Housing: Housing was small and cramped with numerous houses crammed into small spaces As the Industrial Revolution beings so does the need for more available living spaces are more people are searching for jobs and employment in the surrounding factories and they need somewhere to live nearby their work The houses are back-to-back with each room in the house standing about 3 feet wide and 5 feet long Inside the slum houses there are no toilets, no running water and often no windows or fireplaces 3000 families were visited.
In 773 of them the families slept 3 and 4 to a bed, in 209 families leapt 4 and 5 to a bed and in 15 families 6 and 7 slept in a bed. Rooms are cold and cramped and lack ventilation which is not ideal for the winter The cellar and the attics were the worst and the poorest families had to make their homes in these Cellar dwellings flooded in bad weather almost an inch deep in stagnant water most of the year round Attic rooms were cramped and stuffy and had no way of escaping in the emergency of a fire They were many problems with slum housing such as sewerage, poor ventilation, damp housing, dirty drinking water, rubbish and poor hygiene.
There were 39,000 people living in 7860 cellars which were dark, damp, dirty and unventilated. In one cellar there was a hole in the floor which was above a sewer. At night rats would crawl up from the hole. Toilets: Majority of the houses built in the time of the industrial revolution had no sewerage system. Instead each court or street shared a communal privy. The waste was tipped into a cesspit – many landlords would not pay for it to be emptied unless it was overflowing. The result Of this human waste leaking into the communal water supply.
Some houses only had a bucket in the corner as a toilet Sometimes dead dogs and cats and other miscellaneous things were thrown into the streams where the sewerage was emptied. Downstream women filled buckets to use as drinking water, for cooking, washing and cleaning their clothes. Sewerage was running down the gutter in the middle of the street. Diseases: Diseases – Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Influenza, Pneumonia. Rats roamed freely around the streets and constantly carried diseases.
Dirty drinking water, poor cramped housing, lack of toilets, damp rooms, rubbish and filth lining the streets resulted in diseases. Transport: Good transport links were essential as raw materials needed to be transported to manufacturing sites and manufactured goods had to be transported to the cities for sale or to ports for export. Goods were usually carried by horse-drawn carts or transported along rivers. There was many issues with this method Of transportation such as potholes, it wasn’t comfortable, rain issues and rough dirt roads.
Canals/artificial river systems replaced it. They could be made deep and wide enough to carry barges and could connect different river systems. Canals could be tunneled through hills or carried over valleys by aqueducts. The earliest railways were built in 1812 and were used to haul trucks loaded with coal from mines. They were designed to carry coal from the mines to nearby ports. Between 1 830 and 1852, there as frantic construction of railway lines. By 1852 there was over 10,000 kilometers of track in Britain.
Importance of coal and iron: Coal and iron were two important sources that helped the revolution to progress Coal replaced timber. Timber was running out, so coal was used more and more to create heat. The extraction of coal saw the invention of the heat engine (Newcomer) and then Watts Steam Engine. These inventions ordered the new machines being used (e. G. The power loom) Prior to the Industrial Revolution iron had been used to make smaller implements and armor, but the quality was not good (it was brittle). Then in 1 709 Abraham Dairy heated coal in a blast furnace which produced a purer form of iron.
This process was refined by Henry Court and his “piddling” process. This iron was stronger and could be bent or rolled. Iron was now used to build machines or bridges. Factors that lead to the Industrial Revolution and mark its progress: Transport systems Agricultural revolution Population boom Imperialism Technological advances Agricultural Revolution: A period of agricultural development be;en the 1 8th and the 1 9th century which saw a massive and rapid agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.
Before the Revolution – Food supply was low in Britain. New and more developed machinery was used to enhance farming conditions crop supply after the revolution. The enclosing of the land. Open fields were divided between people who could prove they owned land elsewhere. Farmers became poorer and couldn’t afford the right tools and fertilizers to harvest their crops. The Four Field system would advantage rammers as they had more options to farm various crops instead of narrowing it down to three fields.
Advances – new and improved fertilizers, developed machinery and technology, crop rotation, marling, publicity, seed drill. Seed drill – A sowing device that precisely positions the seeds in the soil and proceeds to cover them. Before the seed drill the common practice was to plant and place seeds by hand. This was wasteful and imprecise and led to poor distribution of seeds which led to low productivity and produce of crops. Crop rotation – The common practice of growing a series of dissimilar crops n the same area in sequential seasons and is developed around the seasonal crops.
Replenishes the nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. It is one component of polluter – agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystem. This minimizes pests and diseases, reduces chemical use, aid in building and maintaining healthy soil, and manage nutrient requirements – all which maximize yield. Reasons for Population Growth: Between 1 700 and 1861 the population of Britain increased from 5 million to 21 million.
Reasons for this include – Advances in medical science, women marrying younger and having more children and more babies and infants surviving to adulthood. Consequences of population growth – poor working conditions, pollution of natural environment, lack of proper medical facilities and sciences needed, water pollution and unemployment issues for poorer classes. The Cotton Industry: Mainly done by women and children Usually work was done in the laborers own home First cotton mill built in America was in 1 787 Eli Whitney considered a pioneer in the mass production of cotton Most work was done by hand.