
4
4
3
3
3
2
1
1

R2
4
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
50% CP- 50% DDP
R1
4
4
4
3
3
2
1
1

R2
4
4
4
3
2
2
1
1
75% CP- 25% DDP
R1
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1

R2
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1

Commercially
Prepared
Foot powder
R1
4
4
3
3
2
1
1
1

R2
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1

R3
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
1

R4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
1

R5
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1

R6
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
Legend:
4- Ineffective -odor is very irritating to smell
3- Somewhat effective – odor is irritating but somewhat tolerable 2- Effective -odor is distinctive but negligible
1- Very effective -no unpleasant odor is observable
19
SWEAT

The three different mixtures

Pre-admin
Post- admin

Day
1
Day
2
Day
3
Day
4
Day 5
Day
6
Day
7
25% CP – 75% DDP
R1
4
4
3
2
2
1
1
1

R2
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1
50% CP- 50% DDP
R1
4
4
3
3
3
2
1
1

R2
4
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
75% CP- 25% DDP
R1
4
4
3
2
1
1
1
1

R2
4
4
3
1
1
1
1
1

Commercially
Prepared
Foot powder
R1
4
4
3
2
2
1
1
1

R2
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1

R3
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
1

R4
4
4
3
2
2
2
1
1

R5
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1

R6
4
4
3
2
2
1
1
1
Legend:
4- Ineffective -sweat is profuse
3- Somewhat effective -sweat is moist
2- Effective -sweat is present but almost negligible
1- Very effective -sweat is absent
The 2 tables for odor and sweat show the effects of dried Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder at three different mixtures as foot odor and sweat minimizer within 1 week applying the product

The results show that the feet from the three different mixtures and the positive control foot powder improves each day. The pre-admin has a rating
of 4, which means that odor is very irritating to smell and sweat is profuse, while the seventh day of the post-admin has a rating of 1, which means no unpleasant odor is observable and the sweat is absent. 20

Table 3. Significant Difference in the effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form mixed with the commercially prepared foot powder at three different mixtures

Legend:
Ri = sum of ranks for each category
Ni = number of respondents or observations each category
N = total number of respondents or observations

ODOR

Ri
25%CP-75% DDP
50% CP- 50% DDP
75% CP- 25% DDP

R1
R2
R1
R2
R1
R2

17
15
18
17
16
16
Ni
2
N
6

SWEAT

Ri
25%CP-75% DDP
50% CP- 50% DDP
75% CP- 25% DDP

R1
R2
R1
R2
R1
R2

14
15
17
14
13
12
Ni
2
N
6

21
Table 4. Kruskall Wallis( H ) ANOVA Test for the Comparative effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder at three different mixtures as foot odor and sweat minimizer

ODOR
Computed H
Tabular H
df
Ho ( decision )
96
4.5714
2-2-2
reject

SWEAT
Computed H
Tabular H
df
Ho ( decision )
66
4.5714
2-2-2
reject

The two table shows the result of computation and was found out that there is a significant difference between foot powder from powdered Citrus aurantium peels mixed with the positive control foot powder because the H computed values are 96 and 66 foot odor and sweat respectively.

Based on the results the H computed value are greater than the H tabular value. According to the criterion, if H computed is greater than or equal to H tabular value, the null hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted.

22
Chapter V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the results conducted by the researcher drawn from
the experimentation. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the active constituents present in the Citrus aurantium peels? 2. What are the effects of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels.

b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.
3. Is there any significant difference in the effect of Citrus aurantium peels in powder form and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer at three different mixtures: a. 25% positive control foot powder and 75% foot power

from Citrus aurantium peels.
b. 50% positive control foot powder and 50% foot powder from Citrus aurantium peels.
c. 75% positive control foot powder and 25% foot powder
from Citrus aurantium peels.

Summary of FIndings
Based on the experiments and observations conducted by the researcher, the following were drawn: 1. Based on the research work gathered by the researcher the active constituents present in Citrus aurantium peels were citric acid, volatile oil-citral, geraniol, d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranillic acid methyl ester, linalyl acetate, pectin and neroli. 2. Based on the experimentation conducted, the effect of dried Citrus aurantium peels in powder form on patient’s feet is effective as the positive control foot powder in terms of minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 3. Based on the Kruskal Wallis ANOVA test perform, the H computed values 96 and 66 is greater than the H tabular value 4.5714.

Conclusions
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The active constituents that are found out to be responsible for minimizing the foot powder and sweat were citric acid, geraniol, volatile oil-citral, d-camphene, linalyl acetate and neroli. 2. It was concluded that the powdered Citrus aurantium peels is effective in minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 3. There is a significant difference between the powdered dried Citrus aurantium peels and the positive control foot powder as foot odor and sweat minimizer. The null hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted.

24
Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations are hereby offered: 1. It was recommended by the researcher that the powdered Citrus aurantium peels can be used as an alternative foot powder in minimizing the foot odor and sweat. 2. The researcher further recommends that the use of powdered Citrus aurantium peels must gain importance because it is effective as the positive control foot powder in terms of minimizing the foot odor and sweat.

3. The researcher recommends that the powdered Citrus aurantium peels should be used in further studies to discover and develop the use of this product as an alternative foot powder.

25
APPENDIX A
Computations (ODOR)

1 2 k Ri2 H = N ( N + 1 ) ∑ Ni2 3( N +1)

Where:
H = Kruskall Wallis H- test
Ri = sum of ranks of each category
Ni = number of respondents or observations each category
N = total number of respondents or observations

ODOR

Ri
25%CP-75% DDP
50% CP- 50% DDP
75% CP- 25% DDP

R1
R2
R1
R2
R1
R2

17
15
18
17
16
16
Ni
2
N
6

ODOR
Computed H
Tabular H
df
Ho ( decision )
96
4.5714
2-2-2
reject

26

1 2 k Ri2 H = N (N + 1) ∑ Ni2 3(N + 1)

= 12 172 + 152 + 182 + 172 + 162 + 162 6 (6 + 1) 22 22 22 22 22 22 3(6+1)

= 12 289 + 225 + 324 + 289 + 256 + 256 42 4 4 4 4 4 4 21

= 12 72.25 + 56.25 + 81 + 72.25 + 64 + 64 21 42

= 12 409.75 21
42

= 96 (this has been rounded-off)

27

APPENDIX B
Computations (SWEAT)

1 2 k Ri2 H = N ( N + 1 ) ∑ Ni2 3( N +1)

Where:
H = Kruskall Wallis H- test
Ri = sum of ranks of each category
Ni = number of respondents or observations each category
N = total number of respondents or observations

SWEAT

Ri
25%CP-75% DDP
50% CP- 50% DDP
75% CP- 25% DDP

R1
R2
R1
R2
R1
R2

14
15
17
14
13
12
Ni
2
N
6

SWEAT
Computed H
Tabular H
df
Ho ( decision )
66
4.5714
2-2-2
reject

28

1 2 k Ri2 H = N (N + 1) ∑ Ni2 3(N + 1)

= 12 142 + 152 + 172 + 142 + 132 + 122 6 (6 + 1) 22 22 22 22 22 22 3(6+1)

= 12 196 + 225 + 289 + 196 + 169 + 144 42 4 4 4 4 4 4 21

= 12 49 + 56.25 + 72.25 + 49 + 42.25 + 36 42

= 12 304.75 21
42

= 66 (this has been rounded-off)

29
APPENDIX C
Dalandan

30
APPENDIX D
Materias

31

32
APPENDIX E
The product

33
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. Books
R.E. Allen. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 8th ed. United States: Oxford University Press Inc.,1990.

B. Websites
Dalandan peels http://search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A0oGkmcCjEBLJWIB3lVXNyoA?p=dalandan+peels&fr2=sb-top&fr=yfp-t-701-s&sao=1

Scientific name of Dalandan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus_aurantium

Medicinal uses of dalandan
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/oraswe12.html

http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/c/citrus aurantium.pdf

active constituents of Dalandan peels
http://www.google.com.ph/search?hl=tl&q=active+constituents+of+dalandan&btnG=Maghanap&meta=&aq=f&oq=

34
CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Kathleen Mae S. Cancino
Nickname: Kath
Address: Pagal San Carlos City, Pangasinan
Birthday: September 10, 1993
Age: 16 years old
Religion: Iglesia Ni Cristo
Philosophy in life: “Hard work brings you to success.”
Parents:
Teofilo P. Cancino
Yolanda S. Cancino
Educational Background:

Primary: (Kinder to Grade 6)
Rainbow School of San Carlos

Secondary: (1st yr. to 4th yr.)
Virgen Milagrosa Special Science High School

35

Cite this Dalandan peels as foot powder

Dalandan peels as foot powder. (2016, Oct 20). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/dalandan-peels-as-foot-powder/

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