Managerial Fads The Diffusion And Rejection The Innovation

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Rogers reviewed a immense sum of surveies about the innovation-diffusion literature which chiefly focused on three inquiries: what methods and relationships elements influence inventions ‘ rates of diffusion? Which are the distinctive features between earlier and later adoptive parents? How the webs influence the diffusions?

Kimberly ( 1981 ) evinced these inquiries were extremely realistic during the station World War II epoch of U.S. economic opinion since invention implicated a attendant growing and forecasted that the literature on invention was likely to alter significantly through a more doubtful position ( 1981 – 1985 ) .

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This article maintains that crazes or manner have spread both inefficient inventions and efficient inventions to turn down among U.S. organisations. These effects may hold a dual readings: organisations could non follow any type of inventions even if they were technically adept or researches would back up a more practical cognition for directors.

The 2nd transition of the article claims that there is a strong innovation-diffusion literature based on the fact that technically efficient picks are made by rational protagonists ( Rogers 1962 – 1983 ) . This productive pick argues about the attitudes used to spread out inventions.

The 3rd subdivision is about the effects of innovation-diffusion theories.

This transition revolves about the diffusion of both advanced disposal and non administrative surveies[ 1 ].

In manner literature the word “ tendency ” is typically used for administrative theories which embrace a broad scope from an harmful organisation, a small promoting accomplishment to a peculiar efficient technically engineering.

On this affair it is thought that practical cognition should be effectual merely through a steady cautiousness supported process. However these surveies have pointed out some inconvenients: engineerings can non sold tendency jobs because they become prematurely excessively outdated.

There are many protagonists of pro-innovation inclinations due to the fact that they think these inclinations net income organisations, so they spread if they are positive nevertheless they vanish if they are unproductive.

To look into on inquiries that do non reflect pro-innovations inclinations, theoreticians must see the supplemented guesss, the contrasting hypothesis and work out on the less prevailing 1s.

So theoreticians have to calculate out the opposing guesss, a different synthesis of them and so the inefficient or efficient engineerings.

Premises in the Dominant Perspective
Rogers claimed that an organisation ‘s group can follow pro-innovation inclinations because of their demonstrated efficiency so that rational directors will be attracted by the attained productive marks.

Generating Counterassumptions
Another affair to see is the influence of organisations outside or within the group, non to distribute inefficient administrative engineerings or to actuate the rejection of efficient engineerings.

Consequently it is thought the former thrusts to a forced choice position, while the latter thrusts to an efficient pick position.

To clear marks and efficient administrative rating, it is of import to understand if organisations make independent rationally efficient choices.

We begin out process presuming that organisations have atomic marks and are dubious about the proficient efficiency of administrative engineerings ( March and Olsen, 1976 ) .

So we say they are unable and undetermined to rate their proficient efficiency and, as a consequence, they imitate or reject other administrative engineering ‘s organisations ( Di Maggio and Powell, 1983 ; Thompson, 1967 ) .

Therefore we classify an imitation process which induces the diffusion of inventions and another one which does non.

The Efficient-Choice Perspective
This header recalls that agents normally and rationally choose the most efficiently inventions to accomplish a extremely production and successfully marks.

Explaining diffusion: Theories in the efficient-choice position recommend that environmental alterations originate disagreements or public presentation spreads which are either the organisation ‘s marks or the marks that the organisation may make.

On this affair there are two types of accounts: demand pull some which generate public presentation spreads among similar mark orientations ‘ organisations ; provide force some which present new or close old public presentation spreads.

However, whatever account is supported, theoreticians select the same efficient administrative engineering to react to public presentation spreads.

Willimason ‘s reading ( 1970 ) stated that organisations, which tended to maximise net incomes, used the M signifier, due to its proficient efficiency in contrast to the U signifier.

The decision to many researches and surveies imply that:

Proposition 1: Performance spreads will motivate the diffusion of inventions merely among organisations that can expeditiously shut these spreads by following these inventions.

However theoreticians identify some exclusions to this proposition.

Indeed organisations, through administrative engineerings, have to increase and non to compare their competitory advantage.

Nevertheless organisations must understand that rivals will copy their efficient administrative engineering extinguishing their advantage ( Sherer and Ross, 1990 ) .

Explaining rejection: It is of import to underscore that surveies which use the efficient-choice position do non grounds either the diffusion or rejection of administrative engineerings.

Theorists such as Chandler ( 1962 ) remarked that the U signifier spread successfully during the economic enlargement of 1896, while Rumelt ( 1974 ) noted that the U signifier had declined intensely by 1969 because it did non reply to the variegation schemes of administrative jobs.

Indeed Chandler ‘s and Rumelt ‘s surveies explain the rejection of an administrative engineering: every bit shortly as they cut down public presentation spreads through engineerings, they become less popular, but accordingly new public presentation spreads can happen.

So the decisions suggest that:

Proposition 2: Organizations in a group will be given to reject an invention when environmental alterations render it less technically efficient in shuting these organisations ‘ public presentation spreads.

The Forced-Selection Perspective

Organizational theories have pointed out that powerful organisations take an involvement both in forcing a technically inefficient administrative engineering or rejecting an efficient engineering.

Explaining diffusion: It is of import to observe that many organisations can express about which administrative engineerings to distribute through powerful governmental organic structures or national labour brotherhoods. These surveies suggest that:

Proposition 3: Technically inefficient inventions will be given to spread among groups of organisations when these inventions receive the backup of powerful organisations outside these groups.

Explaining rejection: Research workers have pointed out two ideas: on one had there are organisations which have a unvarying construct about a curious administrative engineering ; whereas alternatively on the other manus there are organisations which have different options and so they are forced by political force per unit areas to reject a engineering. This decision implies that:

Proposition 4: A group of organisations will be given to reject a technically efficient invention when organisations, outside this group, exercising political force per unit areas to reject this invention, have greater power than those exercising force per unit areas to retain it.

Cole ( 1985 ) makes a survey on this decision in some states and he notes that in Japan and in Sweden, during the sixtiess and 1970s, labour brotherhoods and national corporations of directors sustained the spreading of participative direction engineerings. As an option, in the United States the participative direction engineerings become unpopular.

The Fashion Perspective

In the scope of unsure environmental forces, marks and proficient efficiency it is stated that organisations will copy other organisations ( Di Maggio and Powell, 1983 ; Thompson, 1967 ) .

Indeed organisations ‘ decisions concentrate on the organisations ‘ theoretical accounts instead than engineering.

The manner position presumes that during a obscure period organisations reproduce administrative theoretical accounts supported by confer withing houses or concern mass media.

So the innovation-diffusion literature may merely analyze fluctuations in acceptance rates ( Mahajan and Peterson, 1985 ) .

Explaining diffusion: Harmonizing to Blumer ‘s survey ( 1969 ) it is of import to place that administrative theoretical accounts become stylish due to organisations ‘ development and apprehension, and non by direct popular petition.

Hirsch ( 1972 ) enlarged this idea noted that webs of specialised organisations set books, records and impression images ‘ manners.

However Hirsch ( 1972 ) did non analyze administrative manner puting webs which have been taken in test by Abrahamson ( 1986 ) who proposed that concern school and consulting houses, because of their experient popularity, have to advance these manners.

Organizational theoreticians have maintained that manner compositors do non hold the same power of governmental organisations or labour brotherhoods but they inspire a strong belief to be imitated.

The manner position notes that:

Propositions 5: Technically inefficient inventions will be given to spread among organisations when organisations in fashion-setting webs promote them.

Fashion-setting organisations might impact the diffusion of efficient and profitable engineerings regardless the existent proficient efficiency of the engineerings.

Explaining rejection: Organizational theoreticians claimed that new administrative engineerings force old 1s to be centralized and decentralized in organisations every bit shortly as they become mutual sole. This decision suggest that:

Proposition 6: Organizations will be given to reject old technically efficient inventions when fashion-setting webs introduce reciprocally sole replacings.

Popular stylish engineerings may neglect because of their symbolical or emotional efficiency.

Sometimes a engineering realizes more a hope, an innovativeness or a ennui ‘s alleviation than proficient maps. However, over the clip, an advanced administrative engineering may free its mark, the hopes may non be satisfied, the innovativeness may non be reached and even ennui may reoccur.

So accordingly organisations may reject these symbolical and emotional stylish administrative engineerings. Therefore these decisions suggest that:

Proposition 7: Over clip, organisations will be given to reject technically efficient inventions promoted by fashion-setting webs.

The Fad Perspective

When we speak about the craze and manner positions we note that organisations imitate other organisations presuming determinations harmonizing to an unsure state of affairs.

The latter presume that organisations reproduce organisations such as direction consulting houses outside that group, while the former province that organisations within that group-theorists have explained the fad position following two descriptions.

The first 1 as a nucleus of cognition communicating, societal interactions and economic involvements.

So we have some curious accounts because organisations imitate other organisations: as respect cognition communicating, they decrease the uncertainly of inventions ; as respect societal interactions they are authorized to follow with signing emergent norms to these inventions ; as respect economic involvements they refrain from a competitory advantage gained by rivals who use this invention.

The 2nd one harmonizing to the single features, Numberss and interactions of organisations.

If we consider the single features we desume that organisations with certain low features imitate organisations with matching high features. For illustration Walker ( 1969 ) stated that some American provinces with a lower repute approved ordinances adopted by provinces with a higher repute. If we consider Numberss we desume that organisations may confront “ band-wagon force per unit areas ” , inventions depending on the figure of following organisations ( Abrahamson and Rosenkopf, 1990 ; Arthur, 1988 ; Katz and Shapiro, 1985 ; Mansfield, 1961 ) .

Finally if we consider interactions, organisations imitate other organisations nearby either geographically or in their communicating webs ( Burt, 1987 ; Galaskiewicz and Wasserman, 1989 ) .

This literature by and large analysed merely the fluctuations in diffusion rates of imitation procedure and non the procedures which respond this diffusion. So we do non analyze either negative or positive facets of the influence of inventions ‘ diffusion. If we did we could indicate out theoretical accounts to spread or to reject administrative engineerings.

Furthermore these theoretical accounts can be the start of both forcing force per unit areas to spread a engineering by get the better ofing the contrasting force per unit areas and the fillet or the rejecting of the diffusion.

Explaining diffusion: Literature proposes two types of counter mechanism for “ contagious diffusion ” viz. when organisations reproduced other organisations which are reproduced in bend.

One type is when organisations either halting contagious imitation or keeping its country. The 2nd 1 is restricting the Numberss of adoptive parents.

Theories for contagious diffusion are considered harmonizing to the communicating of cognition and we estimate two defenders: heterophily and disjunction. Rogers ( 1983: 18 ) made a definition or the two affairs: he stated heterophilly as “ the grade to which braces of persons who interacts are different in certain properties ” . Harmonizing to his definitions we can state that heterophyllous organisations are more immune to copy each other ( Rogers 1983 ) .

Furthermore “ disjunction ” is the word to call the grade to which an organisation is non related to others in a communicating web. So we can province that disconnected organisations should larn less and be more protected to copy the adoptive parents ‘ determinations.

We have to see definitions harmonizing to societal interactions and economic involvements.

The former focal points on organisations which are bound to institutional norms and accordingly they have greater or lesser protection by copying other organisations ‘ inventions ( Granovetter, 1978 ) .

The latter points out that an organisation with unsure conditions will work out its positive or negative expected returns in following an invention ( Abrahamson and Rosenkopf, 1990 ) .

Then we have to take into consideration theories about the human ecology of defenders which acts on the diffusion of inventions.

Granovetter ( 1978 ) explained that his theories work out on reiterating development ; so if we have characters with lower beginning accordingly they will diminish their conventionality power, so we have to increase the figure of adoptive parents.

Namely increasing the figure of adoptive parents, we increase force per unit areas to copy others ‘ acceptance determinations.

This theory gives a repeating consequence, therefore it has a large impact in the beginning of imitation. However we have to underscore that different demographics of protections work out different diffusion systems. This theory suggests that:

Proposition 8: The leaning of organisation in a group to copy each other ‘s determinations to follow a technically inefficient invention will change with the nature of force per unit areas forcing imitation and the human ecology of unsusceptibilities in that group to yielding to this force per unit area.

Explaining rejection: We have to see that in some instances extremely technically inefficient administrative engineerings could give a great disadvantage to the organisations and could take to the utmost act of bankruptcy ( Hannan and Freeman, 1977 ) . Indeed sometimes organisations may understand, during the usage of this peculiar administrative engineering its inefficiency ( Van de Ven and Polley, 1990 ) and its dispersing faddy entreaty ( Abrahamson, 1986 ) .

We have to take into consideration besides the abolishing of this inefficient engineering because of counter-band-wagons viz. when an organisation O.K. a curious administrative engineering to increase its advantage on rivals but when rivals imitate it, its advantage is over and organisation has to reject the administrative engineering and has to O.K. another one ( Carrol and Hannan, 1989 ) . Another facet is the organisation ‘s choice of a engineering that tend to be different from other lower reputes ‘ rivals, but accordingly an imitation of them.

In this instance organisation has to reject the engineering and to choose a new one to redefine its higher repute. These two procedures, anyhow, tend to get down off a rhythm of band-wagon rejections.

We have to foreground that organisations may be more or less unaffected by copying other organisations ‘ determinations to reject an administrative engineering. This survey suggests that:

Proposition 9: The leaning of organisations to copy each other ‘s determinations to reject a technically efficient invention will change with the nature of force per unit areas forcing and countering imitation and the human ecology of unsusceptibilities in that group to yielding to these force per unit areas.


This article proposes four chances in order to presume the organisations ‘ procedures to spread or to reject inventions and accordingly both their proficient efficiency or inefficiency. These chances are taken into consideration through assorted points of position.

First we consider two statements: a “ contingent 1 ” and a “ paradox one ” .

The former is explained by theoreticians who work out organisations ‘ inventions consequently to their certainty or uncertainness of their proficient efficiency ( Meyer and Rowan, 1977 ) . The fad position would be successful because it supposes uncertainness about inventions ‘ proficient efficiency.

Furthermore many inventions may merely double the types that theoreticians could enumerate.

Indeed many inventions may hold a different degree of uncertainness depending on organisation and diffusion.

Research workers may work on hypothesis that merely partly fit with the examined survey.

So Van de Ven and Poole ( 1988 ) and Poole and Van de Ven ( 1989 ) suggested the latter declaration: fetching advantage from paradoxes through assorted chances. Indeed they defined paradoxes as “ interesting tensenesss, resistances and contradictions between theories which create conceptual troubles ” ( Poole and Van de Ven, 1989: 564 ) .

Consequently they worked out some devices such as: a ) clarify degrees of analysis ; B ) take clip into history ; degree Celsius ) introduce new footings in order to take advantage from paradoxes and do out of them new theoretical developments.

We consider paradoxes originated by four chances and therefore we will be able to speculate suited inventions. Consequently to this paradox we can province that each chance describes some facets of every invention. Therefore, research workers can fit two or more of the chances to organize multiple theories. Through this method it is possible to explicate assorted administrative and non-administrative inventions such as productions engineerings, strategic actions and entrepreneurial ventures in net income, not-for-profit, industrial, service diffusion contexts.

Thereby this attack works out new matter-of-fact solutions.

How to Exploit Paradoxes on the Outside-Influence Dimension
Some chances province that organisations outside a group of organisations will act upon inventions within these groups. So we can state that:

Propositions 10: Positions that assume that organisations outside a group of organisation will find the diffusion of invention within that group will hold high explanatory power in contexts in which these outside organisations have both an involvement in directing the diffusion of inventions and sufficient power to make so.

To the reverse:

Propositions 11: Position that assume that organisations within a group will find the diffusion of invention within that group will hold high explanatory power in contexts in which organisations outside that group either have no involvement in directing the diffusion of inventions or deficient power to make so.

We provide a specification ‘s illustration to understand when the eventuality declaration is deficient and we have to utilize a paradox declaration.

Proposition 10 implies that during wars or depression it is more convenient to utilize forced-selection chances because many sectors wait for governmental aid to confront these crisis.

On the contrary, in non-crisis contexts other chances are more valuable because they province that organisations are free of governmental influence.

We have to see a diffusion context where organisations outside a group either use absolute influence or no influence over organisations. Furthermore, research workers will hold to utilize a paradox declaration to enlarge chances for the diffusion of inventions in these types.

It is of import to happen a type of chance to explicate the diffusion of invention if organisations outside a group or national labour brotherhoods or direction consulting houses apply some but non absolute control. Consequently, it is of import to happen paradoxes between positions based on contradictory premises, such as: a ) outside organisations control the diffusion of inventions ; B ) organisations freely choice inventions.

A similar declaration Masterss pressions between efficient-choice and forced-selection chances through a new term such as “ political efficiency ” to different from “ proficient efficiency ” as it was mentioned earlier. This solution may at the same time see either the political and the proficient costs. The former is about an organisation in a group of organisations non-conformed to external force per unit areas, while the latter takes into consideration an organisation following a technically inefficient invention.

Therefore this declaration states that organisations should analyze both political and proficient efficiency of invention and accordingly utilize the list-cost option.

This solution suggests that:

Proposition 12: Technically inefficient inventions backed by organisations outside a group of organisations should spread merely among organisations, within that group, for which the political costs of non conforming to force per unit areas exerted by outside organisations exceed the proficient costs of following technically inefficient inventions.


Proposition 13: Widespread rejections of technically efficient invention opposed by organisations outside a group of organisations will happen merely among organisations, within that group, for which the political costs of non conforming to force per unit areas exerted by outside organisations exceed the proficient additions from retaining these technically efficient inventions.

Another declaration Masterss pressions between craze and manner chances. Indeed fashion-setting organisations may make up one’s mind to advance inventions which have an economic involvement and a reinforce to their faddy diffusion. This solution suggests that:

Proposition 14: The faddy diffusion of technically inefficient inventions will motivate fashion-setting webs to endorse this diffusion.

Alternatively, organisations may follow manner puting webs inventions to foreground their reputes, and accordingly lower reputes organisations may copy them. This accounts suggests that:

Propositions 15: When fashion-setting webs back the diffusion of technically inefficient inventions, they will be given to advance their faddy diffusion.

All these propositions have the purpose to subject a big assortment of paradoxes and suggestions which could bring forth other theories of different inventions and diffusion conditions.

How to Exploit Paradoxes on the Imitation-Focus Dimension
Theories on the imitation focal point dimension should underscore that organisations are unsure about environmental impacts, ends and proficient efficiency.

This reading suggests that:

Propositions 16: Positions that assume that imitation processes impel the diffusion of invention will hold highest explanatory power when invention or diffusion contexts create uncertainness about environmental influences, organisational ends or proficient efficiency.

To the reverse:

Proposition 17: Positions that assume that imitation processes do non force the diffusion of inventions will hold highest explanatory power when invention or diffusion contexts do non make uncertainness about environmental influences, organisational ends or proficient efficiency.

Organizations face strong uncertainness about the proficient efficiency of atomic end products and weak uncertainness about production engineerings ( Meyer and Rowan, 1977 ) .

Other theoreticians province that organisational ends produce a great uncertainness in not-for-profit sectors.

Consequently craze and manners chances explain a great power in the diffusion of administrative engineerings in not-for-profit sectors as Proposition 16 provinces.

On the contrary Proposition 17 explains the diffusion and rejection of production engineerings in for-profit sectors.

These types of chances are merely utile when inventions or contexts have a high or low uncertainness facets. But this state of affairs is about infrequent. To understand how inventions diffuse in the different contexts it is of import to decide the paradoxes between the different chances.

Some indicants to decide paradoxes between theories on the imitation- focal point dimension are already bing.

Therefore there is a reproduction survey which asserts that after the partial diffusion of administrative engineerings, there was no more efficient-choice acceptance accounts.

Rumelt ( 1974 ) , following a multidivisional construction between 1949 and the early 1960s, solved administrative jobs due to variegation schemes.

Besides, Tolbert and Zucker ( 1984 ) made a correlativity between metropolis size per centum of foreign born population and metropolis authorities ‘s acceptances of civil service between the old ages 1885 and 1914 but non between 1914 and 1935 ( californium. Baron, Dobbin and Jennings, 1986 ; Meyer, Stevenson and Webster, ( 1985 ) .

Therefore craze and manner chances could be the account of the diffusion of technically inefficient engineerings in these ulterior periods.

Consequently this account suggests a ephemeral declaration of paradoxes on the imitation degree, such that:

Propositions 18: Rational picks may trip technically efficient acceptances in the early phases of diffusion, whereas faddy force per unit areas or fashion-setting webs may drive technically inefficient acceptance in ulterior phases of the diffusion of inventions.


Proposition 19: Rational picks may trip technically efficient rejections in the early phases of diffusion, whereas faddy force per unit areas or fashion-setting webs may drive technically inefficient rejections in ulterior phases of the diffusion of inventions.

We have to see at least two other correlate declarations of paradoxes on the imitation-focus dimension. The first is about degrees of analysis which explain the diffusion of inventions. These degrees province that assorted independent single organisations choose the most technically efficient invention to spread. Fad theories point out the group degree of analysis.

These theories demonstrate that acceptances in a group of organisations with internal force per unit areas can take to coerce the diffusion of inventions in other groups ‘ organisations: hence, if we put together efficient pick and craze theories, we can keep that at the get downing some unrelated acceptance determinations could get down group force per unit areas coercing the ulterior diffusion.

Therefore, this declaration can widen across acceptances and the diffusions of inventions ( Abrahamson and Rosenkopt, 1990 ) .

Then we have to see the 2nd declaration which involves cultural and behavioral inventions. Indeed these types of alterations conveying for the former a different sentiment in organisations ‘ ends and their theories ; on the other side, the latter provokes disparate fluctuation in organisations ‘ actions.

Therefore research workers can take advantage from paradoxes which examine these two subdivisions. Actually, efficient-choice theories do non work out the beginnings, the beliefs or the efficiency of organisations ‘ ends, but they study merely the organisations ‘ picks to inventions. On the reverse, some manner theories do merely pay attending to the web of manner compositors and do non look into why manner compositors promote some ends and beliefs.

Originally we can state that some organisations adopt technically efficient inventions, manner compositors decide to advance them and accordingly other organisations realize that they can accomplish the same ends so they decide to follow them.

Actually we can state that efficient and inefficient picks may germinate as inventions diffuse and the rhythm above mentioned may travel on.


The efficient-choice chances ‘ theories maintain that organisations independently and rationally follow technically efficient inventions, but they do non explicate their diffusion or their rejection.

Actually efficient-choice theories support pro-innovation inclinations.

So, get downing from contrary premises, we have worked out three more chances.

The craze position provinces that organisations in a group feel uncertain about their ends and besides about the efficiency of inventions and they are less influenced by organisations outside the group.

Consequently, these organisations can hold the same attack to copy inefficient inventions or to reject efficient 1s.

The manner position grants influences on organisations in a group applied by organisations outside the group.

The forced-selection position, acknowledging low uncertainness and outside influences by organisations, recalls the attending of governmental regulators or labour brotherhoods.

We have underlined that these types of solution might work out the diffusion and the rejection of inventions among organisations with the same jobs expressed in these solutions.

Actually we could confront organisations with wholly different features or sometimes with moderate differences ; accordingly the efficient-choice, forced-selection, craze or manner solutions could non be applied and furthermore they could non explicate the diffusion of inefficient invention or the rejection of efficient 1s.

Furthermore we have taken into consideration research workers who have developed new theories by gaining from paradoxes among the assorted types of solutions.

While get the hanging pro-innovation inclinations and guesss in the invention diffusion literature, organisational theoreticians have worked out new theories about the diffusion of technically inefficient inventions and the rejection of technically efficient one. By making that, theoreticians had to confront besides anti-innovation inclinations. Consequently research workers had to acknowledge diffusion procedures, harmonizing to craze or manner solutions, their damaging to organisations ‘ economic public presentations and their benefit.

Fads and manner may profit organisations if they are looking to innovativeness or may be deserving economically. Actually inventions may raise capital or pull new clients because organisations may look advanced or cultural. However fad and manner have few symbolic or political efficiencies but they can non be considered a harm for organisations. Strategic be aftering units did non hold a direct map on organisations but they are utile to pull attending on strategic planning. Therefore administrative crazes and manners may be of import to concentrate attending on some unsolved jobs of organisations.

Finally crazes and manner encourage the diffusion and rejection of invention, without taking into consideration their proficient efficiencies as the popular imperativeness denounces ( Business Week, 1986 ) .

But sometimes organisations have to follow or to reject many technically inefficient inventions during their searching to happen an efficient 1. However the acceptance or the rejection of crazes and manners may be more economic than utilizing a technically efficient invention.

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