Human Rights and Globalization
The concept of a ‘global community’ and ‘globalization’ has aroused huge interest in man since ancient times. The very idea of forming global communities has lead to the numerous expeditions to discover the various edges of the earth and use the resources (including human resources) from other parts of the world. In the past, efforts made at forming and harnessing the benefits of a global community has only risen in abuse of human rights of certain ethnic and cultural groups.
However, merely accusing the concept of forming global communities and associating them with human rights violation would be wrong. Greater amounts of thought should be given to the cultural, political and the economic system that are existing in the global environment and the manner in which these could be utilized for the benefit of the community members.
Human rights are a set international laws that help to protect individuals from whichever religious, ethnic, social, cultural or age groups they may belong to, from legal, political and socialist discrimination they may suffer.
Some of the common human rights delivered through international laws include right to free and fair trial, right to freedom of religion, right not to be tortured, etc. The human rights are enforceable by the governments of the nations in which people exist. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights are a set of human right pledges that many countries are a signatory to, and hence their duty would be to enforce human rights in that nation, irrespective of the nationality, religion, caste, creed, socio-economic status, etc, of the people. In any political and social system, human rights do meet with the criteria laid down under laws of existence, nature, universality, justification, legal entity of individuals, etc. The Universal Declaration of Human rights, 1948, provide six groups of rights, namely, security rights, liberty rights, political rights, equality rights, social rights and group rights. Security rights protect the people from crime such as murders, torture, rape, etc. Due process rights protect the people from discrimination and abuse of a legal system such as excessive imprisonment, non-provision of a legal representative, punishment which has not been justified, etc. Liberty rights ensure freedom of belief, speech, movement, association, assembly and movement. Political rights ensure the people right to form political parties, vote, assembly, protest, serve the public, etc. Equality rights ensure right to equal treatment by the law. Social rights ensure protection from starvation, poverty, right to education, etc. Minority and Group rights include the rights of various ethnic groups, ability to protect their land and resources, rights of women, rights of minorities, etc. Environmental rights, a new concept, include the right to protect the environment, animals and plants and prevent undue destruction due to human activities. The environment existent for the community should be healthy and safe and propagate a healthy living. Human rights are much more than ordinary moral norms and conduct for interpersonal interactions. Every government and political system needs to ensure that the human rights of the people are implemented and not abused by any means. The human rights came into existence from moral and legal obligations. Human rights are very comprehensive in nature and attempt to cover all areas of human development and well-being, and not mere protection of life. The human rights which have been marked in the Universal Declaration are the bare minimum standards, and political systems should try to enforce a much higher level of protection. Human rights would be applicable at international level, and any political system that has a conflicting law that tries to overcome the human right would be defeated (provided certain limitations are met). The Human Right Protection System would not only include specific rights meant to protect human beings, but also measures required by the national governments to protect the rights and a system to monitor enforcements of human rights and ensure that they are appropriately addressed in case of violations (Lamm, 2006).
Globalization refers to local resources crossing political boundaries in order to pool human intellect and harness it for the benefit of in the community. A global community was originally thought to be a mere idea, but today it is coming into existence, and in the near future it would be startling reality. In the future global cooperation may not only be reality, but may also be very much required or else the human race may suffer and go into extinction. From ancient times, small groups in kingdoms cooperated for certain purposes. These groups combined to form nations. From the 19th century, several nations are combining their forces for specific purposes such as warfare, developing technology, financial reasons, etc. Every since the World War, the importance of allying each other’s resources has been understood by the world clearly. In the past, it has clearly been proved that forming multinational cooperation would result in reducing the difference between the rich and the poor. A global community would not only require implementing changes at the social and the institutional levels, but also at the governmental and the non-governmental level. An individual at the global community would be placed at certain level of the organization, having a certain position, and performing a certain functions. There would also be certain amount of self-interest, which is negotiated in order to build the community. A global community would involve equitable sharing of resources, protection of health, promotion of wellbeing, and invariable in the system, certain groups may be exploited and some may be in danger of losing their lives. Greed, abuse, discrimination, crime and indifference can clearly distort the sensitive concerns of a global community. Hence, in order to protect a global community, not only would economic and political stability be required, but also greater amount of protection of human rights (Irive, 2004 & Sahtouris, 2002).
Concept of Global community: Effect of political, cultural and economic issues
In a global community, there would be rapid and intense circulation of good and services on a global basis. There are immense chances for economic progress. However, it would be influenced by several factors including communications, technology and transportation. There may be certain amount of opportunities, risks and threats invalid. Due to the benefits of economic and financial development, peace, understanding and dialogue have been propagated. The concept of the global community having several economic benefits can help to develop greater amount of cross-cultural commitment. One community would be interested in working with others for the sake of bilateral development. However, when there is a greater amount of cross-cultural interactions, chances for discrimination and abuse also exist. This is where the role of various inter-governmental organizations such as the UN is essential, so that social restructuring is possible and ensures that the new circumstance is given greater amount of stability (after considering its purpose and benefits) (Irive, 2004 & Gulen, 2008).
Globalization involves several ethnic and religious groups intermingling with one another. These communities which were once silent would be given an opportunity to express themselves. Some communities which may be considered as threats may be expelled from the globalization process. This would require serious amount of dialogue and interactions between the political and social groups. General members of a specific community should not be suspected of being terrorists or illegal groups. These individuals are likely to be discriminated and abused in a global community. A global community may be susceptible to a terrorist attack, as evident from the 9-11 incidents. However, discriminating from genuine members of the community who are playing a vital link would mean abuse of their human rights. Even in a local community, consisting of local groups, there are chances of antisocial elements existing, which can harbor wrongful ideas and intentions. In a global community, this should be dealt with by the government, and international groups (Irive, 2004 & Gulen, 2008).
There are also the chances that people may migrate from poor and oppressive nations to much developed nations. This may be a false notation of globalization, as the developed nations would only become more and more developed, and the poor nation would become poorer. Hence, to ensure such a situation does not arise, greater cooperation, dialogue and understanding should be present between the developed and the developing nations. This would ensure that income is distributed in proper manner and the poorer nation would immensely benefit from the activities of globalization. The political system should also be sensitive to the situations under which terrorism can affect the global community. Terrorism can act as an instrument for oppression and defying global resistance. The political system should also ensure enforcement of human rights. Any violations need to be addressed promptly and appropriately, considering international issues (Gulen, 2008).
In the past, the cultural, economic and the political systems have not been utilized properly in ensuring the human rights of the members in the global community. Hence, greater amount of focus is required on these systems. Economic, technical and financial development can be considered as an incentive for ensuring protection of the various groups that exist in the global community. Besides, activities that exist in global transactions should be greatly controlled by positive political and social forces. Lastly, terrorism should not be considered as a negative implication of globalization, but rather a disease that is very much against humanity rather than be associated with any ethnic or religious group.
Gulen, F. (2004). V. Abant Platform “Globalization: Political, Economic and Cultural Dimensions”, Retrieved on December 9, 2008, from Fethullah Gulen Web site: http://www.fethullahgulen.org/about-fethullah-gulen/the-abant-platform/1786-v-abant-platform-qglobalization-political-economic-and-cultural-dimensionsq.html
Irive, A. (2004). Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World, California: University of California Press.
Lamm, B. (2006). Human Rights, Retrieved on December 9, 2008, from Stanford University Web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rights-human/
Sahtouris, E. (2002). Issues of Human Evolution into Global Community, Retrieved on December 9, 2008, from Tachi Kiuchi’s Tokyo newsletter, The Bridge Web site: http://www.ratical.org/LifeWeb/Articles/theBridge0102.html
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