Formation of Identity

          Components of identity include a sense of personal continuity and of uniqueness from other people. In addition to carving out a personal identity based on the need for uniqueness, people also acquire a social identity based on their membership in various groups-familial, ethnic, occupational, and others. These group identities, in addition to satisfying the need for affiliation, help people define themselves in the eyes of both others and themselves.

Identity formation has been most extensively described developmental stages, which extends from birth through adulthood, identity formation, while beginning in childhood, gains prominence during adolescence. Faced with physical growth, sexual maturation, and impending career choices, adolescents must accomplish the task of integrating their prior experiences and characteristics into a stable identity. Phrase identity crisis to describe the temporary instability and confusion adolescents experience as they struggle with alternatives and choices. To cope with the uncertainties of this stage, adolescents may over identify with heroes and mentors, fall in love, and bond together in cliques, excluding others on the basis of real or imagined differences.

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Abstract

        This is a comparative study of two identity formation of Virginia wolf’s Mrs. Dalloway as the primary text, relating psychology to the formation and maintenance her dual identities- of Mrs. Dalloway and Clarissa. Sigmund Freud’s `The Uncanny` and Jacques Lacan`s `The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the one as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience` are two essays that provide relevant support to the book Mrs. Dalloway. I have to include ideas from Frumps Escape from Freedom, Existentialism, the ego, etc

Knowing the identity formation of Mrs. Dollway, She liked the geniality, sisterhood, motherhood, brotherhood of this uproar. It seemed to her good (Zimring, Rishona). Here I Suggest that Virginia Wolf was a great artist. Who has provided descriptions of concrete Sequences of events, in consciousness and perhaps insights into its nature. Of course, we can never be completely sure of the accuracy of her descriptions. But they at least offer instances with which theories of consciousness can be grounded, and inspiration for models of Consciousness (Pedler, Margaret).

         Review of Related literature

        Few points of view by other writers, who do appreciate the story of Mrs. Dollway, a Virginia wolf.  The extraordinary perceptiveness and evocativeness of Woolf’s treatment, the interior Monologues suggest that Woolf’s work. It is a contribution not only to art, but also to social science (Ming of The Periplum).

          Understanding Inconsistencies in Individual Conduct The existence of domain overlap and differences in informational assumptions helps to account not only for disagreements between people about the moral meaning of social issues, but also helps to explain some of the inconsistencies we observe within individuals. Just as different groups of people may disagree over the moral meaning of contextualized social issues, individuals may differ in their attribution of moral meaning of actions within different contexts. In relatively unambiguous cases, deciding upon the moral or conventionally correct course of action is fairly straightforward. However, in cases where moral and conventional expectations are in conflict, where the information regarding the meaning of the action is ambiguous, or when moral concerns run counter to highly salient pragmatic or personal desires of the actor, individuals display inconsistency in their social judgments and subsequent actions. From the point of view of domain theory, such inconsistencies are the inevitable consequence of applications of a multifaceted conceptual framework in the context of varying heterogeneous social contexts. This is not a case of situational ethics. People do not make up their morality on the spot. The place of morality within a given context, however, will vary as a function of the person’s application of the totality of their social understandings and concerns to a given situation.

        Character and the moral self. In Blasi’s (Noam, 1993) work on the moral self, he makes the point that morality may or may not be a central element of the general narrative we construct about who we are. In other words, morality may or may not be a salient issue in constructing one’s personal identity. The fact that virtually all children construct basic moral understandings about fairness and human welfare does not mean that being a person who acts on that knowledge in relation to others is necessarily an important part of how one self defines. For the adolescents described above, or for some businessmen for that matter, being moral may not be as integral to their self definition as are other facets of their personal identities (e.g., gang member, successful businessman). According to Blasi, the experience of “guilt” or moral responsibility emerges in those situations in which one acts counter to what one knows to be morally right only for those for whom morality is an integral part of personal identity. In other words, from Blasi’s work, we can infer that a central feature of what we mean by moral character is the degree to which being a moral person attains salience as a part of one’s self definition. Acting in consonance with one’s deontic moral judgments is for someone of “good” character important for that person’s sense of intrapersonal coherence in the vast majority of contexts.

          The psychological views of the identity formation of Mrs. Dalloway’s identity formation

         As in many areas of educational research, the field of moral education is rife with controversy. These disputes are not limited to psychological accounts of the nature of moral development or character formation, but extend to the very definition of educational aims in this area. Arguments surrounding the aims of values education capture the essential quandary for any pluralist democracy attempting to construct a shared civil society without privileging the particular values of any one group. At the heart of the matter is whether we can point to a set of moral values that would form the basis of an “overlapping consensus” that would permit approaches to moral education that appeal to more than local or particularistic values. Without such consensus the incommensurable qualities of local values would render shared notions of a moral community impossible. A related issue is whether there are features of individual psychology which can be appealed to in fostering the development of children who would act in accordance with such common or transcendent moral values. The contribution which educational psychology can make with regard to these issues is to clarify how moral and social values are formed, and to address the social and psychological factors which contribute to the tendency of individuals to act in ways that are concordant with their own well-being and the welfare of others. Controversies notwithstanding, the past several decades have witnessed a great deal of progress with regard to our understanding of these issues. This chapter will address those aspects of what has been learned in the areas of developmental and educational psychologies that can help educators engage in meaningful moral and character education.

          Sigmund Freud “Uncanny and Jacky’s Lacan”

          The theories distinctive of this school generally included the following hypotheses: (1) that human development is best understood in terms of changing objects of sexual desire, (2) that the psychic apparatus habitually represses wishes, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature, whereby they become preserved in one or more unconscious systems of ideas, (3) that unconscious conflicts over repressed wishes have a tendency to manifest themselves in dreams, parapraxes (“Freudian slips”), and symptoms, (4) that unconscious conflicts are the source of neuroses, and (5) that neuroses can be treated through bringing the unconscious wishes and repressed memories to consciousness in psychoanalytic treatment.

         Critical reactions

        Freud’s model of psychosexual development has been criticized from different perspectives. Some have attacked Freud’s claim that infants are sexual beings (and, implicitly, Freud’s expanded notion of sexuality). Others have accepted Freud’s expanded notion of sexuality, but have argued that this pattern of development is not universal, nor necessary for the development of a healthy adult. Instead, they have emphasized the social and environmental sources of patterns of development. Moreover, they call attention to social dynamics Freud de-emphasized or ignored (such as class relations). This branch of Freudian critique owes a great deal to the work.

         Some criticize Freud’s rejection of positivism. The philosopher formulated a method to distinguish science from non-science. For Popper, all proper scientific theories are potentially falsifiable. If a theory could not possibly be falsified, then it cannot be considered scientific. Popper pointed out that Freud’s theories of psychology can never be “verified”; no type of behavior could ever falsify them. Although Popper’s demarcation between science and non-science is widely accepted among scientists, it remains controversial within the fields of philosophy and philosophy of science. Most academic psychologists distinguish between theories (which are too abstract to be falsified) and specific hypotheses (which derive from a theory and may be tested by research).

This course examines the intricate relations among memory, desire and trauma as well as the formation of sexuality and identity in psychoanalytic and literary texts.  We will explore the peculiar unconsciousness of texts and psyches as it is theorized (and enacted) in different kinds of writing, focusing less on the application of psychoanalytic theory to literature than on the uncanny ways in which each kind of writing addresses the other.  Psychoanalytic texts include works by Sigmund Freud. The literary texts include narratives and film by British, American and French authors and filmmakers has contribution of Sigmund Freud to Mrs. Dalloway’s Identity formation.

Freud developed the metapsychological notions of his structural model after Beyond the Pleasure Principle of 1920 as “necessary to maintain the principle of the decentring of the subject.”  This development has been misinterpreted (recently by Americans) as the reincarnation of the autonomous ego.

Reference:

“Ming of the Periplum”. < http://periplum.squarespace.com>

Noam, G., & Wren, T. E. (Eds.). (193). The moral self. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. <http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/articles/nuccimoraldev.html>

Pedler, Margaret. “The Vision of Desire “. < http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8vsds10.txt>

Zimring, Rishona.”Rishona Home”. < http://www.lclark.edu/~zimring/modernism.html>

 

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