Different Speed of Child Development

Table of Content

At birth children are able to lie on their backs with their head to one side. When they are pulled into a sitting position, the head lags. They usually hold their hands tightly closed, but the hands may open spontaneously during feeding. They will turn their heads towards the light and will stare at bright shiny objects. Blink in response to sound and movement. Are startled by sudden noises. Recognise their mother’s voice. They cannot hear very soft sounds. At one month they will turn their head to the side when laid on their back with the arm and the leg on the face side outstretched, the knees apart and the sole of the feet turned inwards.

Can turn from their side to their back. Will lift their head briefly. Begin to take their fists to their mouth. Open their hands from time to time. Show excitement and interest by their facial expressions. Open their hands to grasp an adult’s finger. Focus their gaze at about 20-25cm. May move their head towards the source of sound, but are not yet able to locate the sound. Blink defensively when something comes towards them. Follow the movement of a bright, dangling toy, this is known as tracking. By three months they will be able to keep their head in a central position when lying on their back.

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They can lift their head and their chest when lying on their front. Have almost no head lag when moving into a sitting position. When held they can sit with their back straight. Kick vigorously with their legs alternating or occasionally together. Can wave their arms. They will be able to move their head to follow adult’s movements. Watch their hands and play with their fingers. They will be able to hold a rattle for a brief time before dropping it. They will focus their eyes on the same point. 3-6 Months Between 3-6months children will be able to roll over onto their front from being laid on their back.

When lying on their front they can lift their head and chest, supporting themselves on their arms and hands. They will be able to use their shoulders to pull themselves into a sitting position. Can bear almost all their own weight. When held either standing or sitting, they can do so with a straight back. When they are held on the floor they can bounce their feet up and down. Loft their legs into a vertical position and grasp one or both feet with their hands. They can move their arms purposefully and hold them up, indicating a wish to be lifted. They can change the angle of their body to reach out for an object.

The will be able to reach and grab when a small toy is offered and use their whole hand to pass a toy from one hand to the other. They will explore objects by putting them in their mouth. They will adjust their position to see objects. Are now visually very alert and follow another person’s activities across the room with increased alertness. 6-9 Months Between 6-9months children will maintain a sitting position with a straight back. Sit unsupported for up to 15minutes. They will turn their body to look sideways when stretching out to pick up a toy from the floor.

Pull their self into a standing position, but are unable to lower themselves and tend to fall backwards with a bump. They will stand holding onto furniture. Find ways of moving about the floor, either by rolling, wriggling or crawling on their stomach. Some children may take some steps when both hands are held. They can grasp objects between finger and thumb in a pincer grasp. They can release a toy from their grasp by dropping it, but cannot yet put it down voluntarily. Move their arms up and down together when excited. 9-12 Months Between 9-12months children will be able to rise to a sitting position from lying down.

They can rise to standing without help from furniture or people. Will be able to stand alone for a few moments. Can crawl on their hands and knees, bottom shuffle, or use their hands and feet to move rapidly about the floor. Some will probably walk alone, with their feet wide apart and their arms raised to maintain balance or walk with one hand held. They will be able to pick up small objects with a fine pincer grasp. Can point with the index finger at objects of interest. Will release a small object into someone’s hand. Will hold a crayon, and turn several pages of a book at once.

Start to show preference for one hand over the other, but still use either. Drop and throw toys deliberately and then look to see where they have fallen. Be able to build with a few bricks and arrange their toys on the floor. They will now be able to see as well as an adult can. Their visual memory is very good; they may find things that an adult has mislaid. Know and respond immediately to their own name, and recognise familiar sounds and voices. Stroke, pat and turn objects in their hands, and recognise familiar objects by touch alone. Discriminate between different foods by taste and show preference for certain flavours.

Start to enjoy watching television. 1-2 Years At 13-15months children can often walk, but tend to fall over frequently and sit down rather suddenly. They will be able to crawl upstairs safely and come downstairs backwards. Knell without support. They will be able to put small objects into a bottle. Can grasp a crayon with either hand and imitate to-and-fro scribble. May be able to build a tower of two cubes after this has been demonstrated. Demand objects out of reach by pointing with their index finger. Point to familiar people, animals or toys when requested.

By the time they reach 18-24months they will be able to walk steadily and stop safely, without sitting down suddenly. Can climb forward into an adult chair and then turn around and sit. They can kneel upright without support. Can squat to pick up or move a toy. They can move climb up and down stairs if their hand is held or using a rail for balance. They will put two feet on each step. They can crawl backwards downstairs alone. Can run steadily but are unable to avoid objects in their path. They will be able to point to known objects. They will be able to use a spoon when feeding themselves.

Can hold a pencil in their whole hand, then scribble to and fro. Will control their wrist movement to manipulate objects. Will remove objects from a bottle by turning it upside-down. When looking at themselves in a mirror they will recognise that it is them. No longer take everything into their mouths to explore it. 2-4 Years At 2years children are very mobile and can safely run avoiding objects. Will climb up onto furniture. Will be able to throw a ball overhand, but cannot yet catch a ball. Push and pull large wheeled toys. Will sit on a tricycle and propel with their feet but cannot yet use the pedals.

They will be able to stand on tiptoe when shown how to do so. Climb nursery apparatus. Will be able to jump with both feet together from a low step. They will be able to draw circles, lines and dots using their preferred hand. Pick up tiny objects using the pincer grasp. Will build a tower of six or more blocks. Enjoy picture books, turning the pages singly. They can copy a vertical line sometimes a V shape. Will drink from a cup with fewer spills, and manage scooping with a spoon. They will recognise people in photographs but do not yet recognise themselves in photographs.

Listen to general conversation with interest. At 3years children will confidently jump from a low step. Walk backwards and sideways. Will stand and walk on tiptoe and stand on one foot. They will be able to ride a tricycle with the pedals. They can climb downstairs using one foot on each step. Have good special awareness and can manoeuvre around objects. Will catch a large ball with arms outstretched. Use their whole body to kick a ball. They can build towers of 9-10 blocks. Can control a pencil using their thumb and the first two fingers. Will copy circles and the letter V, H and T.

Enjoy painting with a large brush. Will draw a person with a head and sometimes arms and legs. They can cut paper with scissors. Will eat using a fork. 4-7 Years Children at the age of 4years will have developed a good sense of balance and may be able to walk along a line. They can stand, walk and run on tip-toe. Catch, kick and bounce a ball. Can ride a tricycle with skill and make sharp turns easily. Able to hold a pencil in an adult fashion. Draw a figure that resembles a person, showing head, legs and body. Copy the letters X , V ,H ,T and O. Build a tower of ten or more cubes.

At 5 years children will have an increased agility – they can run, dodge, climb and skip. Stand on one foot for 10 seconds and some children may ride a bike without stabilisers. Show good co-ordination, dance to music rhythmically. Can hop forwards on each foot separately. They will be able to use a knife and fork competently, but may still need meat cut up. Can draw a person with head, body, arms, nose, mouth and eyes. Can do jigsaw puzzles with interlocking pieces. Can copy letters V, T, H, O, X, L, A, C, U and Y. Can count the fingers on one hand using the index finger of the other. They will be able to match 10 to 12 colours.

By 6years children are gaining strength, they will be able to jump off apparatus at school with confidence. Hop easily with good balance. Skip in time to music. Can build a tower of cubes that is virtually straight. Use a pencil with a dynamic tripod grip. Can write their last name as well as their first. Begin to write simple stories. At 7 years children will be able to hop on either leg, walk along a thin line with their arms outstretched. Will able to confidently ride a two-wheeled bike or use roller skates. Some may be able to climb ropes. Be able to control their speed when running and can swerve to avoid collision.

They will be more competent in their writing skills – individual letters are more clearly differentiated, capital and small letters are in proportion. Begin to use colour in a naturalistic way. I. e. using a band of green at the bottom of the paper to represent grass. Draw detailed people. Can use a large needle to sew with thread. 7-12 Years Between these ages children’s height and weight continue to grow at a steady rate, and both strength and physical co-ordination skills are also increasing. Between 8-9 years children have an increased body strength and quicker reaction time.

They can easily ride a two-wheeled bike, skip freely and enjoy active, energetic games. They will start to enjoy participating in competitive games. They will be able to write and draw with greater skill and dexterity. Draw people with clothes and facial features. Be able to draw showing depth, shading, three-dimensions and movement begin to develop. The will begin to join letters together in handwriting. Between 10-11 years children will begin to differ in physical maturity, because girls experience puberty earlier they are generally as much as 2years ahead of boys.

Their bodies will begin to become similar to those of adults. They will be able to tackle more detailed tasks such as needlework and woodwork. Have an established handwriting style, usually with joined-up letters. 12-16 Years During 12-16years children will go through puberty. This is when a child’s body turns into that of an adult. The child will undergo physical, hormonal and sexual changes. They will also experience a growth spurt. Girls and boys experience different changes during this time. Girls will usually go through puberty between age 9-13 years. The first sign is usually that breasts develop.

Their body size and shape will change, they will grow taller and their hips widen. The waist gets smaller and the body develops a more curved shape. They also start menstruation; this is commonly around the age of 12-13years. In boys their voice will break becoming deeper. They will start to grow facial hair. They will grow taller and the body will take on a more muscular shape. Chest hair may also appear during puberty. In both girls and boys they will develop pubic hair, sweat in response to stress and emotion and oil glands, which can sometimes lead to acne. 16-19 Years

During the ages of 16-19years young people are adult; girls will have reached physical maturity. Boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-20s. Age Range Sequence and Rate of Intellectual and Cognitive Development 0-3 Months At birth babies are beginning to develop concepts, these are based on the senses and combined with growing understanding, for example babies become aware of physical sensations such as hunger. They explore using their senses and using their own activity and movement. They often synchronise actions with the sound of an adult voice.

They respond to high pitched tones by moving their limbs. At one month they begin to repeat enjoyable movements, such as thumb-sucking. They interact with an adult holding them up face-to-face, by simultaneously looking, listening, vocalising and moving their arms and legs exciting. By three months children take an increasing interest in their surroundings and playthings. They understand cause and effect – for example, they will deliberately shake a rattle, knowing that it will make a noise. 3-6 Months Between 3-6 months children understand objects and know what to expect of them.

They will turn immediately when they hear mother’s voice at a distance. They can show some understanding of the emotional state of their mother’s voice. They understand up and down and make appropriate gestures, such as raising their arms to be picked up. 6-9 Months They will be able to judge the size of an object up to 60cm away. Look in the correct direction for fallen toys. Watch a toy being hidden and then look for it – this will show that they know that an object can exist even when it is no longer in sight. They will be able to recognise familiar pictures.

Understand their daily routine and will follow simple instructions, such as ‘kiss teddy’. 9-12 Months Between 9-12 months children will use trial and error methods to learn about objects. They will both point and look to where others point, which implies some understanding of how others see and think. They will hand objects to adults when asked, and begin to treat objects in an appropriate way, for example use a hairbrush for brushing hair. 1-2 Years Between 1-2 years children will understand the names of parts of the body. They will watch where objects fall, and seek out a hidden toy.

They will use gestures alongside words. Recognise that people may have different desires. They will be able to obey simple instructions such as ‘Shut the door’. 2-4 Years At 2years children are particularly interested in the names of people and objects. They are beginning to understand the consequences of their own actions and those of others, for example when something breaks. May provide comfort when other babies cry. At 3years they will be able to match two or three primary colours. They begin to understand to concept of time, they remember events in the past and can anticipate the future.

They are fascinated by cause and effect. They can sort objects into simple categories. They can understand the concept of one and lots. They can control their attention, choosing to stop an activity and return to it without much difficulty. 4-7 Years At 4years children enjoy counting up to 20 by rote. They can talk about things in the past and future. They have increased memory skills – forexample remembering when their grandparents last visited. They can give reasons and solve problems. They include much more detail in their drawings. At 5eyars children are interested in reading and writing.

They can produce drawings with good detail. They can give their full name, age, address and birthday. They love to be read stories and will then act them out later, either alone or with friends. At 6years they begin to think in a more co-ordinated way, and can hold more than one point of view at a time. They begin to develop concepts of quantity: length, distance, area and time. They are able to distinguish the difference between fantasy and reality. They are interested in basic scientific principles. They alternate between wanting stories read to them and reading themselves.

At 7years children are able to conserve number – for example, they know that there are ten sweets whether they are pushed close together or spread apart. They can use a computer mouse and keyboard for simple word processing. They can perform simple calculations in their head. They begin to understand how to tell the time. They are able to arrive at logical conclusions and to understand cause and effect. 7-12 Years Between 8-9years children have an increased ability to remember and pay attention, and to speak and express their ideas. They are learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do.

They have an increased ability to think and to reason. They can deal with abstract ideas. They enjoy different types of activities, such as joining clubs. They can use reference books with increasing skill. Between 10-11years they begin to understand motives behind the actions of another. The can concentrate on tasks for increasing periods. They can write fairly lengthy essays. They begin to devise memory strategies. 12-16 Years Between 12-16years children experience a major shift in thinking from the concrete to the abstract – an adult way of thinking, this involves: Thinking about possibilities.

Thinking ahead. Thinking through hypotheses. Thinking about their own thought processes. Thinking beyond conventional limits. They approach a problem in a systematic fashion. They use imagination when solving problems. They have a fast, legible style of handwriting. 16-19 Years Age Range Sequence and Rate of Communication Development 0-3 Months At birth children will make eye contact and cry to indicate need. By one month children can recognise a primary carer and show this by responding to them with a combination of excited movements, coos and smiles. Make non-crying noises such as cooing and gurgling.

They cry in a more expressive way. At three months children can laugh and vocalise, with increasing tone and intensity. They are becoming conversational by cooing, gurgling and chuckling. They smile in response to speech and cry loudly when expressing a need. 3-6 Months Between 6-9months children will understand the meaning of words such as ‘bye-bye’, ‘mama’ or ‘dada’. They will babble spontaneously, using the first monosyllables such as ‘ga, ga’ and then double syllables such as ‘goo-ga’. They will talk to themselves in a tuneful, sing song voice. They will squeal with delight. 6-9 Months

Between 6-9months children use an increasing variety of intonation when babbling, they enjoy communicating with sounds. They will imitate adult sounds, such as a cough noise. They know the general characteristics of their language and will not respond to a foreign language. 9-12 Months Between 9-12months children understand simple instructions associated with a gesture, such as ‘come to daddy’, ‘clap hands’ and ‘wave bye-bye’. They will speak two to six or more recognisable words and show that they understand many more – babbling has developed into a much more speech-like form, with increased intonation.

1-2 Years Between 1-2years children will use between 6-40 recognisable words and understand many more. They will echo part of what others say. They over-extend words or signs, giving them several meanings, for example ‘cat’ may be used to refer to all animals. They will enjoy trying to sing. Refer to themselves by name. 2-4 Years At 2 years children are particularly interested in the names of people and objects. They will talk to themselves often, but may not always be understood by others. They will speak over 200 words, and accumulate new words very rapidly.

They will understand many more words than they speak. They often omit opening or closing consonants, so ‘bus’ may become ‘us’. They will use phrases as telegraphic speech – for example, ‘daddy car’ could mean a number of things. They spend a great deal of time in naming things and what they do, such as ‘chair’ or ‘step’. As they turn 3years they will repeat words spoken to them. Continually ask questions beginning with ‘What’ and ‘Who’. Use the pronouns ‘I’, ‘me’ and ‘you’ correctly. Will sing a few nursery rhymes. They will carry on simple conversations, often missing linking words.

They may pick up speech from another language from people they grow up around. 4-7 Years At 4 years they will be able to talk about things in the past and future. Talk fluently, asking questions and understanding answers. Can repeat nursery rhymes and songs, with very few mistakes. Tell long stories and enjoy jokes. They may begin to recognise patterns in the way words are formed and apply these consistently, unaware that many common words have irregular forms – for example, as the past tense if often made by adding ‘-ed’. At 5 years they may ask about abstract words, such as ‘What does “beyond” mean? ’.

Are fluent in their speech and are grammatically correct for the most part. Talk about past, present and future, with good sense of time. At 6 years children can pronounce the majority of the sounds of their own language. Talk fluently and with confidence. At 7 years children are able to use speech to express themselves. 7-12 Years Between 7-12years children can use complex sentences and can read stories with increasing fluency. They are highly verbal and enjoy making up and telling jokes. 12-16 Years n/a 16-19 Years n/a Age Range Sequence and Rate of Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development 0-3 Months

At birth children will use total body movements to express pleasure at bath time or when being fed. They enjoy feeding and cuddling. They often imitate facial expressions. At one month they will smile in response to an adult. Can gaze attentively at the adult’s face when being fed. They are beginning to show a particular temperament – for example placid or excitable. They enjoy sucking and turn to regard to nearby speakers face. At three months they will show enjoyment at caring routines such as bath time. They fix their eyes unblinkingly on their parent’s face during feeding.

They respond with obvious pleasure to loving attention and cuddles. Will stay awake for longer periods of time. Will smile at familiar people and at strangers. 3-6 Months Between 3-6 months children will be able to feed themselves using their fingers. They will offer toys to others. They are more wary of strangers. Will show distress when their mother leaves. They are more aware of other people’s feeling, crying if a sibling cries or laughing when others do. It shows they are recognising emotion. 6-9 Months Between 6-9months children enjoy songs and action rhymes.

They still prefer to be near a familiar adult. They can play alone for long periods. They show definite likes and dislikes at meal and bed times. They often need to have a comfort object, such as a blanket or teddy. 9-12 Months Between 9-12months children are emotionally labile – that is, they are likely to have fluctuating moods. They are closely dependent upon an adult’s reassuring presence. They often want a comfort object. They are still shy of strangers. They are affectionate towards familiar people and enjoy socialising at mealtimes, joining in conversations while mastering the task of self-feeding.

They help with daily routines, such as getting washed and dressed. They will play pat-a-cake and wave goodbye, both spontaneously and on request. 1-2 Years At 18months children remember where objects belong; this reflects an increase in long-term memory. They play contently alone, but prefer to be near a familiar adult or sibling. They are eager to be independent, for example to dress themselves. They are aware that others are fearful or anxious for them as they climb on or off chairs. They alternate between clinging and resistance. They may easily become frustrated, with occasional temper

tantrums. They may indicate toilet needs by restlessness or words. They can follow and enjoy a story or rhyme. 2-4 Years At 2years children are begging to express how they feel. They are impulsive and curious about their environment. They are eager to try out new experiences. Children may be clingy and dependant at times, and self-reliant and independent at others. They will often feel frustrated when unable to express themselves. They can dress themselves independently. They will often like to help others, but not when doing so conflicts with their own desires.

By 3years children will like to do things unaided. Will enjoy family meal times and can think about things from someone else’s point of view. They will show affection for younger siblings. They will manage to use the toilet independently and are often dry through the night. They enjoy helping adults, in the way of tidying up. They are willing to share toys with other children and beginning to take turns when playing. They will often develop fears, for example of the dark. This is due to them becoming capable of pretending and imagining. They are becoming aware of being male or female.

They can make friends and are interested in having friends. 4-7 Years At 4years children can wash and dry their hands, and brush their teeth, undress and dress themselves, except for laces, ties and back buttons. Will often show sensitivity to others. Will show a sense of humour, both in talk and in activities. They will like to be independent and are strong fully self-willed. They will like to be with other children. At 5 years they will dress and undress alone. Have very definite likes and dislikes, some with little apparent logic. They are able to amuse themselves for longer periods of time.

Will show sympathy and comfort to friends who are hurt. Will enjoy caring for pets and will choose their own friends. At 6years children can carry out simple tasks, such as peeling vegetables. They choose friends mainly because of their personality and interests. They can hold a long conversation with another child or an adult, naturally taking turns in speaking and listening. They begin to compare themselves with other people. By 7years children learn how to control their emotions – they realise that they can keep their own thoughts private and hide their true feelings.

They begin to think in terms not only of whom they are, but also of whom they would like to be. They are completely independent in washing, dressing and toileting themselves. They may be able to speak up for themselves, for example when visiting the doctor. They may be critical of their own work at school. They will form close friendships, mostly within their own sex. 7-12 Years Between 8-9years children have a growing sensitivity and begin to realise that others experience feelings of anger, fear and sadness similar to their own. They are easily embarrassed and become easily discouraged.

They take pride in their competence. They can be argumentative and bossy, but equally generous and responsive. They are beginning to see things from other’s point of view, but still have trouble fully understanding the feelings and needs of others. They form friendships quite casually and may change them very rapidly. They are beginning to show an interest in the opposite sex. They begin to display a sense of loyalty to a group and enjoy secrets and jokes. Between 10-11years children show an increasing ability to understand the needs and opinions of others.

They can identify and label or describe what they are feeling. They become increasingly self-conscious. They usually have a ‘best friend’ and may form more intense, longer-lasting friendships on the basis of a variety of shared interests. May be experiencing sudden, dramatic, emotional changes associated with puberty. Have a more defined personality. They tend to be particularly sensitive to criticism. They succumb to peer pressure more readily and want to talk, dress and act just like friends. They become self-absorbed and introspective. 12-16 Years

Young people may alternate between behaving like a child and behaving as an adult, depending on the stage of physical development. They may become self-conscious or anxious about their physical changes. They develop a sexual identity, self-labelling as gay or lesbian tends to occur around the of 15. They often feel misunderstood and can experience wide emotional swings. They want to be accepted and liked. They tend to identify more with friends and begin to separate from parents; they are less dependent on family for affection and emotional support.

They become more socially skilled and better at resolving conflicts. 16-19 Years n/a Age Range Sequence and Rate of Moral Development 0-3 Months n/a 3-6 Months n/a 6-9 Months n/a 9-12 Months n/a 1-2 Years n/a 2-4 Years At around 3years children are beginning to develop the concept of being helpful. They will believe that all rules are fixed and unchangeable – for example, if told that coats must be worn when playing outside, they accept this without question. 4-7 Years At 4years children will understand the needs of others, the need to share and take turns.

They try to work out what is ‘right’ and what is ‘wrong’ in behaviour. At 5years they will understand social rules of their culture, for example the usual way to greet someone. They will instinctively help other children when they are distressed. Age 6years they are beginning to develop further concepts, such as forgiveness and fairness. At 7years they will have a clear sense of right and wrong – for example, they realise that it is wrong to hurt other people physically. They will express feelings of awe and wonder, particularly about nature, plants and insects. 7-12 Years

Between the ages of 7-9years children continue to think that rules are permanent and unchangeable because they are made up by adults who must be obeyed and respected. They have a clear idea of the difference between reality and fantasy, and are developing their own personal standards of right and wrong. They will be highly concerned with fairness. Between the ages of 10-12 years they understand that certain rules can be changed by mutual negotiation and that they are not always imposed by external authority, often, they do not accept rules that they did not help make.

They begin to experience conflict between parents’ values and those of their peers. 12-16 Years During the ages of 12-16years children are able to think beyond themselves more and to understand the perspective of another. They develop their own ideas and values which often challenge those of their parents. They may deliberately flout rules or keep to them only if there is otherwise a risk of being caught. 16-19 Years Task A-2 Sequence is the order that development happens in. For example, a baby’s physical development may begin with rolling over then sit up, crawl, walk, run.

Another may sit up, walk, run missing out rolling over & crawling. Even though elements are missed the development still proceeds in what’s viewed as an expected pattern. Rate is the speed that it happens. For example, where one baby may achieve walking unaided at 10 months another may accomplish it at 12 months another at 16 months. It is important to recognise the difference so you can identify where children need help or may be at risk of having SEN. It is important to know at what rate a child should be roughly hitting milestones in the sequence of development. Task B

Personal Factors which could influence children’s development Health Status Children who have health issues will see their development affected. A child who has a medical condition may be less able to participate in some activities than other children. Such as if a child has broken their arm they may not be able tp participate in all P. E. activities. Children how come down with illness such as colds, flu, ear ache, headache etc, may also not be able to give full attention to learning activities. For example when children are ill with colds within the classroom, we find that the work they produce is not up to their usual standard.

Disability Children with physical disabilities may be restricted in their development opportunities. They usually that their physical development is affected however this may also restrict their social activities. I. e. in the playground, children with physical disabilities may find it difficult to join in with other children’s play. This may then lead onto affect the child’s emotional development if the child aware of their needs and the extent to which their disability affects them. It is important that adults

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