The underlisted are some definitions of federalism, types, reasons for, features, merit and demerit and problems associated with the concept. Types of Federalism Dual federalism, also known as “layer cake federalism” involves clearly enumerated powers between the national and state governments, and sovereignty in equal spheres. Cooperative federalism, also known as “marble cake federalism,” involved the national and state governments sharing functions and collaborating on major national priorities. This relationship predominated between 1930 and 1960.
Creative federalism, also known as “picket fence federalism,” predominated during the period of 1960 to 1980. This relationship was characterized by overloaded cooperation and crosscutting regulations.
REASONS FOR FEDERALISM
Need for Unity Elimination of Inequalities Geographical Proximity Economic Exigencies Security /Defence Mechanism Historical Antecedent Administrative Convenient Features of Federation Every federation has a written Constitution which is the supreme law of the land There exist in a federation a Supreme Court Every federation has a Bi-cameral legislature.
In Nigeria’s context, we have the Senate and the House of Representatives, all called the National assembly while in USA they are called Congress It has a rigid constitution Some merits and demerits Merits It engenders political participation It ensures rapid development of a country as powers are shared It ensures political autonomy for the component units etc Demerits Duplication of functions/duties Cost Predisposition to Succession Unwholesome power tussle over federal resources and resource control Rivalry between and among tiers and organs of government etc.
Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. It consists either of a separate process or of a specific part of management or leadership processes. It is also the use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy. Good governance relates to consistent management, cohesive policies, processes and decisions-rights for a given area of responsibility.