QN - State formation introduction. With examples show dynamicism of state formation in E. Africa and narrates an emergency of imperialism of ancient Buganda kingdom .
State formation these refers to the process of centralized government structure in a situation where are did not exist period to its development.
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According to Fredrick angles argued that “The state developed as a result of the need to protect private property. to theory contended that surplus production as a result of development of agriculture created admission and specialization of labor creating classes who walled land and these who could devote time to other tasks class antagonism and the need to secure private property of there living on the surplus production produce by agriculturalist resulted in the creation of state .
According to Morton fued develop an argument and argues that “social stratification on who the primary dynamic underlying the development of the state” Generally state formation can be understood as the processes that lead to centralization of political power over well defined continuous territory and with a monopoly of the means of coercion.
The study of state formation have been discussed and put forward with different theories, among of the theories that explain the development of early state as well us modern state, the following are some theories explaining the formation of states.
Voluntary theory, these content that diverse groups of people came together to form states as a result of some shared rational interest ,these theory largely focus on the development of agriculture and population, organizational pressure that followed and rented in state formation ,the argument is that such pressure result in integrative pressure for rational people to unify and create a state.
Conflict theories, these contend that conflict and dominance of some population over other population is key to the formation of the state. These arguments believe that people do not voluntarily agree to create stat but that states are created by some form of dominance of some population over another population. in general these theory include economic stratification,conquest of other people ,conflict in circum scribed area and neo evolutionary growth of bureaucracy.
Conquest theory Similar to the economic stratification theory ,the conquest contends that the state was created by one city to control other tribes or settlements it had conquered .
According to franz oppenheimer argued that “the state was created to cement inequality between people that resulted from conquest .
Neo evolutionary theory , the basis of the arguments is that human society involved from tribes on chiefdom into states through gradual process of transformation that let a small group hierarchically structure society and maintain order through appropriation of symbols of power., group that gain of power in tribal society gradually worked towards building the hierarchy and segmentation that created the state .
According to Elman services theory of state formation states that unlike in economic stratification theories ,the state largely creates stratification in society rather than being created to defend to that stratification. Here of cause the state formulate some stratification so that to have different groups of people belonging to different classes, that to have classes of rulers, commoners as well as workers .
In Africa especially in pre-East African societies a number of states developed in different period of time engaging in different aspect of life that include socially ,economically ,politically as well as culturally , most notable state in East Africa were Bunyoro and Buganda kingdom these shows directly the dynamic situation of state formation in East Africa even before the coming of the white people from different part of the world including Europe ,state in Africa for stance in East Africa Changed developed from one state to another that to say state developed from the one decline ,that after the falling of one state which follows is rise of another state ,for stance after the collapse of Bunyoro which follow was the rise of Buganda kingdom . the rise of Bunyoro kingdom /state are explain as follow .
Bunyoro Kingdom these is one as the centralized state rise in East Africa especially the 18th century, it was a germinant clan under Bito clan, these clan taken power from the chwezi .Bunyoro Kitala Kingdom was a very extensive prestigious and famous at the neigh of its power . Bunyoro Kitala Kingdom engaged I n different aspect of life including society ,politically , economically as well as culturally.
Omukama of Bunyoro is the little given to rulers of the central African Kingdom of Bunyoro Kitala the Kingdom lasted as an independent state from the 16th to the 19th century , Omukama of Bunyoro remain an important figure in Uganda politics especially among the bunyoro people of whom he is titular head. The royal palace called karuziika palace is located in horima, the current Omukanama is solomoni igulu and wife the queen or Omugo magreth karunga, is cultural head the king is assisted by is principal private secretary a cabinet of 21 minister and orukurato ( parliament) Every year an ‘’empago’’ ceremony is held celebrating the king and the kingdom, the cerebration is held at the royal palace and all the Banyoro people are invited to join, during the ceremony the king also beats the royal drums as a sign of is power and as a mean of signaling, the people cerebration contain singing ,dancing, music and much other .It should be remembered that the Bunyoro was established by invaders from the north as cattle keepers, the immigrants constructed privileged social group that ruled over the Bantu speaking agriculturalist. As Bunyoro kingdom passed through all aspect of life that to say economically, socially, politically, as well culturally below are more elaboration Socially the Bunyoro kitara kingdom people were organized in strong clans with the royal clans of king, princess and princesses .
The king held executive judicial and legislative power, is word was the highly respected and almost equated to the word from God, the king subjects ensured that the king lacked nothing economically. Clans would bring food stuffs (ebihotole) in turn and each clan had specific duty to perform for the king. Example abalvisa clan were the shep herds of the kings cattle (enkorogi), the abahamba clan were hunter and bodyguards (abakumirizi) for the king, the Abasiita clan been the artisans and craft men, the Bayanga clan were chief entertainer of the king.
Politically, under political aspect Bunyoro kitara kingdoms the king had absolute authority over his subject, appointed coutry chief (Ambamasaza), to administer each coutry,below them were sub coutry chiefs who were sub coutry administrators this received reports from parish chiefs, with this hierarchical arrangement the king’s messages used to reach at the grassroots very faster.
Economically the kingdom of Bunyoro was a supplier of food stuff to other neighboring kingdoms, the fertility soil of the kingdom enabled the people to grow plenty of food for home consumption and surplus was solid the neighboring communities, people the economy this was greatly hanged agriculture carried on using traditionally made hoes, barter trade was also common people exchanged goods by goods so that accumulate weath The people along the lake of Mwitanzige (Albert) knows the Bagungu were fishermen, some community were hurters using nets, knives and spears as their locally made tools for killing small animals while the big ones were killed using well dug deep pits (Obuhya), people thus exchanged fish or dried meat (Omukaro) with food stuffs. The coming of Bachezi introduce then culture the cattle keeping on the large scale with their loaned cattle yielded more milk
Salt processing, in Kibiro is still going on up to day, the Abanyakibiro go to their leaving through the exchange of this salt and fish, the Bunyoro also produce a number of wooden items, hides and skins, palm and sisal items, pottery and mud item and many other on economic basis, this were either sold or exchanged for other items that they needed.
More over the development of Bunyoro kingdom was facilitated by a number of factors this include geographical condition which have fertile soil motivated much the development of agriculture activities cultivate crops such as banana yams as well potatoes were used food while the surplus production were sold to the neighboring, this encourage much development of trade within the kingdom facilitating the accumulation of weath, conquest were their tools for territorial expansion as well accumulation of weath from their conqured state.
The state of Bunyoro rised for 1220-1500 with the part of Ankole, Busoga Burundi, Rwanda, Rango, Bukoba, Nkole late on the state collapse in 18th century it was in a total decline it faced challenges fro Nkole, Rwanda and Buganda. The king of Buganda a become autonomous from the Bachwezi of Bunyoro kitara, the Buganda settled in the already mention places after their treck from the Indian ocean in 1200 and divided them selves into six clan, after Buganda replacing the Bunyoro kingdom Buganda developed more to the extent was named imperialist state. Because of the level of development, Buganda developed which included politically economically as well socially all this stimulated the development of Bugand kingdom the following contributed much the development of Buganda kingdom. Agriculture activities this was among of the economic activities practiced in Buganda kingdom, Buganda engaged in cultivation of crops such as banana the did well because of availability fertile soil, the also cultivated potatoes, cassava, yams, According to shillington, k argue that ‘’ the main agricultural crops in Buganda was banana its relative the plantations grown as starchy vegetable food rather the fruits’’
Agriculture in this area was much developed to the extent surplus production was attained this help them to sell the surplus to the neighboring people and accumulate weath via trading activities all this help Buganda to reach the state of imperialism.
Industrial activities in Buganda kingdom developed the local industry in which the produce commodities such as back cloth, skin dressing, this clothes were used for dressing wrapping deed bodies bedding (sheets and blanket), bride price and other cultural uses like the gift in marriage, introduction ceremonies, also it was lucrative sources of in come because the Buganda highly valued dressing, for stance it was abomination for a Muganda women to expose breasts or body beyond the knees.
Animal husbandry, a part of cultivating crops the people of Buganda
kingdom managed to keep cattle although were few in number but always carried on raids on neighboring state like Bunyoro, Nkore and Ziba of Bukoba in Tanzania which then in crease their number.
Buganda had astute successful dynamic leaders, the leader in Buganda were so astute compared with the neighboring had successive indolent leaders this mad it easers to invade, defeat and annex their neighbors land, the land taken become part of Buganda kingdom practices different economic activities such as agriculture, trade as well is industrial activities.
Internal rival and disunity among the neighbors tribes, this mad it easer to defeat them as Buganda neighbors was not united they could not counter attach Buganda in union, waver the Buganda were so united and had the following saying
‘’my king, I shall never desert, if attacked from rear then I shall counter attacked from the front and defend you’’ such commitment and unity lacked in Buganda neighbors, this weakness created advantage to the Buganda to defeat the neighbors week state and in large it self
Trade activities because Buganda had many economic activities that engaged full in production such as agriculture as well industrial activities the participated full in trade activities the most notable was long distance trade exchanging food crops with different industrial goods such as hoes, spears, knives, but not forgetting ivory all this help Buganda kingdom to generate a lot of weath and reach I level of development as it was named to be imperial state.
Conquest Buganda kingdom conquered the neighbors state for its territorial expansion and accumulation of weath, as it conquered the neighbors the established cardinal relationship with conquered people, the never, segregate them but lather tot them the language Ganda and their culture, the become part and personal of Buganda kingdom, they engaged in production within Buganda kingdom in plantation, this stimulated the development of Buganda kingdom. According to Ogutu, A. (1987) introduction of Africa in history up to 1885 published by university of Nairobi state that ̋̏ once state as become into being, it might expand and expansion almost occurred by conquest weak state there fore through conquest Buganda benefited more as obtained labour as well market for the commodities produced in the state more enough increased security within the state
Military strength, Buganda kingdom had military power that have very strong and organized solders compared to other kingdom, the military power was well organized by the king to extent that to conquer and a annex the neighbor state was e simple task. It is believed that the Bunyoro were not the only people who suffered the humiliation of be conqured and dominated by the Baganda, the other to suffer were the clans which were eventually to constitute the nationality could Busoga to the east of Buganda, while kabaka Mawanda and armies were driving Abagerere through Bulondo Nganyi into Bukuya the attracted to and invaded the reach state of |Busoga, a part from that the imperial tendencies of the kingdom of Buganda affected of the people in habiting the area to west of the kingdom and out of whom Buganda not only raided the nascent Nkore empire it also intervened in are internal politics and civil wars in attempt to place puppets one the Nkore throne.
Population growth, Buganda kingdom had many people this was because of the fact that the congaed majority were assimilated to Ganda tribe and not emulated and segregated in stand the leave closer with them teaching them they language, this was because the wanted to increase number of labour within the kingdom.
More father the population in Buganda kingdom increased because of the availability of surplus production, the surplus were obtained because of the presence fertile soil with availability enough water, this encourage development of agriculture to the extent Buganda kingdom managed to gate surplus production, from surplus production encourage birthrate and discourage birth rate from the reason the population increase, as it increase also facilitate specialization of labour some become blacksmith, fishers, cultivators while others become rulers. Geographical location, it is believed that Buganda kingdom was situated around lake Victoria the area was blessed to have fertile soil that encourage agriculture activities so availability of surplus production become common.
Therefore the emergence and development of many state in east Africa including Bunyoro and Buganda kingdom was a result number of factors that including the geographical location, the climate condition, engagement of different economic activities such as agriculture activities trade much more situation of conquest and the habit of unity among of the member of the community belong to this society, through this Buganda reached highly prosperity of development to the extent was seen by the outsiders to have more advantages to them. Arabs seen important to interact with Bugand a kingdom followed the domination of potuguese and late on the British dominated Buganda kingdom in the 19th century, this marked the end of imperialism in ancient Buganda kingdom.
A part from fertile soil the Buganda kingdom was also blessed with mineral weath this include oil at the lake Albert lift valley, gemstone, ruby, red and green garnet and other mineral including iron, iron technology help the Baganda people to produce weapons such as arrows, spears this weapons were used to conquer the weak neighbor state territory expansion as were as accumulation of weath from conqured, further more the weapon were used to protect the territory against the invaders, again from iron technology agriculture tools were made such as hoes knives all this were used to till the land and planting crops such as yams, banana potatoes, just to mention few.