The public understands that in the media the information is presented warped and biased. Media bias can be well explained through the fact that the media is the only institution that can control own critique.
When accused, media moguls are the ones who announce their own mistakes (if they do so) and implement correcting mechanisms (or appear to do so). Media can decide how much the public will know about the criticism and is the critic of the organization. This fact affords certain freedoms that are typically unavailable to any other institution (Niven 1).It is difficult to correct something that has the power to be own watchdog.
It is especially visible with the multiplexed American media institutions. Their representation on reality is often based upon the consideration of rating rather than the accuracy of the events. For example, the image of American teenagers suffers due to the affect of the media image being imposed on public. A number of researchers (Nichols, and Good 2) refer to “devaluation of youth” due to that image.
The American public media causes fear and distrust through the constant bombardment of negative imaging. These particular authors agree that the image the public receives is the underestimation of youth that is dangerous to the society. And how can it be different? The society must build its future on their adolescent masses, those to become future workers, professionals, and politicians. If the distrust and fear are created fewer and fewer teenagers will be hired the situation of which thus producing a dangerous vacuum within the society.
Likewise, underestimation of their abilities and potential creates lack of trust thus lack of upward mobility. Such mass sanctions will have the potential to seize the progress since the major employers will have to wait until the teenagers will mature. Those will enter the work force already disillusioned and perhaps even angry at the system. Many years of productivity and learning will be lost.
Blessed will be that society media of which does not paint negative images of own youth.The contemporary media presentation of gender roles warps the natural relationship between the genders. The gender roles that are portrayed do not represent reality and often appear to be artificial. In general, stereotyping and media influence are responsible on how a typical male views his female counterpart and vice versa.
The constant stream of thin females on a parade in Hollywood shaped the model of the female appearance (Emmers-Sommer, Hanzal, Pauley, Rhea, & Triplett, 2005) and constant stream of muscular-looking males did the same for the male appearance.According to Allan & Coltrane (1996), gender portrayal in the popular media is often presented in the differentiated context. Males tend to be presented in active roles, enjoying freedoms and often offering their opinions. Their masculinity is often emphasized.
Females are usually depicted in supportive relationships to males and/or children as wives, homemakers, and mothers. It is a rare occasion when they suggest opinions and lead their male partners in to an adventure. Certainly, there is a range of degree in such relationships. In well-featured film Pleasantville, the viewers are transported into the yesteryear society that depicts traditionally defined roles of males as breadwinners and opinion makers and females as submissive homemakers.
However, colors are introduced into their grey and white daily routine with following transformation of gender roles into more androgynous depiction. There is a connotation of something wrong going on with the active and opinioned males attempting to defend the traditional ways of gender roles. Yet, the sentiment that I perceived was that of progress – that is away with the “old ways.”Murnen, Wright, & Kaluzny, G.
(2002) argued that many popular features present such sentiment. Even the remake of traditionally offered “Adventure With Dick and Jane” shows rise in female gender role as an aggressive risk taker and a participant in bread winning despite a little rebellion from her male counterpart. Despite these changes in contemporary media, females continue being portrayed as sex object throughout different genre. Especially disturbing is the greater proliferation of new wave animated features as in Adult Swim series, Futurama and alike where full body or partial nudity or explicit scans of body parts are frequently employed.
Emmers-Sommer, Hanzal, Pauley, Rhea, & Triplett (2005) touched on the controversy of the impact on public of sexually explicit media depictions. Their argument consisted of the position in which women can be objectified through the abundance of sexual attitude and behavior. They argued that mass depiction of such roles might create a construct of the narrow and negative male attitudes toward the women in general. The point that they made that because of the frequency that females are viewed in compromising situations they, themselves are to be blamed.
These authors expanded their argument into the totality of the perception behind the causes of “rape myth” and Social Learning Theory. Their study confirmed the findings discussed elsewhere in research in which the male participants reacted differently than their female counterparts to entertainment-based sexually violent material as well as reality-based material. In other words, after viewing several films that included some scenes of sexually explicit and violent material, males more then females tend to blame female victims for the bad situations happened to them.Despite such habitual depiction of gender roles, we see an incoming of new-era depiction of females taking active roles in our society (Rouner, Slater, & Domenech-Rodriguez, 2003).
True-to-life or “based on real events” features present female gender roles as being aggressive and active as far as decision-making ability/opportunity is concerned. We can take a pick at the powerful feature “Flight” in which the female main character refuses to be manipulated by arrogant and corrupted male Marshal and takes charge in the difficult situation that saves the life of her daughter.Similarly, male characters are shown more and more as less manipulative and less aggressive roles with brighter depiction of their feminine component. In an infamous feature “40-Year Old Virgin” there is an argument between traditionally set male role with the new androgynous male who does not see a particular significance in having frequent sex and who is not really preoccupied with the image of necessary male aggression.
With this character looking for “clean” love and even relationship, the viewers are left wondering whether it is an anomaly or a new wave of gender impression.The discourse of any profession by the public media warps the accurate nature of it and creates the sense of ambiguity. Media reporters are known to use hyped adjectives to draw the public’s attention, and, as the result, their reports lack in clarity, are full of fuzziness, and double-meaning definitions. When the reporters attempt to describe any type of profession they either are doing so from manipulative causes, sensationalism, or a negative input/opinion.
It is a rare occasion when a media representative would report about a professional from the pure informational standpoint. The public life through the media becomes sensationalized; pure and accurate information does not bring ratings. Thus, the causes are more directed toward entertainment rather than information. Besides, representations of the media are too liberal, too critical, and too manipulative.
Through the public’s reaction, the media is glorified and exaggerated.The contemporary media presentation of nursing as an occupation warps the public image. The professional roles that are portrayed do not represent reality and often appear to be artificial. In general, stereotyping and media influence are responsible on how a typical consumer views people in occupation.
The constant stream of negative occurrences shaped the model of the public image.For example, Evans and Frank reported on the lopsided common opinion about the gender orientation in the nursing profession. They claim that the public image of the profession as being female dominated is primarily caused by the media input. In their argument, one can find that the lives of male nurses doing “women’s work” are often mentioned and if mentioned, such depiction is often cursory and broadcast a negative connotation.
Indeed, it is difficult to locate the informational, experiential, and accurate depiction of the work of male nurses.These particular authors interviewed eight male registered nurses to compare their opinions with the generally placed public image caused by the broadcast media.Certainly, the media would not consider the advantages that male nurses would bring into the field, and quite to the contrary, the media would search for the negative aspects to sensationalize the participation of male workers in the field. According to Evans and Frank the media takes a snippet of negative experiences and cause a stereotypical perception through which the public views the whole field of practice.
The voices of those interviewed did reveal some peculiarities associated with the stereotyping: stereotypical view of nursing profession as the female-only field. Throughout their practice they perceived that nursing occupation is viewed as the extension of the domestic role of nurturing more so than that of the medical practice. Little the public knows how much effort and learning a male student of nursing must do in order to become a nurse. Much of this perception comes from the public media’s broadcast stereotypical views.
Certainly, media warps the public perception in almost every occupation, mostly from ignorance than from the arrogance (Barnett 1). However, the occupations, like nursing, that already suffer from the stereotypical perception (i.e. all nurses should be females because nursing is equivalent to nurturing) “get the double whamming.
” (Grimes 3). Thus, the identity of the occupation becomes “spoiled” (aka: changed) with the consequences that come from the public reaction. The practitioners, who happen to be males feel this reaction very well with everyone – from patients to their administrators reminding them of the perceived gender roles, as far as occupation is concerned. They experience first suspicion that causes them the need to defend their position from the implications against their sexuality.
Here are the excerpts from the interviews: Mateo: I’ve had guys laugh in my face when I told them what I did.;Camillus: I was too embarrassed to go back to my high school reunion as a nurse, so I stayed away.;Robin: I had this gentleman who was 80. I was making his bed and he said, isn’t that kind of a sissy thing? Bruce: Reactions from strangers are interesting.
“Oh, that’s interesting, do you enjoy it, what kind of nursing do you do?” One negative, “Why didn’t you become a doctor–aren’t you smart enough?” To which I responded, I have no desire to be a physician. Even the statistics is not that flattering. Fifty one percent out of 127 male nurses surveyed in the state of Oklahoma reported that their acquaintances thought they were homosexuals (Evans and Frank, 2003 and Townsel, 1996). When asked what sources support that, they would typically respond that that opinion comes from the public media.
These authors also noted a more disturbing pattern that after viewing the media productions featuring the male nurses, one in 20 male professionals doubts their own sexuality and one in eight admitted that they had problems with their female friends.As Halter depicted, the majority of the public perception of the nurses in general (male and female) has been based on the sensational and thus erroneous illustration of the media productions. It is difficult for the public to know about the true and accurate accounts, which would display the courage and strength of professionals like Florence Nightingale who worked day and night (1854 to 1857) in miserable conditions saving men’s lives during the bloody Crimea War (Bashford 2). To make soldiers survive, Florence Nightingale dug into the most nitty-gritty chores and details to dramatically increase the prosperity of hospitals.
The media would not depict nurses like that brave women who jumped into the trenches to save lives of wounded. Similarly, thousands of nurses like her did the same job during any war of the recent history. The media does not desire to create a stereotype of bravery and self-surrender for the sake of saving lives. Instead, the public sees sensationalized nurses-murderers and cold-hearted sadists who like to inflict pain and abuse elderly (see also Timko 1).
How one can define the responsibilities of people involve in this profession? And who would do it better than nurses? Here was a quote from Australian writer, Bashford in regard what media shows and tells about women in this profession: “You think many of them are simply there to gain a livelihood? — I think so. The majority does not go there from the love of it? — I do not think it is from the love of nursing that the majority goes there. They have not taken it up as a profession? — Yes, they take it up as a profession; but there is a great advantage to them because they have shorter hours than they would have in domestic service, from which most of them come, and there is better position.” And here is what the nurses themselves were saying about their choice, “We are not of trade, and therefore the eight hours question does not, and I hope never will, apply to nursing.
We are professional women, and work for the benefit of mankind — not for twelve hours, but twenty-four if necessity arise … We have indeed fallen from the high standard of our great pioneer, Miss Nightingale, if we are going to use our votes from the very start for our own aggrandizement.
”Very few if any media features display or discuss the primary responsibilities of the professionals in this field. Thus public has little knowledge of what nurses have to do and practically no knowledge of what they really do when they go beyond the scope of their duties. Wolf just began naming their primary responsibilities, as in doing paper work, doing the phone calls, arranging and preparing medications, providing the direct care, handling their own patient load, assisting doctors, taking vital signs, daily hygienic routine, communicate with para-personnel, like lab technicians, administer medications, administer injections, administer and monitor IVs, prepare patients to take diagnostic tests, ordered medications, and the list goes on. The nurses’ ritual does not stop there and does not look the same from day to day.
It is obviously much more work than the public realizes or the media displays. Much of this work is not scripted thus the public media overlooks that work most of the time. In order for the public to reap the results from the professionalism and quality of the nursing professionals, media must become more accurate and share a good portion of the professional knowledge. Works CitedBarnett, Mary.
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