Anatomy and Physiology Introduction In this assignment i will carry full investigation and analysis on the Skeletal system,using my class notes,researching on the internet and reading books. The Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations.
If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have taken place and the significance of human body; no more than a stone. Aim My aim in this assignment in anatomy and physiology is to investigate and learn about the relationship between the skeletal system and the muscular system . I will explain in detail what the skeletal and muscular system is nd lso will investigate one injury of the musculoskeletal system and will examine the symptoms and treatment of the specific injury . The Skeletal System-The Skeletal system has very important functions , Support, Protection, Assisting in Movement, Storage in minerals,blood cell production .
Support-The human skeleton provides us with a means of support, if we didn’t have a skeletal structure for support of the body we wouldn’t be able to stand up or move about and perform actions. The skeleton is the frame for which all other body parts are held together by and provide the necessary support. Protection-The skeleton provides us with protection for our major organs and prevents organ damage. For example the rib cage houses the lungs and heart and protects them from damage and provides support, the bones around major organs are designed to house and protect. The reason for this is any damage to an organ can be fatal.
Movement-The skeleton provides us with a structure to which muscles are connected to via ligaments and tendons, the design of the skeleton allows us to move about and provides a means of movement with ease,The skeleton is what allows the muscles in the body to move in various ways by the connecting part of the muscle pulling on the bone to contract the muscle and allow for movement. Mineral Storage The skeleton stores minerals for the body, the minerals that it stores include Calcium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Silica, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Boron Sulphur and Chromium. Blood Cell Production (Red)
The skeleton produces red blood cells for the body. One quarter of the cells in the human body are red blood cells. Red blood cells are vital because they allow nutrients to be transported in the blood stream, so the skeleton plays a major role in the nutritional side of survival that we need to survive. Components of Human Skeleton: Human skeleton is composed of three main components; Bones, Associated cartilages and Joints. Bones: There is 206 bones in the body. Bone is a tough and rigid form of connective tissue. It is the weight bearing organ of human body and it is responsible for almost all strength of human skeleton.
For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; “Bone“. Cartilages: Cartilage is also a form of connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is the mineralization factor. Bones are highly mineralized with calcium salts while cartilages are not. For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; “Cartilage and its types. Joints: Joints are important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A joint occurs between “two or more bones”, “bone and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage”. Divisions of Human Skeleton:
Human skeleton can be divided into two divisions. Axial Skeleton: Axial skeleton forms the axis of human body. It consists of Skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage. Skull: Skull is that part of human skeleton that forms the bony framework of the head. It consists of 22 different bones that are divided into two groups: bones of cranium and bones of face. Vertebral Column: It is a flexible column of vertebrae, connecting the trunk of human body to the skull and appendages. It is composed of 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal.
Rib Cage: It is a bony cage enclosing vital human organs formed by the sternum and ribs. There are 12 pairs of ribs that are divided into three groups: True ribs, False ribs, and Floating ribs. Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton: It is the skeleton of appendages of human body. It consists of Shoulder girdle, Skeleton of upper limb, Pelvic girdle and Skeleton of lower limb. Shoulder Girdle: It attaches the upper limb to body trunk and is formed by two bones: clavicle and scapula. Clavicle is a modified long bone and is subcutaneous throughout its position.
It is also known as the beauty bone. For more details on clavicle, visit:Scapula is a pear shaped flat bone that contains the glenoid fossa for the formation of shoulder joint. It possesses three important processes: Spine of scapula, Acromion process and Coracoid process. Skeleton of Upper limb: The skeleton of each upper limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals (8), Metacarpals (5), Phalanges (14) Pelvic Girdle: There are two pelvic girdles (one for each lower limb) but unlike the pectoral girdles, they are jointed with each other at symphysis pubis.
Each pelvic girdle is a single bone in adults and is made up of three components: Ilium, Ischium and Pubis. Skeleton of Lower limb: The skeleton of each lower limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are; Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsals (7), Metatarsals (5), Phalanges (14). Appendicular Skeleton Muscular System The major functions of the muscular system are: 1. Body movement due to the contraction of skeletal muscles 2. Maintenance of posture also due to skeletal muscles 3. Respiration due to movements of the muscles of the thorax 4. Production of body heat, which is necessary for the maintenance of body temperature, as a byproduct of muscle contraction 5. -Communication, such as speaking and writing, which involve skeletal muscles
6. -Constriction of organs and vessels, especially smoother muscles that can move solids and liquids in the digestive tract and other secretions, including urine, from organs 7. -Heart beat caused by the contraction of cardiac muscle that propels blood to all parts of the body Muscles are all made of the same material, a type of elastic tissue. Thousands, or even tens of thousands, of small fibers make up each muscle.
You have three different types of muscles in your body: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are usually in sheets, or layers, with one layer of muscle behind the other. You can’t control this type of muscle. Your brain and body tell these muscles what to do without you even thinking about it. You can’t use your smooth muscles to make a muscle in your arm or jump into the air. But smooth muscles are at work all over your body. In your stomach and digestive system, they contract and relax to allow food to make its journey through the body.
Your smooth muscles come in handy if you’re sick and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up through the esophagus and out of the mouth. Smooth muscles are also found in your bladder. When they’re relaxed, they allow you to hold in urine until you can get to the bathroom. Then they contract so that you can push the urine out. These muscles are also in a woman’s uterus, which is where a baby develops. There they help to push the baby out of the mother’s body when it’s time to be born. You’ll find smooth muscles at work behind the scenes in your eyes, too.
These muscles keep the eyes focused. A Hearty Muscle The muscle that makes up the heart is called cardiac muscle. It is also known as the myocardium. The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body. Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle works all by itself with no help from you. A special group of cells within the heart are known as the pacemaker of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated muscle because the light and dark parts of the muscle fibers make them look striped .
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which means you can control what they do. Your leg won’t bend to kick the soccer ball unless you want it to. These muscles help to make up the musculoskeletal system, the combination of your muscles and your skeleton, or bones. Together, the skeletal muscles work with your bones to give your body power and strength. In most cases, a skeletal muscle is attached to one end of a bone. It stretches all the way across a joint (the place where two bones meet) and then attaches again to another bone. Skeletal muscles are held to the bones with the help of tendons.
Tendons are cords made of tough tissue, and they work as special connector pieces between bone and muscle. The tendons are attached so well that when you contract one of your muscles, the tendon and bone move along with it. Skeletal muscles come in many different sizes and shapes to allow them to do many types of jobs. Some of your biggest and most powerful muscles are in your back, near your spine. These muscles help keep you upright and standing tall. They also give your body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren’t as large.
Face Muscles Face muscles is a muscular body part, your face has plenty of muscles. Facial muscles don’t all attach directly to bone like they do in the rest of the body. Instead, many of them attach under the skin. This allows you to contract your facial muscles just a tiny bit and make dozens of different kinds of faces. Here is a diagram showing the muscles of the face . Major Muscles Because there are so many skeletal muscles in your body, we can’t list them all here. But here are a few of the major ones: In each of your shoulders is a deltoid muscle.
Your deltoid muscles help you move your shoulders every which way — from swinging a softball bat to shrugging your shoulders when you’re not sure of an answer. The pectoralis muscles are found on each side of your upper chest. These are usually called pectorals, or pecs, for short. When many boys hit puberty, their pectoral muscles become larger. Many athletes and bodybuilders have large pecs, too. Below these pectorals, down under your ribcage, are your rectus abdominus muscles, or abdominals . They’re often called abs for short. When you make a muscle in your arm, you tense your biceps muscle.
When you contract your biceps muscle, you can actually see it push up under your skin. Your quadriceps , or quads, are the muscles on the front of your thighs. Many people who run, bike, or play sports develop large, strong quads. And when it’s time for you to take a seat? You’ll be sitting on your gluteus maximus , the muscle that’s under the skin and fat in your behind! The Arm Muscles A musculoskeletal system is an organ system that gives animals and humans the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides firm, support, stability, and movement to the body.
It is made up of the skeleton, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system’s primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs.  The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.  This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments.
The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on to each other. Muscles contract (bunch up) to move the bone attached at the joint. Injuries A sprained ankle is a very common injury. Approximately 25,000 people experience it each day. A sprained ankle can happen to athletes and nonathletes, children and adults. It can happen when you take part in sports and physical fitness activities.
It can also happen when you simply step on an uneven surface, or step down at an angle. The ligaments of the ankle hold the ankle bones and joint in position. They protect the ankle joint from abnormal movements-especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot. A ligament is an elastic structure. Ligaments usually stretch within their limits, and then go back to their normal positions. When a ligament is forced to stretch beyond its normal range, a sprain occurs. A severe sprain causes actual tearing of the elastic fibers. How it can happen
Ankle sprains happen when the foot twists, rolls or turns beyond its normal motions. A great force is transmitted upon landing. You can sprain your ankle if the foot is planted unevenly on a surface, beyond the normal force of stepping. This causes the ligaments to stretch beyond their normal range in an abnormal position. There is different types of strains you can get and its all depending how badly you sprained it . They’re all divided into categories. Grade 1 sprain: -Slight stretching and some damage to the fibers (fibrils) of the ligament. -Grade 2 sprain: -Partial tearing of the ligament.
If the ankle joint is examined and moved in certain ways, abnormal looseness (laxity) of the ankle joint occurs. -Grade 3 sprain: -Complete tear of the ligament. If the examiner pulls or pushes on the ankle joint in certain movements, gross instability occurs. Treatment For a Grade 1 sprain, use R. I. C. E (rest, ice, compression and elevation): -Rest your ankle by not walking on it. -Ice should be immediately applied. It keeps the swelling down. It can be used for 20 minutes to 30 minutes, three or four times daily. Combine ice with wrapping to decrease swelling, pain and dysfunction. Compression dressings, bandages or ace-wraps immobilize and support the injured ankle. -Elevate your ankle above your heart level for 48 hours.
For a Grade 2 sprain, the RICE guidelines can also be used. Allow more time for healing to occur. The doctor may also use a device to immobilize or splint the ankle A Grade 3 sprain can be associated with permanent instability. Surgery is rarely needed. A short leg cast or a cast-brace may be used for two weeks to three weeks. Conclusion I found that the musculoskeletal system is important to survive in everyday life activities like simply holding a pen .
I learned alot doing this assignment and learned alot of interesting facts about our human body that i would of never known. By doing this assignment i have learned about the skeletal system ,Muscular system,Mucoskeletal interaction and different types of injuries. Learning about muscles etc can also help me in my sporting career and give me a clearer image in what is involved in the human body . Overall i really enjoyed doing this assignment and think i am progressing very well in my learning abilities by doing assignments that contain detailed work of different sections of the subject Anatomy & Physiology.