Food borne illness: Norovirus
1.What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite. a.Norovirus, more commonly known as food poisoning or gastroenteritis, is caused by several distinct groups of viruses in the Caliciviridae family of viruses. The family name is derived from the Latin word chilice – callx- which means cup-like. These viruses are single-stranded small round structured viruses that are blue in color, also known as SRSV’s.
These structures have proteins surrounding the virus’ material and the surface has indentations that look like little cups.
There are 5 recognized groups of the Norovirus that affects humans.GI, GII, and GIV. Since 2002, they have seen variants of the GII strand and it had been the most common cause of Norovirus outbreaks. It is caused by fecal matter being ingested through the mouth of humans. This can happen in many ways. 2.How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water? a.
This infectious disease can be transmitted in multiple ways. If you come in contact with an infected persons vomit or feces. This family of viruses can also be transmitted in or on food and in water. The virus is expelled from the body by vomit and diarrhea and the infected person can also transmit the virus to any food or drink that they are preparing or serving.
Norovirus is extremely contagious and the disease can spread rapidly in enclosed groups of people where many people are served from the same infected food or water or by the same infected person. Young children are often involved in these outbreaks because they are constantly putting objects and their hands in their mouths without washing or disinfecting. 3.What is an example of a real life outbreak of this food borne illness in the United States? a.A real life outbreak of Norovirus in Norwalk, Ohio in November 1968. A group of children from Bronson Elementary School all came down with gastroenteritis (food poisoning). Their stool samples were collected and researched and they found the strand that was causing them to be so ill. Since it was new, they named it after the town it became the Norwalk Agent. Others that have come after it, have been called Norwalk-Like viruses and normally given a name based on the town that it was found in.
Schools, cruise ships, hospitals, nursing homes, restaurants, and day care centers are typical locations for these viruses to thrive and spread rapidly. More recently, July 2010 in Illinois, the Mokena DiNolfo’s Catering and Banquet facility hosted weddings. 57 guests were infected from the food that was served during these parties. 4.What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any? a.Clinical symptoms of this disease are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, slight fevers, stomach pains and headaches. Severe dehydration sets in for most of the victims of this disease. Symptoms can set in anywhere from 12 -24 hours after becoming exposed to the virus. After that time, the virus has settled into your intestines and just starts cleaning them out and violently as possible. It usually lasts 1 – 3 days until the virus has been completely expelled from your body. Unfortunately there is no medical cure or prevention of the spread of this disease. You just have to ride it out and try to keep fluids in your system.
Many people die each year from this virus and its symptoms. Next to the common cold, Norovirus is the second most common illness treated in emergency rooms. 5.What steps can be taken to prevent further outbreaks? Include individual as well as environmental precautions and methods. a.There is no way to completely prevent further outbreaks of Norovirus. However, we can all take certain steps and precautions to help avoid the spreading of the disease. Properly washing your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom or handling foods. Staying home when you are infected so you aren’t potentially infecting others around you. Keep surfaces clean and disinfected.
If you are suffering from gastroenteritis, don’t prepare foods for others. Cook all foods thoroughly and at high enough temperatures to kill any bacteria that may be on the food. Don’t drink from water sources that haven’t been filtered in some way. Any items that may have come in contact with infected stool, vomit, or food should be laundered immediately and washed as long as possible and machine dried.
Cite this Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases. (2016, Apr 28). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/infectious-diseases/