Harmonizing to several writers, banana Peel recorded stronger antioxidant activity, pooled more measure of phenolic compounds ( Someya et al. , 2002 ) , greater scope of phenoplasts composing and higher in minerals content than banana mush. Banana mush had been reported as holding assorted antioxidants such as vitamins ( A, B and E ) , I? – provitamin A ( Kanazawa & A ; Sakakibara, 2000 ) and phenolic compounds like catechin, epicatechin, lignin, tannic acid ( Someya et al. , 2002 ) , gallocatechin and anthocyanins like peonidin and malvidine.
There several type of antioxidant such as vitamin C, E, A, beta-carotene, lycopene and besides other substances. Antioxidants are abundant in fruits and veggies, every bit good as in nuts, grains, and some meats, and fish. Combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants, including vitamin E, b-carotene, and Se, provides a interactive antihypertensive consequence. Experimental groundss prove that antioxidants can protect human organic structure from free groups and reactive O species ( ROS ) effects. Antioxidants are substances that can forestall or decelerate the oxidative harm to our organic structure and besides may protect cells from the harm caused by free groups. Free groups are unstable molecules or extremely reactive chemical that frequently contains O and is produced during oxidization. Exposure to assorted environmental factors will take to free extremist formation such as baccy fume and radiation. Free groups can damage of import cellular molecules such as Deoxyribonucleic acid or lipoids or other parts of the cell and besides may take to malignant neoplastic disease.
Banana Peel besides demonstrated the presence of assorted phenolic compounds such as gallocatechin and anthocyanins like peonidin and malvidin. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites, which have been associated with spirit and color features of fruits and veggies and are deriving considerable attending because of their potent antioxidant and wellness promoting belongingss ( Kaur & A ; Kapoor, 2001 ) . Extraction of phenolic compounds in works stuffs is influenced by many factors including the extraction method employed, types of dissolver mutual opposition used, storage clip, presence of interfering substances, sample atom size and conditions every bit good as their chemical nature.
Bananas were enriched with minerals like K, P, Mg and Ca. Banana Peel could be a good beginning of saccharides and fibre. The high fibre content besides indicates that the Peels could assist handle irregularity and better general wellness and good being ( Anhwange, B. A. et al. , 2009 ) .
Natural antioxidant are compound from works or animate beings beginnings that retard oxidative rancidity of oil, fats and fat soluble constituents, therefore protecting them while detaining the development of unpleasant spirits and olfactory properties ensuing from oxidization procedure. Antioxidant are present of course in most natural nutrient beginnings. Processing of the fruit can take or trip the debasement of these antioxidant. Nowadays, the most widely used antioxidant were man-made antioxidant such as butylated hydroxyanisole ( BHA ) , butylated hydroxytoluene ( BHT ) , third butylhydroxyanisole ( TBHQ ) , and propyl gallate ( PG ) . Figure 1.1 show the molecular construction of the available man-made antioxidant.
Figure 1.1: Man-made antioxidants
Doubt on the safety of the man-made arose foremost in the 1960s and led to an increased involvement and wide research on natural antioxidant ( ) . Natural antioxidant peculiarly found in fruit and veggies have gain involvement among consumer and the scientific community because epidemiological surveies have indicate that frequent ingestion of natural antioxidant is associate with the lower hazard of cardiovascular and malignant neoplastic disease ( Renoud et al.1998 ) . Natural antioxidants are perceived safe, less toxic and good for human wellness. However, natural antioxidants is really expensive and have been non widely commercialized.
In the recent old ages, there had been an explosive involvement in analyzing antioxidants of some fruits due to their wellness promoting belongingss. A big figure of surveies have been demonstrated either on the consequence of extraction clip and extraction temperature or drying temperature toward antioxidant activity, phenolic content and minerals in banana Peel. Antioxidant activity could act upon by geographical beginning, cultivar and harvest storage clip. ( C. Guo et al. , 2003 ) . These statements show that different beginning of banana Peel will hold different value of antioxidant. This present surveies are concentrating on the banana Peel that originally harvest in Malaysia because banana Peel from Malaysia beginning is seldom being studied before.
The aim of this research undertaking is to set up the optimum status for obtaining the banana Peel infusion with high antioxidant activity, phenolic content and minerals by utilizing solvent extraction.
Following undertakings will be undertaken as a portion of the proposed research: –
Different drying temperatures of 50oC, 55oC, 60oC, 65oC and 70oC used to dry the sample. 70 % propanone was use as the pull outing dissolver. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content was analyst by utilizing Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power ( FRAP ) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu ‘s calorimetric ( FC ) severally. The sensing of the merchandises was performed by utilizing UV-visible Spectrophotometer.
The sample of 60oC drying temperature was extract by utilizing different dissolver ( methyl alcohol, propanone and H2O ) with different dilution ratio ( 90 % , 70 % , 50 % ) in the hot H2O extraction. The extraction was done at 50oC for 1 hr. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were analyst by utilizing FRAP check and FC assay severally. The sensing of the merchandise was performed by utilizing UV-visible Spectrophotometer.
Time of extraction vary from 1minutes-120 proceedingss was used to find the consequence of extraction clip on antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Banana Peel drying at 60oC extracted with 70 % propanone was used as the sample. Analysis were done by utilizing FRAP and FC assay where the sensing was performed by utilizing UV-visible Spectrophotometer
Different extraction temperatures of 40oC, 50oC, 55oC and60oC were for the hot H2O extraction. Banana Peel drying at 60oC extracted with 70 % propanone was used as the sample. Duration of the extraction procedure was 2 hours. Analyst for antioxidant activity and phenolic content were performed.
Confirmation of the Ascorbic acid being in the banana Peel infusion was performed utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography ( HPLC ) unit. Banana Peel drying at 60oC extracted with 70 % propanone was use as the sample. The extraction procedure was done at 55oC for 2 hours.
Sodium ( Na ) , Magnesium ( Mg ) and Calcium ( Ca ) composings in banana Peel extracted with 70 % propanone and undergo 2 hours extraction at 55oC were investigate by utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer ( AAS ) unit.
Rationale and Significance
Banana is one of the beginning of natural antioxidant. Besides, banana is easy to acquire because it is non a seasonal fruit and it grow good in Malaysia. Banana Peels are waste from banana fruit and they contain high sum of antioxidant, phenolic content and besides mineral. This Peel is biodegradable and it will bring forth environmental job due to it nitrogen and phosphorus measure. Therefore pull outing the banana Peel will be the best solution in order to protect human being, deriving some net income and besides making waste to wealth. Banana Peel besides can be commercialize because it qualitative and quantitatively incorporate more antioxidant than it mush. It besides will hold does non vie with banana mush in bring forthing end merchandise particularly in the nutrient industry.