Introduction- Throughout the history of man kind one question has been constantly ASKED and never seems to get a definite answer. The question is who are we? And where do we come from? Rather then spark a religious verse science debate and draw a very emotional line in society we let everyone believe what they want to believe. However regardless of what you want to believe facts are facts and science is science. After going through the Diversity one, two and three labs many things became evident that were somewhat unclear before.
One of these things is that we , as man may argue about where we came form and when we got here but we are mere children in the history of planet earth and mere infants in the life that has existed here. The goal of this lab was to understand and be familiar with the millions of organisims that live on earth everday and hiow they got here. The goal was to understand how certain species died out, how they evolved to survive and how organisims have managed to make it millions of years on this planet.
This lab takes a look at the three domains Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya, which contain animals, protists, fungi, bacteria, and plants.
And after our observations from the lab me and mark grey my partner concluded many concrete facts about life, evolution, traits and survival. Observations- Throughout the lad we viewed many different organisims and many different traits. This lab takes a look at the three domains Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya, which contain animals, protists, fungi, bacteria, and plants. And throughout the lab we uncovered what makes each plant different and what makes each animal in a set kingdom different. The results of our observations were recorded and analyzed from the results that follow.
Observations of species and their traits that came from either divergent or convergent evolution were recorded and analysis of each kingdom of species in the lab is included. At the end of the lab mark grey and I concluded that no matter how many observations we collect the world is full of diverse species that live by their own means to survive in a diverse, hostile forever changing world. Laboratory 3 Diversity I Prokaryotes, Protista, Fungi Prokaryotes- Prokaryotes are single celled organism without a nucleus or the membrane bound organelles.
They are the most ancient lineage of living organisms and exist in Archaea and Bacteria. The first type of prokaryotes we will explore is bacteria. About 10% of bacteria cause disease, while a large part of bacteria plays important roles in the ecosystem as decomposers. There are three types of bacterial cells: coccus, bacillus, and spirillium all of which we observed in our first stage of the lab. We also observed many different bacterias take on many different shapes. We also looked at Archaea and Cyanobacteria– Photosynthetic prokarayotes are cyanobacteria or blue – green algae.
Species that were observed under the microscope were Amoeba, Woox, Euglena.. These bacteria tend to live in water and be able to process their own food. After we observed and analyzed the Kingdom Protista- The Kingdom Protista contains two types of organisms unicellular animal-like organisms (the protozoa) and algae. Although most algae are unicellular some are multicellular. As we begin to focus on details and differences between the protistas we begin to notice how higher life forms have evolved. During the lab Mark and I viewed the “volvocine series” Chlamydomonas, Pandorina and Volvox and noticed and reflected on many ideas.
We noticed how things can evolve from From Single celled organisms all the way to a cluster of identical cells to a large group of cells which have certain fucntions and purposes. These functions and purposes are designed to save energy and make life and homeostasis less intense. We later moved on to observing The Protists which are Eukaryotic cells that are unicellular. They are classified by the basis of the mode of locomotion. These cells have many organelles; each organelle carries out specific functions.
There were 4 classes or types of Protozans which are separated and classififed based off their means of movement AKA locomotion. For examples Sarcodina use pseudopodia to move and Sporoza are parasites that use their host to move. Another example is Flagellata and how it uses a small number of long, thin structures called Fiagella to carry out locomotion . And another example is how Cilialita use a large number of small, thin structers called cilia to go about locomotion. Our findings and exmaples can be viewed in the chart below. Class|Type of locomotion|Example| Flagellates|Flagella|Trichonympha|
Ciliata|cilia|Paramecium| Sareodina|pseudopodia|Amoeba| Sporozoa|Parasitic no movement|Plasmodium vivax| ||| Towards the end of Diversity 1 we looked at several key things but still truly significant. The first was Fungi AND THE OTHER WAS Lichens. With Fungi, it can be parasitic or saprophytic. They get their nutrition from living on abiotic things. They are usually containing more than one cell but can also be single celled. Altohugh tiny they play a huge role in the ecosystem because Fungi act as decomposers, returning nutrients to the ecosystem to be re-used by successive generations of organisms.
In the Lab , the mushroom part of the Fungus is made for reproduction. The part of the fungi that grows and metabolizes is found beneath the decaying organic material and is called a Mycelium, which are made up of Hypha. And as for Lichens , they represent a relationship between algae and fungus. Looking udner the microscope you can find 3 different type of lichens which were Foliose, Fruticose and Crustose. Although Lichens were observed in ourlab we have encountered them in nature walks as well as religiously talked about them and what goes on with them.
End of Diversity one Activity three. Laboratory 4 Diversity II: the Plant Kingdom JUMPING RIGHT into it and switching gears from microscopic organism we started discussing thehistory and general triats of certain plant life on the planet. The first type of Plants we discussed were the simplest yet first plants to ever move on land, they were the PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA and obviously they can survive and sustain homeostasis out of water and on land but do require water to reproduce. They do not produce seed and have no root or specialized tissues (vascular tissues) for transport of water and sugars.
These species must absorb water with their whole bodies and transport them and utilize them from the process of osmosis and diffusion. Mosses and liverworts are examples of Bryophytes and it should be noted they are small and usually lurk close to the ground to make osmosis and diffusion a much easier process but they still each have specific characteristics. Liverworts reproduce asexually by developing cuplike structures called Gemmae on its upper surface. When a gemmae matures, they detach themselves and grow into new liverworts. We examined Liverworts in the lab when we examined Marchantla.
As for MOSSES, mosses are primitive plants and the spores produced by meiosis are wind dispersed and then grow into the major structure of its life cycle, the leafy moss plant called the gametophyte. At the top of the gametophyte, certain cells mature into gametes (sperm or egg cells). The sperm swims through the puddle of dew or rainwater to get to the egg. The fertilized egg remains in place and grows into the minor structure of the life cycle, the sporophyte which consists of the thin stalk with a capsule on top. Inside the capsule is reduction division that reproduces spores for dispersal.
No seed is produced at any time. The next type of plants we observed were vascular plants, which belong to the Phylum Tracheophyta. Vascular Plants are believed to have evolved from moss like plants 300-400 millions years ago. They were the first plants to grow to large size and away from the open water. This was due to the fact that they had a vascular system which allowed these plants to form the first forest. The vascular system extends from the roots, through the stem and branches, into the leaves. The system enables efficient transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant.
All vascular plants include the more primitive vascular seedless plants ferns and horsetails. During the lab Mark and I examined the more advanced seed vascular plants like gymnosperm and angiosperm. But we still discovered many facts about vascular plants such as that the xylem and phloem make up the vascular tissure, which transports water, minerals, and nutrients thoughout the plant. These plants have two types of reproductive structures. One type is spores, and the other is seeds. Ferns, horsetails, and club moses propduce spores, which can easily be spread out by the wind.
While recording data on vascular plants we came across two terms Gymnosperm and Angiosperm. When observing th Gymnosperms in the lab we loked at Conifers and Ginkgos. The most familiar gymnosperms are probably the common evergreen conifers (pines, firs, spruces). There are also several deciduous confers which drop all their needles at once in the autumn. During this lab I examined two groups Conifers and Ginkgo. Gymnosperm have a naked seed at the end of the stalk or lying naked on a cone scale, rather then being enclosed in a fruit like a Angiosperm. Conifers produce male cones and female cones in the spring.
In the small non woody male cone, reduction divisions occur on each cone scale, producing many spores, each of which grow into microscopic gametophyte – the pollen grain that contains only 3 cells, one of which is a sperm. The second term Angiosperms consist of flowering plants and after collecting information on it we realized just why Angiosperms have become the dominant plant life on the planet. They have accomplished this by virtue of their efficient means of reproduction. Of greatest significance was the evolution of flowers and fruits. Angiosperms are subdivided into two groups: Monocotyledons and Dicotylrdones.
A cotyledon is an embryonic structure that forms the first leaves of the developing plant. At the conclusion of diversity two Mark and I distuingished two different plant groups with two different set of traits and we set aside some significant parts of the plant and named them. The two plant groups are known as Monocots and Dicots. In monocots ) grasses and lilies) you will find one cotyledon in the seed and find leaves with parallel leaf veins. As opposed to Dicots ( iliac, apples, oak) which have TWO cotyledons in the seed and Net Veined leaves where veins branch and rebranch.
At the end of the lab we listed the major parts of the plant we found to be important. Our notes are below Peduncle: The stalk of a flower. Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached. Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose a developing bud. Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored. Stamen: The pollen producing part of a flower, usually with a slender filament supporting the anther. Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Pistil: The ovule producing part of a flower.
The ovary often supports a long style, topped by a stigma. The mature ovary is a fruit, and the mature ovule is a seed. Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen germinates. Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are produced. Laboratory 5: Diversity III: The Animal Kingdom The last part of our lab consisted of viewing the variety of species that exist in the Animal Kingdom. Mark and I found it extremely helpful to make a chart for this as opposed to actually bulk all our observations together. What we realized in turn was that Animals are forever changing and have been changing for many many many many years.
Phylum Name|Description| Porifera|No tissues, organs, nervous system, appendagesMost aymmetrical (a few radial)Have internal skeleton of CaC03 or silicaFilter feeders by circulating water through poresSpongesSponges| Cnidaria|Jellyfish, anemones, Hydra, coralsRadial symmetryTwo body plans: polyp and medusa•Polyp: sessile (stalked as Hydra, anemones)•Medusa body plan (jellyfish) Loose tissue layersStinging cells for offense/defense (some stings are lethal tohumans), Cnidaria = nettleCorals make reefs of CaC03 which they secrete around their soft bodies: very, very important ecologically and economically. Platyhelminthes|Flatworms, flukes, tapewormsMany parasitic, some free-living (usually aquatic) Primitive nervous system (except tapeworm)Incomplete digestive system (what goes in comes out of same opening)1st to show bilateral symmetry with cephalization (head formation)| Nematoda|Unsegmented round worms Both parasitic and free living No true body segmentation Bilateral symmetryComplete digestive tract (mouth to anus)Primitive nervous systemTrichinella (parasite of us, pigs), Ascaris (intestinal round worm), Tubatrix (the vinegar eel), Soil nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans (genetics studies)|
PhylumName|Description| Mollusca|Clams, snails, mussels, slugs, abalone, squid, octopus etcBody enclosed in a thin mantle that secretes a shell of one, two or eight parts. (ie: snail=1, clam=2, chiton=8)Have ventral muscular foot modified for crawling (as a snail), burrowing (as a clam), or swimming (as a squid).
Mollusca = stomach footComplete digestive tract, nervous system with nerve ganglia, capable of fine, directed movementSquid, octopus are especially smartMost with a radula (feeding structure with rows of teeth) Used either for scraping up food (snail) or grasping prey (squid) Most free living (not parasitic), most marine| Annelida|Segmented worms: earthworms, leeches, marine wormsSegmented bodies composed of many similar and ring-like segments, Annelida= little ringThis segmentation is visible externally and internally Move by use of fluid filled hydrostatic skeleton Bilateral symmetryComplete digestive tract, closed circulatory system (blood flows thru discrete vessels)
Most free living: earthworms, marine wormsSome ectoparasitic: leeches| Arthropoda|85% of animal kingdomBiggest, most diverse and most important phylumContains >1 million speciesBody usually segmentedExoskeleton made of chitin (proteinaceous, hard, impermeable covering), bilateral symmetry, complete digestive tract, elaborately jointed appendages3 major classes•Crustacea: crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crayfish, barnacles; 10+appendages, most marine•Arachnida: spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, body in 2 major segments, 8 legs, wingless•Insecta: grasshoppers, flies, moths, butterflies, beetles, bees, lice, etc. Most abundant, diverse & widespread of all animals, body in 3 major segments (head, thorax, abdomen), 6 legs, most winged as adults| PhylumName|Description|
Echinoder mata|Seastars, urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea cucumbersRadial symmetry as adults, larvae are bilateralNo head, brain segmentation, skin with tiny projectionsShow some chordate characteristics embryologically| Chordata|Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammalsAt some point in their life cycles, all chordates have a dorsal nerve cord running down the back, a notochord (supporting rod made of cartilage lying just beneath the nerve cord), and pharyngeal gill slits| SubphylumVertebrata|Most chordates are in this groupBackbone or vertebral columnINCLUDES THE FOLLOWING CLASSES:| CLASSES of vertebrates:|Chondrichthyes: sharks and rays.
Fish w/ cartilaginous skeletons, not bone| |Osteichthyes: trout, salmon, goldish,Have a bony skeleton, gills covered by operculum| |Amphibia: frogs, toads, nets, salamandersHave dual life: adults usually terrestrial, larvae are aquatic with gills, most thin skinned, eggs without shellsFirst vertebrates to live out of waterNew features for life on land include legs, lungs (not in all), nostrils Ectothermic (body temp varies according to outside, environmental temp)| |Reptilia: lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, crocs and alligators, dinosaurs1st vertebrates completely adapted to terrestrial living Shelled, amniotic eggs (no need to lay eggs in water) Thick, scaly skin retards water lossLimbs capable of rapid locomotion (lacking in snakes)Ectothermic with behavioral temperature regulationInternal fertilization (why important for land dwellers? )|
More classes of vertebrates|Aves: birdsFeathers (same derivation as reptile scales)Endothermic (constant body temp maintained at high cost) Front limbs modified for flight (wings) in mostSkeleton with hollow, air-filled bones (reduces weight) No teeth (have lighter beaks)Sternum (breast bone) enlarged with median keel for attaching wing musclesVery efficient lung/air sac system – useful for energy costs of flightUsually show high parental investmentInternal fertilization, lay eggs| |Mammalia: rodents, bats, cats, dogs, horses, cattle, pigsMammary glands on females provide milk (also found on males but not functional)Have fur/hair (even on whales)Usually show high parental investmentEndothermic with generally stable body temp, except in hibernators| CONCLUSION- Bob Dylan once said “the times around us are changing”.
Although I am sure he meant the actual people, the trends and the world as we know it I must point out the inaccuracy in his statement. Although the times are changing he failed to also state the world, its people and its ancient organisms have been changing for hundreds, thousands and millions of years and will continue to change and adapt until the destruction of all life on the earth. Whether it be Animals,Plants, Eukaryotes, Fungi or some other organism, the fact still remains about the world we live in. That species have came and went and will continue to evolve, die out and repopulate because that’s just how the world works. So to correct BOB DYLAN, the statement should state the times, they are changing, just like they always have.
Cite this Evolution and Diversity Lab Reports ( All 6 Parts)
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