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Human Skeletal System and Diseases Related to It

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    1. The skeletal system is involved. 2. Bone tissue is the primary type involved 3. Connective tissue is the specific type of tissue involved 4. Osteoblasts are the specific types of cells that produce the normal microanatomy of the tissue. 5a. With ageing, bone mass decreases. This is espeically true of women following menopuase. Estrogen acts as a protector of bone by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts. Once estrogen levels drop, after menopause, osteoclast activity increases. b. Bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2. 5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average. ) The term “established osteoporosis” includes the presence of a fragility fracture.

    Osteoporosis is most common in women after the menopause, when it is called postmenopausal osteoporosis, but may develop in men and premenopausal women in the presence of particular hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases or as a result of smoking and medications, specifically glucocorticoids, when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP). 6. With ageing, as estrogen decreases, ther is increased activity of osteoclasts which re-absorb bone.

    7. Women have less bone mass then men to begin with. Before menopause the estrogen protect the bon mass by inhibiting the function of osteoclasts. Following meopuase osteoclast activity increases as estrogen levels drop. 8. Osteoporosis (OP) caused the abnormal anatomical systoms and led to the fracture 9. Unlike OP, which is asymptomatic, pagets disease has many symptoms: Bone pain is the most common symptom. Bone pain can occur in any bone affected by Paget’s disease. It often localizes to areas adjacent to the joints.

    Headaches and hearing loss may occur when Paget’s disease affects the skull. Pressure on nerves may occur when Paget’s disease affects the skull or spine. Somnolence (drowsiness) due to vascular steal syndrome of the skull. Paralysis due to vascular steal syndrome of the vertebrae. Increased head size, bowing of limb, or curvature of spine may occur in advanced cases. Hip pain may occur when Paget’s disease affects the pelvis or femur. Damage to joint cartilage may lead to arthritis.

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