Methodology: Metro Manila and Caloocan City Essay
This chapter presents the research design of the study, the subjects and the area of the study, sampling method, data needed, the research instrument, procedures for data gathering, procedures for data analysis and logistics, schedule and budgetary requirements. Research Design The study made use of Descriptive Analysis in determining the attitudes of student smokers to selected Caloocan City student smokers.
Descriptive analysis was appropriate for the researchers’ study which discovered and described the attitudes of student smokers towards smoking despite the SIN Tax Law and the effects of smoking towards student smokers themselves as its primary objective. Descriptive analysis was the most appropriate way on obtaining these two variables. The research study made used of survey and in-depth interview as research techniques. The advantage of having survey as research instrument was the cheapest technique.
If correct sampling was achieved, the result of the survey would be generally accurate. Past and present information can also be use and apply to the study. The disadvantage of having survey as research instrument was limited in scope and respondents may not write honest answers. In-depth interview was a qualitative research technique used by the researchers that allowed researchers person to person discussion. It was lead to increased insight into people’s thoughts and behaviour on the important issues.
This was often unstructured and therefore permitted the interviewer to encourage the respondent to talk at length about the topic of interests. The advantaged of conducting an In-depth interview was the ability to choose respondents. It generated ideas in pilot studies and obtaining greater depth information on a topic of interest as a supplement to data received from other methods. Survey had researchers’ primary instruments since the research locales of the study are respondents (student smokers) and this instrument deeply gave researchers a deeper understanding about our respondent’s uses towards the study.
Survey was the most appropriate way on obtaining the attitudes of respondents towards the study and the effects of the study to the respondents as well as their demographic profile. The researchers have to ask them questions through survey forms that range from smoking and effects of smoking, social aspects to family and friends, satisfaction value and how smoking serves them as, if something good, in their life. Research Instrument
In this study, the primary instrument that was used to determine the attitudes of smoking among the selected Caloocan City student smokers was the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was formulated based on the related literatures and studies presented. The related literatures and studies lead the researchers about the advantages and disadvantages of smoking as well as the brand of cigarette that was used by student smokers. The respondents were provided with a convenient list of questions on which the respondents will only encircle their answers.
The questionnaire was composed of the respondent’s demographic profile such as their names, age, gender, civil status, and academic status. The researchers wanted to know about the number of cigarettes a student smoker smoke each day, the certain effects in their living, and how did smoking change their perception on education. Subjects of the Study The respondents of the study were the selected smokers in Caloocan City. This includes students ranging from 16 – 30 years of age in Caloocan City within the vicinity of UE Caloocan.
Research Locale The researchers conducted the study in the vicinity of Caloocan City area. Caloocan City is located in the northern part of Metropolitan Manila. The city is divided into two parts: the urban portion, which was bounded on the north part of Malabon, on the east of Quezon City, on the south of Manila and Navotas, and on the west of Manila Bay; the rural portion, bounded on the north by San Jose Del Monte in Bulacan, on the east and south of Quezon City, and on the west of Valenzuela.
It occupies a total land area of 55. 8 square kilometres. Caloocan City is composed of 188 barangays, which are subdivided into two Congressional Districts. It has been classified as a Highly Urbanized City. (Caloocan City Municipality) Sampling Method The proposed study made used of Simple Random and Stratified Random sampling method. Simple random method is a method of selecting a sample size from a universe such that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included. Data Gathering Procedures
The major data gathering procedures, by means of conducting the survey, carried out and accomplished by all the researchers together as a group since the subject of the study and the research locale was within the vicinity of Caloocan City area. The questionnaires will be personally handled by the researchers to the respondents. The researchers then directly answers any question that the respondent raised to ask regarding the survey questionnaires, then the respondents answer the questionnaires, they collect it for immediate review, made sure that every item has been answered to avoid invalid forms.
In this procedure, we aimed to do it and work for it as a team, from the formulation of the question to actual conduction of the survey, and from tallying of survey results, to the interpretation and analysis of data, since these are tiring doing it by just one person, we considered not only cooperation from our team, but more of collaboration from each and every one of us.
Data Analysis Procedure After collecting the questionnaires, the researchers tally the data from the respondents. They tabulate it to make it easy for the user to analyse as basis for making interpretations. The collected data to arrange in groups or classified to descriptive as basis for analysis of the results.