Implementation of Change in WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority)

Table of Content

History of WAPDA

WAPDA, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority, was created in 1958 as a Semi-Autonomous Body for the intent of organizing and giving a incorporate way to the development of strategies in Water and Power Sectors, which were antecedently being dealt with, by the several Electricity and Irrigation Department of the States.

Since October 2007, WAPDA has been bifurcated into two distinguishable entities i.e. WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company ( PEPCO ) . WAPDA is responsible for H2O and hydropower development whereas PEPCO is vested with the duty of thermic power coevals, transmittal, distribution and charge.

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WAPDA is now to the full responsible for the development of Hydel Power and Water Sector Projects. PEPCO has been to the full empowered and is responsible for the direction of all the personal businesss of corporatized nine Distribution Companies ( DISCOs ) , four Coevals Companies ( GENCOs ) and a National Transmission Dispatch Company ( NTDC ) . These companies are working under independent Board of Directors ( Chairman and some Directors are from Private Sectors ) .

WAPDA is one of the largest employers of human resources in Pakistan. Over the old ages WAPDA has built-up a reservoir of Technical know-how and expertness which has made it a modern and progressive organisation.

Leadership theories

There are many leading theories to understand the construct of leading. Below are enlisted leading theories and their short definitions to understand:

Great adult male theory

Leaderships are born non made.

Trait Theory

Leaderships have inherited qualities.

Behavioral Theories

Leaderships can be made instead than they are born. This theory believes that what leaders existent do.

Participative Leadership

This type of Leadership really involves other people to do the determinations for the peculiar undertaking to do any determination. This manner of leading avoids the bossy manner. In this type of leading determination devising is more appropriate. Most of the administrations adopt this manner.

Situational Leadership

In this theory leaders lead harmonizing to the state of affairs. Leaderships motivate the subsidiaries by different methods.

Contingency Leadership

Harmonizing this theory leading manner may alter harmonizing to the different state of affairss. One manner may non be effectual in other state of affairs.

Transactional Leadership

This manner of leading clearly states the wagess of the subsidiaries. Punishments are non stated but they are understood to make a formal subject within the administrations.

Transformational Leadership

This type of leading manner puts passion and energy to into everything. They develop a vision, sell a vision, happening the manner forwards and taking the charge.

Leadership manner in WAPDA

On the old pages we have shortly discussed about different leading theories. It gives us an thought that what type of leading an administration may hold or may follow. When we analyse maps and operations of WAPDA, it is cleared that the Leadership manner in WAPDA is Participative Leadership.

It is such a immense administration and has its subdivisions in all metropoliss, grid Stationss and other care sections. Such administration can non be run without engagement of the subsidiaries ‘ positions in the determination devising and its operations.

WAPDA is a package of internal and external stakeholders. Such as private companies, authorities, technology companies, care companies, building companies, insurance companies, media, developing & A ; development, finance, Bankss, domestic consumers, industrial consumers and many more are involved.

WAPDA ‘s demand is to be participative leading manner

Fortunes to implement alteration in WAPDA

Since last two decades the overall demand of electricity has been tripled in Pakistan. The demand of any merchandise or service is by and large straight proportionate to the population.

In 1980 the population was 100 million in Pakistan but in 2011 it has been reached up to 160 million. The addition in population has created over all demand of assorted sectors like car Mobile industry, building industry, oil production and imports, place contraptions industry, substructure etc. Actually population has affected all over industrial sector demand. Deduction of trees ( verdure ) has created over all planetary heating and pollution. Many woods have been now transformed in to mills and roads.

Industry and foreign exchange has created occupations and purchasing power in the state. In 1980, the use of air conditioners was merely in offices and really few in places. Fan was rather adequate in summer season. But due to pollution, the temperature in summer raises up to 50 deg C in assorted parts of Pakistan. This rise in temperature is un-bearable for the people. The use of air-conditioners has been increased in summer.

Air-conditioners need more power for their operations due to their heavy compressors. When more ingestion of electricity occurs, WAPDA needs to make load casting ( off the power supplies in assorted countries to administer the energy ) .

WAPDA off the electricity of one area/city/town and exchange on the electricity of other area/city/town and this procedure carry on unit of ammunition the clock. And mean power shut down per area/city/town is 8 to 12 hours in 24 hours. This procedure goes through whole the summer season and even whole the twelvemonth in different metropoliss.

In simple words we can state that demand has been increased quickly and due to certain grounds sufficient supplies are non being maintained. Electricity shortage creates many jobs in the state like failure of industrial/production sector, agribusiness sector, wellness sector and consumer public violences etc. Though, all the sectors suffer due to shortage of energy and over all state moves towards retardation.

Presently WAPDA is bring forthing energy though Dams and furnace oil engines. In future WAPDA has planned many other little and big size Dams but harmonizing to lifting demand of electricity in the state these will non be sufficient in coming 20 old ages.

WAPDA wants to present air current factory energy engineering to bring forth electricity in assorted parts of the state. There are many countries in Pakistan, which have sufficient flow of air current to run a air current Millss.

What is a Cause-and-Effect Diagram?

A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that helps place, kind, and show possiblecauses of a specific job or quality characteristic ( Viewgraph 1 ) . It diagrammatically illustrates the relationship between a given result and all the factors that influence the result. This type of diagram is sometimes called an “ Ishikawa diagram ” because it was invented by Kaoru Ishikawa, or a “ fishbone diagram ” because of the manner it looks.

When should a squad usage a Cause-And-Effect Diagram?

Constructing a Cause-and-Effect Diagram can assist your squad when you need to Identify the possible root causes, the basic grounds, for a specific consequence, job, or status. Kind out and associate some of the interactions among the factors impacting a peculiar procedure or consequence. Analyze bing jobs so that disciplinary action can be taken.

Cause and effect/fish bone diagram of WAPDA


Coal is non being utilised

In-Sufficient Electricity output/Load Sheding


  1. Less dependability
  2. Peoples attitude
  3. In sufficient H2O beginning
  4. High cost of care
  5. Too late determinations
  6. Furnace oil Generators



Force field analysis

Force field is a clip honoured job work outing and action planning technique was first described psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1950s ( Lewin 1951 ) . In the organisation planning version a ‘force ‘ refers to any influence playing in an administration such that an administration ‘s province is changed by the presence of that factor.

Randolph E.Schwering, School of Management, Rockhurst University, Kansas metropolis, Missouri, U.S.A. It shows which forces are against and which forces are in favor of the alteration. Given diagram is the force field analysis of WAPDA:

Forces for Change


Change Proposal

Forces Against alteration


In the above diagram we can see that on the left manus side, forces for alteration are given and their mark is 6 and on the right manus side forces against alteration is given whose mark is 3. If we analyse the current state of affairs the alteration can be easy implemented through proper procedure.

Change in organisations in General

Change is one of the few things that is changeless. In the concern universe, merely those people win who change to the altering state of affairss. They sniff out a small alteration in the environment and alteration dramatically to work the altering state of affairs to their advantage.

Change is good. Changing for good is better. Changing the attack to make the ends is the best. Changing the manner we do things positively can cut down the clip and the cost of making things. In concern sense, a alteration for good additions the productiveness and reduces the wastage and cost of bring forthing a good or a service.

The types of alterations that by and large take topographic point in an organisation are

  1. A Strategic alterations
  2. A Technological alterations
  3. A Structural alterations
  4. A Changing the attitudes and behaviors of forces

Strategic changesA refer to the alteration in the organisational vision, mission, the aims and the scheme adapted to accomplish those aims.

Technological changesA refer to the alteration in the engineering being implemented in the production or in the services being offered. As the engineering is ever germinating, companies have to implement newer engineerings as new engineerings cut down the cost of production and increase the profitableness as it will ensue in higher rate of production.

Structural changesA are the alterations to the construction of an organisation. This alteration can be both internal every bit good as external to the organisation. Internally, structural alteration will include altering the overall manner in which the activities are done, which can include the alteration in the procedures or sections, the manner they function, unifying two or more sections into one department. , etc.

Changing the attitudes and behaviors of personnelA are the alterations that are needed to be made for the intent of altering the attitude, increasing the employees ‘ consciousness about the organisation, etc.A With the coming of new engineerings, the forces need to larn new things in order to maintain up with the remainder of the industry. All these things constitute alteration in the attitudes and behaviors of forces.


Specific types of Change

Different sorts ofA changeA require different schemes and programs to efficaciously derive employee battle and credence of alteration. The three types of alteration that occur most often in organisations are developmental, transitional and transformational.

Developmental Change

Developmental alteration occurs when a company makes an betterment to their current concern. If a company decided to better their procedures, methods or public presentation criterions this would be considered developmental alteration. Companies are continually processing developmental alteration to some grade in order to remain competitory. This type of alteration should do small emphasis to current employees every bit long as the principle for the new procedure is clearly conveyed and the employees are educated on the new techniques. When major alteration such as the determination to shut a division, if the company attempted to implement developmental alteration as the first measure in streamlining the concern, employees may be more likely to accept the alteration. The employees could see that the company attempted different schemes before finding that shuting the division was the lone option.

Transitional Change

Transitional alteration is more intrusive than developmental alteration as it replaces bing procedures or processs with something that is wholly new to the company. The period when the old procedure is being dismantled and the new procedure is being implemented is called the transitional stage. A corporate reorganisation, amalgamation, acquisition, making new merchandises or services, and implementing new engineering are illustrations of transitional alteration. Transitional alteration may non necessitate a important displacement in civilization or behavior but it is more ambitious to implement than developmental alteration. The hereafter of the organisation is unknown when the transmutation begins which can add a degree or uncomfortableness to employees.

Transformational Change

Transformational alteration occurs after the passage period. Transformational alteration may affect both developmental and transitional alteration. It is common for transitional and transmutation alteration to happen in tandem. When companies are faced with the outgrowth of radically different engineerings, important alterations in supply and demand, unexpected competition, deficiency of gross or other major displacements in how they do concern, developmental or transitional alteration may non offer the company the solution they need to remain competitory. Alternatively of methodically implementing new procedures, the company may be forces to drastically transform themselves.

Change Implemented in WAPDA

If we analyse the inside informations given on old pages we can see that if we consider in general, alteration in WAPDA will be strategic alteration and technological alteration. But specifically if we see, the alteration traveling to be occurred is development alteration.

At this phase administration needs to accomplish its ends and administration is implementing a new scheme in it. On the other side administration is traveling to add a new engineering.

Specifically administration is implementing a developmental alteration. Administrations want to better its procedures and public presentation by adding new methodological analysiss in it.

Change theoretical accounts

Following are some alteration theoretical accounts:

  1. Kurt Lewin alteration theoretical account.
  2. Richard Beckhard 1969.
  3. Marshak 2004.
  4. K.Thurley 1979.
  5. Bridges 1991.
  6. The 4 D procedure of appreciative enquiry.
  7. The Kuebler Ross theoretical account of alteration.
  8. John Kotters change theoretical account.
  9. The alteration journey ( HUMAP ) .
  10. Cyclic procedure frame work ( CFAN ) .
  11. Theory U ( Otto Sharmer ) .
  12. From above mentioned alteration theoretical accounts, most appropriate alteration theoretical account for WAPDA is John Kotters change theoretical account

John Kotters change theoretical account

Kotter ( 1996 ) provinces while alteration attempts have helped better some organisations in the competitory markets, many state of affairss have been dissatisfactory and the consequences have been black for the employees and those in charge. Kotter points out “ the biggest error people make when seeking to alter organisations is to immerse in front without set uping a high adequate sense of urgency in fellow directors and employees ” . The idea that this could non go on to our organisation is one of the chief causes of failure while establishing organisational alteration. Some alterations take old ages and even after a figure of old ages, they may neglect for a assortment of grounds.

1. Establishing a sense of urgency

a. Analyzing market and competitory worlds

b. Identifying and discoursing crises, possible crises, or major chances

2. Forming a powerful guiding alliance

a. Assembling a group with adequate power to take the alteration attempt

B. Promoting the group to work together as a squad

3. Making a vision

a. Making a vision to assist direct the alteration attempt

B. Developing schemes for accomplishing that vision

4. Communicating the vision

a. Using every vehicle possible to pass on the new vision and schemes

B. Teaching new behaviors by the illustration of the guiding alliance

5. Empowering others to move on the vision

a. Geting rid of obstructions to alter

B. Changing systems or constructions that earnestly undermine the vision

c. Encourage hazard taking and non-traditional thoughts, activities and actions

6. Planing for and making short-run wins

a. Planing for seeable public presentation betterment

B. Making those betterments

c. Recognizing and honoring employees involved in the betterments

7. Consolidating betterments and bring forthing still more alteration

a. Exploitation increased credibleness to alter systems, constructions and constabularies that do n’t suit

the vision

B. Hiring, advancing and developing employees who can implement the vision

c. Invigorating the procedure with new undertakings, subjects and alteration agents.

8. Commiting new attacks

a. Jointing the connexions between the new behaviors and corporate success.

B. Developing the agency to guarantee leading development and sequence.

John Kotters Model to implement alteration in WAPDA

4. Communicating the vision

a. Vision must be communicated to every forces and stakeholders through media.

B. Teach new guidelines to the stakeholders.

2. Forming a powerful guiding alliance

a. Assemble a group with authorization and power to take the alteration attempt.

B. Promoting the group and subordinates to work together as a squad. The Group will dwell of proficient and managerial governments.

1. Establishing a sense of urgency

a. Analyzing market and competitory worlds i.e. demand of electricity has been increased.

B. State is confronting industrial, wellness, instruction and economic crises due to shortage of electricity.

3. Making a vision

a. Making a vision to assist direct the alteration attempt. That new engineering will decide the job

B. Developing schemes for accomplishing that vision.

8. Commiting new attacks

a. Jointing the connexions between the new behaviors and corporate success Highlight the difference between conventional system and extra new system. Highlight the solution due to alter.

B. Developing the agency to guarantee leading development and sequence.

6. Planing for and making short-run wins

a. Planing for seeable public presentation betterment. Who is positively in favor? Who has performed better for the alteration?

b. Recognizing and honoring employees involved in the betterments.

7. Consolidating betterments and bring forthing still more alteration

a. Hiring, advancing and developing employees/expertise who can implement the vision

5. Empowering others to move on the vision

a. Train the staff.

B. Changing systems or constructions that earnestly undermine the vision. Under which construction and section the upcoming system will run?

c. Encourage hazard taking and non-traditional thoughts, activities and actions. That developed states has already adopted this system, why ca n’t we? ?

Explanation of the alteration procedure execution and alteration agent function

In other words if we express the old page diagram of execution of alteration, we can state that first of all we have to pass on the thought within the administration. We must hold to foreground the benefits of windmill engineering i.e. , it has less care disbursals. Geographically there are batch of topographic points in the state where the air current flow degree is rather high, we can use this natural resource for production of energy. It will cut down the energy production cost for consumer and industrial user.

Next we have to depute the governments ( as alteration agent ) that who will get down this procedure as a undertaking. There will be figure of proficient and non proficient interest holders, who must hold to transport this undertaking in future as a squad. We have to negociate with the governments, convert them and act upon them to make implement the alteration. We must hold to obtain all the information sing windmill engineering.

Normally in this type of procedure struggle occurs. If there is any struggle among the squad members. We must hold to unclutter the struggles. We have to depute wagess after successfully completion of the undertaking. Even though you develop a squad but there is ever stress creates in the administration. For a successful alteration procedure we must hold to cut down the emphasis among the squad members because alteration procedure seems like excess work for the squad members. This needs to be holding good clip direction. The work must be divided in different faculties and must be delegated among the squad members. It must be assigned and expected to be done in a specific clip frame. External proficient expertness demand to be involve to develop and cut down emphasis among the squad members.

Appraisal of work and squad members must be done. Who has done more work, who is more involved in the procedure? It must be maintained as record. Whole the execution procedure must be monitored. Team members must be rewarded and appoint to head the peculiar undertaking in future. For this intent, must back up your determinations to back up others. That they will be existent rewarded, this may assist in future to implement any other alteration. External interest holders must be besides rewarded.

After execution of alteration, benefits of new extra engineering must be highlighted internally through seminars and externally through media. A comparing of old system and extra new system must be shown to all the interest holders particularly to the industrialists and domestic consumers. Per unit cost of production, low care cost, new occupations, use of natural resources, development of installing sites, populating criterions of local villagers, add-on of proficient and non-technical professions, easy and low handling cost though all the related benefits must be publicized through media.

Stakeholders involved into the alteration procedure

WAPDA is a immense administration. When we see its functional activities i.e. , production of electricity, it has big Numberss of interest holders. Such administrations dramas critical function or we can state it is like back bone of the state.

There are many external and internal interest holders, who will be involved in the alteration procedure.

List of internal stakeholders:

  1. Management. Top/Middle/Lower.
  2. Finance section.
  3. Histories section.
  4. Human resource section.
  5. Training and Development section.
  6. Purchase Department.
  7. Import Department.
  8. Architecture section.
  9. Civil technology section.
  10. Mechanical and process technology Department.
  11. Electrical technology section.

List of External stakeholders:

  1. Government.
  2. Government usage and trade section.
  3. Public.
  4. Industrial sector.
  5. Agribusiness sector.
  6. Electrical equipment providers.
  7. Importers/indenters.
  8. Civil technology contractors/suppliers.
  9. Private architectures.
  10. Electrical technology contractors/suppliers.
  11. Industrial storytellers.
  12. Transporters.
  13. Foreign suppliers/manufacturers.
  14. Foreign proficient advisers.
  15. Civil air power authorization.
  16. Hotels.
  17. Media.
  18. Insufficient and supply of energy through dikes

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This study reveals that alteration seemingly seems like a hard undertaking but if consistently implement it with the aid of theoretical and practical attacks, it is an easy procedure. It introduces new epochs within and outside the administration. Stakeholders of the administration may defy in the beginning, as it is the nature of homo but when they managed, assigned with decreased emphasis and rewarded, any type of alteration can be easy implemented.

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Implementation of Change in WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority). (2017, Jul 28). Retrieved from

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