As a result of this, two sides formed, the army who were religious radicals and parliament, who were after a conservative settlement. The result of the regicide left the existence of a power vacuum which wasn’t helped by either the Rump parliament or the New Model Army because they were unable to find a legitimate regime to temporarily rule over England. However, parliament tried to broaden their regime, creating more controversy, by bringing back all the moderate MSP from Pride’s Purge In December 1648.
Divisions within the Rump parliament continued in 1650, when the Councilors f State were asked to sign the Engagement, an oath of loyalty to the new regime, however only 22 of 41 Councilors signed the oath declaring the state disapproved regicide. Therefore It was the reactionary nature of the Rump parliament and their failure to establish a legitimate basis for godly reform which created divisions between the army and the Rump and therefore halted the movement towards an acceptable settlement.
Oliver Cromwell was a key figure In the failure of finding an acceptable settlement during the Interregnum as both Cromwell and his supporters ‘Carnelians’ were key causes In the creating dolls. After Cromwell appointment of Commander-Len- Chief in June 1650 and his appointment as Head of State in December 1 653 many problems began to rise above the surface.
The first of the problems being that because Cromwell won the support of the both the militia and the civilians, he had to adapt his policies to suit both sides. For example, the military wanted a radical religious reform, led by John Lambert, whereas the civilians (or parliament) wanted a more moderate, parliament endorsed regime, led by figures such as Lord Broglie. Therefore, Cromwell was a major source of division and was said to be an “ideological schizophrenic” (Worded).
Furthermore “division was made worse by Oliver Cromwell” (Worded) which is seen with the fluctuation of Cromwell views between 1649-58, beginning with the dissolution of the Rump Parliament, because he favored the Nominated Assembly, devised by fifth-monarchist Thomas Harrison, however the Assembly was named the Baroness Parliament. Despite Cromwell tradition, helped by Lambert who ended the Baroness Parliament due to the fear of the increasing power of religious radicals. Therefore, it was the indecisive nature of Oliver Cromwell that led to the failure in attempting to create an acceptable talented in politics and religion.
Religious radicalism was fundamentally linked politics. Following Civil War in 1642, religious radicalism evolved due to the collapse of censorship and the Church of England which brought social upheaval across England, making it increasingly difficult for Cromwell to achieve an acceptable settlement. The less influential groups amongst society were the Diggers and Fifth Monarchists who believed that human action could or will accelerate the second coming of Christ. The most notable radical group at the time were known as the Quakers. The Quakers consisted of around 0,000 people and were led by George Fox.
A Quaker believed in an ‘inner light’ Inhere everyone can access the word of god, which began to question whether the State needed authoritative fugues like the New Model Army or the gentry. Ere New Model Army was deeply involved with religious radicalism, and in particular the Quakers. James Analogy is a prime example, who was a leading Quaker in 1656, and in October that year, Analogy rode a donkey into Bristol with women followers. This act was supposed to mimic that of Chrism’s entry into Jerusalem, an act of blasphemy. The issue that arose for Cromwell and his Protectorate was the level of Lorraine that should be shown.
This wasn’t helped by clauses 35-37, which Lambert rote to protect the army, which stated that Analogy had done nothing wrong. However, Cromwell questioned whether the Analogy Crisis was an anomaly, and that he should allow religious freedom across England and decides to side with parliament. In March 1657, Cromwell accepted the Humble Petition and Advice as it allowed him to nominate his successor, making Cromwell “King in all but his name” (Sherwood). This therefore shows a shift towards a more conservative regime due to the tradition of there being a monarch.
Therefore, religious radicalism did SSE threats to Cromwell regime, however it was effectively crushed and Cromwell brought back the tradition of the monarch for the latter stage of the interregnum. Or conclude, the governments of the interregnum failed to find an acceptable settlement fundamentally due to the lack of compromise between the New Model Army and the Rump Parliament in the early stages of the interregnum leaving a lot of problems for Cromwell to clear up as Lord Protectorate. However you can argue that Cromwell made these divisions worse by his rather indecisive nature by being an ‘ideological schizophrenic” (Worded).
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