BY YIN Chapter I The Problem and Its Background During this year’s (2014) Fire Prevention Month, the Bureau of Fire Protection recorded a number of 618 structural fire incidents. Fire incidents occur mostly due to carelessness. For the past years, numerous cases of houses and establishments were burned that led to high cases of death and property losses.
Fires often occur during summer and hot season because there is a gradual increase in the temperature, which makes flammable objects become more prone to cause fires. And because fire reduces smoke, it may and it will harm a person with asthma or may irritate someone with sensitive skin. The number of fire incidents rises rapidly because people often become unaware of using fire equipment and apparatuses because they are expensive. There is, therefore, an undeniable need to look for unconventional fire equipment and apparatuses.
People have trouble fighting fire because of the lack of materials needed to extinguish a fire. The first thing that should be remembered, however, is that fire spreads very quickly. Even a small, contained fire can quickly spread, producing smoke and fumes which can kill in seconds. There are many commercial fire extinguishers that are used to put out fire. However, commercial fire extinguishers mostly contain dry agent known as Mono Ammonium Phosphate, a chemical that is very corrosive, and requires cleanup very soon after spraying. This may irritate a person’s throat, and lungs.
So the researchers decided to find an organic, health-friendly, and effective fire extinguisher, and found out that banana peels contain tartaric acid, which when added to sodium bicarbonate and water, produces carbon dioxide that removes oxygen from a fire, causing the fire to decrease and stop. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study will be conducted primarily to test the potential of Saba banana (Mums balancing) peels extracts as raw material in making an alternative fire extinguisher. The study aims to answer the following questions usually addressed by the researcher. 1 .
Is there any possibility of using banana peels as an alternative fire extinguisher? 2. Is there any significant difference in using banana peels instead of using the commercial fire extinguisher in terms of: A. Effectiveness B. Cost effectiveness C. General Acceptability Hypotheses: . Ho: Fire extinguisher from the dried banana peel is not an effective alternative for commercial fire extinguisher. 2. Ho: There is no significant difference in using banana peels as an alternative fire extinguisher compared to commercial ones. 3. Ho: There is no significant difference on the time the fire was extinguished on both setups.
Significance of the Study Commercial fire extinguishers require use of materials, chemicals and budget, making it more expensive. Therefore, only wealthy people can afford to buy it. That’s why the researchers were prompted to make a cheaper fire extinguisher as an alternative for the commercial ones by utilizing banana peels. Instead of wasting and throwing banana peels, making a fire extinguisher from it was used as an alternative. It doesn’t cost much because only the unused parts off banana were used. The study aims to promote precautionary measures like fire extinguisher in our locality to prevent fire from taking place.
This study also aims to lessen wastes, like banana peels, that if not disposed well may impose unhealthy effect to the environment. This may also lead to floods, increasing number of mosquitoes, and may pollute our community. Scopes and Limitations The research study determines whether the Banana peels extract is a potential alternative raw material in making a fire The materials used were gathered throughout the locality of Conception. The researchers didn’t have problems in collecting the banana peels because they are very abundant and may be found anywhere. The study was conducted in Bray. Talismanic (SMS) on the months of July and August.
The gathered banana peels were left under the sun to dry for 7 days. Different set ups were made and tested so that we can say that the alternative fire extinguisher is effective and more convenient to use compared to the commercial one. The idea of using the banana peels extract as an alternative fire extinguisher is not a duplication of other studies. The researchers came up with their own idea and curiosity about what bananas, or banana peels can do in making fire extinguisher. The researchers made use of books, internet, and series of experiments to Justify the potential of banana peels as an alternative fire extinguisher.
Definition of Key Terms 1 . Baking soda- substance that when mixed with vinegar and tartaric acid, produces carbon dioxide 2. Banana Peel- the raw material used in this study. 3. Fire extinguisher- an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. 4. Powdering- breaking down large pieces into fine particles. 5. Shaking- a process after all the ingredients in fire extinguisher are mixed for a better result. 6. Washing- a process to remove the dirt of the banana peels and tamarind leaves. Chapter II Study of Related Literature The fuel gas is created by heat.
In other words, with heat providing the necessary energy, atoms in one gaseous compound break their bonds with each other and combine with available oxygen atoms in the air to form new compounds plus lots more heat. The most flammable compounds contain carbon and hydrogen, which recombine with oxygen relatively easily to form carbon dioxide, water and other gases. Different flammable fuels catch fire at different temperatures. It takes a certain amount of heat energy to change any particular material into a gas, and even more heat energy to trigger the reaction with oxygen.
The necessary heat level varies depending on the nature of the molecules that make up the fuel. A fuel’s pilotedignitiontemperature is the heat level required to form a gas that will ignite hen exposed to a spark. At the unpilotedignitiontemperature, which is much higher, the fuel ignites without a spark. The fuel’s size also affects how easily it will catch fire. A larger fuel, such as a thick tree, can absorb a lot of heat, so it takes a lot more energy to raise any particular piece to the ignition temperature. A toothpick catches fire more easily because it heats up very quickly.
A fuel’s weatherization depends on how much energy the gases release in the combustion reaction and how quickly the fuel burns. Both factors largely depend on the fuel’s composition. Some compounds exact with oxygen in such a way that there is a lot of “extra heat energy” left over. Others emit a smaller amount of energy. Similarly, the fuel’s reaction with oxygen may happen very quickly, or it may happen more slowly. The fuel’s shape also affects burning speed. Thin pieces of fuel burn more quickly than larger pieces because a larger proportion of their mass is exposed to oxygen at any moment.
For example, you could burn up a pile of wood splinters or paper much more quickly than you could a block of wood with the same mass, because splinters and paper have a much greater surface area. The dangerous thing about the chemical reactions in fire is the fact that they are self-perpetuating. The heat of the flame itself keeps the fuel at the ignition temperature, so it continues to burn as long as there is fuel and oxygen around it. The flame heats any surrounding fuel so it releases gases as well. When the flame ignites the gases, the fire spreads.
Firefighting agents like fire extinguishers are very important in this society. A freethinker’s is a device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out- f-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (I. E. , no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc. ), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire.
In the Philippines, all places of employment, including those where automatic-sprinkler protection system is installed, shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers for protection against incipient fires. In the United States, fire extinguishers in all alluding other than houses are generally required to be serviced and inspected by a Fire Protection service company at least annually. Some Jurisdictions require more frequent service for fire extinguishers. The services places a tag on the extinguisher to indicate the type of service performed.
There are different types of fire extinguishers intended to use on different classes of fires. The most common fire extinguisher is soda acid. The carbon dioxide is liberated by the action of acid on baking soda. It increases the percentage of carbon dioxide in air which cancels out oxygen, so fire gradually stops. The soda-acid extinguisher was first patented in 1866 by François Carrier of France, which mixed a solution of water and sodium bicarbonate with tartaric acid, producing the propellant CO gas. Tartaric acid can be found in certain fruits like grapes, tamarinds, apples, and bananas.
Wastes from these plants, especially from bananas (banana peels), contain specific acids that may help in making fire extinguishers. As bananas, whether eaten raw or cooked, are a popular fruit consumed worldwide, with yearly production over 145 million tons in 2011, there is a significant amount of banana peel waste being generated as well. Banana peels are used as feedstock as they have some nutritional value. Banana peels are widely used for that purpose on small farms in regions where bananas are grown. There are some concerns over the impact of tannins contained in the peels on animals that consume them.
Banana peels are used as feedstock for cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, rabbits, fish and several other species. The specific nutrition contained in peel depends on the stage of maturity and the cultivar; for example plantain peels contain less fiber than dessert banana peels, and lagging content increases with opening (from 7 to 15% dry matter). On average, banana peels contain 6-9% dry matter of protein and 20-30% fiber (measured as AND). Green plantain peels contain 40% starch that is transformed into sugar after ripening. Green banana peels contain much less starch (about 1 5%) when green while ripe banana peels contain up to 30% free sugars.
Banana peels also contains tartaric acid,which when added to certain materials, produces carbon dioxide. Banana peels also have a high alcoholic content when fermented, which can be used as additive in making the said product. Related Studies Local Studies Salad (2011) in his research on the effectiveness of whole rotten grapes extract as an alternative fire extinguisher, shows that commercial extinguisher is more effective than the rotten grape repellent; however, the whole rotten grapes extinguisher had more raw materials, costs less, and more economical.
The rotten grapes extinguisher proved its effectiveness as an alternative firefighting agent which indicates that there is a possibility that chemical free extinguishers can be utilized. This is related to the study because the researcher used the same raw process and product as Salad. Chapter Ill Methodology Research Design The experimental method of research was used in this study. It shows the relationship of the variables being exposed to different treatment. It was also used to show the interpretation of data and results of the study.
The alternative fire extinguisher served as the experimental group, and the commercial fire extinguisher as the controlled group. The experimental design used in this study was a two group design wherein a control and a single treatment were manipulated. Materials and Procedures To determine the effectiveness of banana peels as an alternative fire extinguisher, en kilo of Saba banana peels were gathered. The banana peels were collected from the vendors in San Nicolas Publication, Public Market, Conception, Tarmac, and from the researchers” houses.
The banana peels were washed, put on a tray, and left under the hot sun for seven days. The dried banana peels were then powdered and 250 grams of it was the product. According to Salad (201 1), utmost be placed in cup and put on a refrigerator to prevent the unfortunate smell. 1/2 cup of baking soda was carefully put inside the container of the mixture. 200 ml. Of vinegar was mixed with 100 ml. Of water. This was half the volume of vinegar. Then, poured it inside the container. The pounded dried banana peels were added to the mixture.
After the baking soda, vinegar and the powdered banana peels were combined, the container should be closed immediately so that the pressure and CO will not escape. INPUT Testing the product PROCESS OUTPUT Two sets of fire extinguisher were prepared, the commercial and experimental fire extinguisher. Both have two setups. Setup A includes ordinary combustible materials. This comprises paper, wood, and cloth. So the researchers collected a half kilo of paper, a half kilo of twigs, and a en-fourth kilo of cloth. Setup B involves flammable liquids.
Paper, wood, and cloth were again collected and this time, poured with gasoline. The alternative and commercial fire extinguishers were subjected into time monitoring to determine the differences of the time the fire was extinguished.. Data Gathering Procedure This method involves the gathering of all available data that are pertinent to the solution of the problems regarding to the proposed study. Questionnaires used in gathering data were distributed to different respondents resembling to the study. Data gathered were formulated, analyzed, and validated.
Statistical Treatment Independent and Dependent T- Test was the statistical tool used in analyzing and interpreting the data. Independent T- test was used to determine the significant difference in using the alternative fire extinguisher instead of commercial one and the effect in using the banana peels extract on the time the fire was extinguished. The formula is Where t stands for the t- value; XSL stands for the mean of the experimental group; xx stands for the mean of the control group; SODS stands for the variance of the experimental group and SODS stands for the variance of the control group.