Philippine Government Policies

Table of Content

We have witnessed since the establishment of the MEG in 2000 the national and local governments, academe, private sector and the international development community is committed in working together towards the attainment of Megs. The Philippine Government affirms Its commitment to policy and Institutional changes aimed at pro-poor sustained economic growth. Megs have been Integrated Into the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MUTED), thus allowing government strategies, polices, and action plans to simultaneously address MEG targets.

Second, the government has closely monitored its own rate of progress with MEG indicators, and has used this information to fine- tune planning and implementation processes, particularly at the local level. Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger The biodiversity of the Philippines is highly eminent as it consists of 7,107 islands. Yet there are wide disparities in income and quality of life across regions and sectors. Poverty in the Philippines is a rural phenomenon. 5% of all poor families in the Philippines live in rural areas mainly dependent on ENRON for their subsistence. Extreme poverty refers to the proportion of population or families living below the subsistence or food threshold. Environmental degradation In the Philippines has been contributing too vast damaging result unmindful to Its poor dependents. The degraded state of the country’s environment and natural resources is felt most Intensely by the poor, especially the rural communities given that they depend on these resources for their primary source of living.

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On the other hand, poverty frequently aggravates environmental stress as the marginalia population presses 2010-2016 assessment of the State of the Environment and Natural Resources Philippine Poverty Environment Initiative (PEEP) ere Philippines PIE (PEEP) Project is UNDO – supported projects which support the Philippine Government, civil society and the business sector to utilize revenues and infinite from sustainable environment and natural resources (ENRON) management for poverty reduction.

The project focuses on three areas: 1 . Identifying opportunities and mechanisms for improved environment and natural resource revenues and benefits for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability; 2. Enhancing LUG capacities to improve benefit sharing from sustainable natural resource and environment management for poverty reduction; and 3. Establish enabling conditions at national level to promote the identified opportunities for sustainable natural resource and environment management for poverty reduction The Poverty- Environment Initiative is a global I-IN-led Programmer working in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Europe that supports country efforts to achieve a greener and more inclusive development path. In Asia and the Pacific programs are under way in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Ala PDP and the Philippines.

The implementing partners of the project here in the Philippines who has signed a Memorandum of Agreement last October 2011 during Benching Pinky, the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the enactment of the Local Government Code are the Department f Interior and Local Government (DILL), Department of Finance (DOE), Department of judged and Management (DB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources PENN) and the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAP).

The agreement made DILL as the lead agency for implementation and shall have the power to review the allocation of revenues from natural resources and link poverty-environment opportunities. It should have key planning and budgeting guidelines of local government units consist of Lug’s application for best practices. The Department of Finance shall have the power to review the flow of the revenues, from its collection to striation from natural resources. They can also recommend ways to increase the share of LOGIC revenues from the environment and natural resources.

The Department of Budget and Management shall have the power to review the public environmental expenditure at the national and local levels. It will determine the link between PEE to the environmental and poverty outcomes. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (EDEN) shall have the power to develop a national road map and introduce the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (TIT) for mining and energy industries in the country. NAP shall have the power for the identification of congressional champions to sponsor budget allocations for environmental programs and projects for poverty alleviation.

The Department of Agriculture, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, National Economic and Development Authority community stakeholders also take part for the implementation and a recipient of the PEEP Project. The PEEP project seek to address this continuing key challenge which is to reverse the persistent poverty situation by turning the country’s environment and natural resources into capital for poverty reduction and sustainable management of environment and natural resources by formulating positive linkages between environment and poverty.

The project which will support poverty reduction efforts through the use of revenues and benefits derived from sustainable management of ENRON, will also integrate pro poor and environmental concerns into the development planning. It also aims to identify the level of expenditure on environment at the national and local levels, and lobby for national budget allocations for programs and projects on sustainable environment, including opportunities for a green economy. He Project time-frame he PEEP Phase 1 (2011-2012): Establishing the Baseline and Initializing Reforms The PEEP Phase 2 (2013-2015): Scaling-up and institutionalizing the Gains MUTED 2004-2010: Empowering the Poor and the Vulnerable Capita Basis Lab as Kernighan (KIGALI) During 2001-2004, the government implemented major policy and institutional reforms and key programs aimed at protecting and empowering the poor and the ‘alienable groups. Its banner program for poverty reduction consisted of a comprehensive and integrated convergence approach, called the Capitalist Lab as Kernighan (KIGALI).

This pro poor strategy sought to: (a) improve access to and quality of human development and social services; (b) ensure fuller and meaningful participation of the basic sectors in governance and decision making in all levels of government; (c) accelerate urban asset, agrarian land and ancestral domain reforms, provide greater social security and protection of the poor and identified ‘alienable groups from violence; and (e) enhance employment, livelihood and entrepreneurial opportunities for the poor. Significant achievements were made particularly in the area of ‘convergent’ and integrated delivery of social services.

This can be attributed to the sustained commitment of Lugs, cooperation and assistance of national government agencies, infusion of external assistance and more meaningful partnership with local civil society organizations, the private sector, and the beneficiaries. Problems that hindered full and effective implementation of this strategy were budgetary constraints and delays in fund releases, and the low appreciation and commitment of some Lugs in investing on social protection Interventions (e. G. Health insurance for the indigents).

In this regard, the government aces the following challenges: (a) full localization of the Comprehensive and KIGALI programs; (c) strengthening of livelihood and entrepreneurship interventions; affordability and accessibility of social security/health insurance; (e) adequacy and responsiveness of social safety net measures; (f) full advocacy and enforcement of laws and policies; and (g) data adequacy and timeliness, including sex-disaggregated data, where appropriate. On governance and decision making, efforts have been exerted to institutionalize the meaningful participation of civil society in governance.

Examples of this are the participation of the 14 identified Basic Sector Groups in the national and regional structures of the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAP). These groups have also been active partners in programs of national agencies such as the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCR), Council for the Unlearn of Children (COW), National Youth Commission (NYC), Presidential Commission for the Urban Poor (PICNIC), Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources FRIAR), Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARA), and the National Council for the Unlearn of Disabled Persons (UNCAP).

Civil society groups have also participated in local development and other decision-making processes at the barbarian and municipal levels. However, some of the mandated mechanisms for civil society participation at the local level are still to be fully implemented. Hence, the challenge to both government and civil society is to ensure that the full and quality participation of the latter is achieved, sustained and guided by transparency, accountability and openness. Capacities of the basic sectors must also be enhanced to enable them to ensure their quality participation in the development process.

There is also a need to strengthen the capacity of indigenous cultural communities :locos) as well as to provide for basic sector representation in local legislative councils. ere Department of Interior and Local Government (DILL) has already issued a memorandum on civil society representation in local special bodies. Lugs, through the Local Poverty Indicators Monitoring System (LAPIS) should be able to identify the needs of their constituents especially the poor, and encourage their participation in governance, especially in making decisions on the appropriate poverty alleviation orgasm or projects to be implemented in their localities.

The Philippine determination to address the extreme poverty and hunger of the MEG makes it way to have a medium probability of attaining the goal 1. Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a human being, from O to 6 {ears, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size. K-12 Basic Education Program A 12-year program is found to be the adequate period for learning under basic education.

It is also a standard for recognition of students and/or professionals abroad (I. E. , the Bologna Process for the European Union and the Washington Accord for the United States). The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two Hears of Senior High School [SSH]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BASER) was conceptualized in 2005 to facilitate implementation of Philippine FEE 201 5 Plan. Education for All is a global movement Noose aim is to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015. Its adoption shows the congruency to support in addressing the second MEG. BASER consider the K-12 program as their flagship reform strategy in their package of reform initiatives. Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are given he means to slowly adjust to formal education.

Kindergarten is pre-requisite for entering Grade 1 through Republic Act No. 101 57, or the Kindergarten Education Act, Institutionalizes Kindergarten as part of the basic education system and is a pre- requisite for admission to Grade 1 . Public schools will admit children who have not taken Kindergarten into Grade 1 until SYS 2013-2014. In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue. Students are able to learn best through their first language, their Mother Tongue (MET).

Twelve (12) MET languages have been introduced for SYS 2012-2013: Bass Sue, Bikini, Cuban, Cabochon, Holidaying, Look, Japanning, Magnanimous, Moran, Pensiveness, Toga, and Wary. Other local languages Nil be added in succeeding school years. Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in spiral progression. After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate envisioned to (1) possess sufficient mastery of basic competencies (e. . Literacy, innumeracy, problem solving, etc. To develop themselves to the fullest; (2) Be emotionally developed and competent to live a meaningful life; (3) Be socially aware, pro-active, and involve in public and civic affairs and contribute to the development of a progressive, Just and humane society; (4) Be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education; be legally employable; and (5) Be being done in phases starting SYS 2012-2013. Grade 1 entrants in SYS 2012-2013 are the first batch to fully undergo the program, and current 1st year Junior High School dents (or Grade 7) are the first to undergo the enhanced secondary education program.

The first batch of graduate of the K-12 program will be on 2024. Project loose ere Joint Systems Improvement in Education Project (Project JOSSES) is a pioneering activity of the Provincial Government of Vulcan headed by its Governor Josses De la Cruz. It encourages and harnesses the participation of parents and the community through workshops and conferences on the process of learning and proper guidance. This resulted in a significant improvement in the students’ performance in the National Education Achievement Test (NEAT). Before Project JOSSES, the average NEAT score of a child was 39. 4% in Math and 40. 3% in English. After the project was implemented, the average NEAT score in English rose to 76% in reading and 72% in comprehension. In Math, the average NEAT score rose to 82% in computational skills and 71. 5 % in math problem comprehension skills. Core groups of parents were also created to assist teachers in 496 schools in preparing audio-visual materials and in providing remedial instruction when necessary. Project JOSSES has been instrumental n achieving significant gains in MEG Goal 2 on universal access to quality primary education as well as ensuring partnership and participatory governance.

The Philippine action towards attainment of Goal 2 in which achieving universal primary education at present is still prevalently low. Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empowering Women ‘Gender equality is more than a goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the Challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building DOD governance. ” Kopi Anna- 7TH Secretary-general of the United Nations, 2001 Nobel Peace Prize In the country, gender gap in education appears to be in favor of girls. Female cohort survival rate exceeded that of males.

Because they tend to stay longer in school, women are greater in number than men pursuing higher education. Magna Cart of Women (MAC) ere Philippine Commission on Women (PC) formerly known as the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women or NCR is the national machinery for the advancement of women in the Philippines. The enactment in August 2009 of Republic Act 9710, otherwise known as the Magna Cart of Women (MAC), is the cantonal translation of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women or the CEDAR.

The Magna Cart of Women is comprehensive women’s human rights law that seeks to eliminate discrimination against women by recognizing, protecting, fulfilling and promoting the rights of Filipino women, especially those in marginalia sector. These rights include all rights in the Philippine Constitution and those rights recognized under the international instruments signed and ratified by the Philippine Government. Protection from all forms of violence, including those committed by the State

Protection and security in times of disaster, calamities and other crisis situations Participation and representation Equal treatment before the law Equal access and elimination of discrimination against women in education, scholarships and training Equal participation in sports Non-discrimination in employment in the field of military, police, and other similar services Non-Discriminatory and non-derogatory portrayal of women in media and film Comprehensive health services and health information and education Leave benefits Equal rights in all matters related to marriage and family relations The Magna Cart f Women also guarantees the civil, political and economic rights of women in the marginalia sectors All rights in the Philippine Constitution and those rights recognized under international instruments duly signed and ratified by the Philippines, in consonance with Philippine laws shall be rights of women under the Magna Cart of Women. These rights shall be enjoyed without discrimination since the law prohibits discrimination against women, whether done by public and private entities or individuals. It expanded PWS mandate as the primary policy-making and coordinating body on women and gender equality concerns. PC is the oversight body on women’s concerns, and is expected to “act as catalyst for gender mainstreaming, authority on women’s concerns, and lead advocate of women’s empowerment, gender equity, and gender equality in the country. The following are list of policies the Philippines has towards gender equality approach: a. Domestic lioncel: Anti-violence against Women and their Children Act (ARREAR) (2004) Anti-Rape: Anti-Rape Law (1997), which amended the Revised Penal Code Anti-Marital Rape: Anti-Rape Law (1997) Anti-Sexual Harassment: Anti-Sexual Harassment Act (2007) e. Anti-

Trafficking: Anti-Trafficking in Person Act (2003) ere gender approach to poverty alleviation: Program on Gender and Development of Capon (PRO-GAD Capon) IN 2001, Capon was Just a 4th class municipality in Elite with 90% of its population living in poverty. The people had little access or control over land resources. The lack of opportunities and skills compelled the Omen of Capon to seek employment elsewhere as house helpers and for some, even in prostitution. Many of the women were economically dependent on their husbands who were barely able to provide for their families. The miserable situation often caused tensions within the households that ended in violence against women.

Access to basic social services and women’s participation in governance were also Capon through the Program on Gender and Development of Capon (PRO-GAD Capon), a comprehensive development program that employed participatory and gender-responsive governance as its basic framework. The PRO-GAD Capon has the following components: community organizing, educational training, socioeconomic and livelihood development, health, nutrition, and reproductive health services, and a program opposing violence against women and children. The program covered all 21 barbarian of the municipality and was funded through the 5% GAD budget of the municipal and barbarian levels.

Capon has made significant gains through its PRO-GAD program both in addressing women’s issues and in responding to the Meds. Capon registered a 16% reduction in the number of people living in extreme poverty, 15% reduction for those living below the food threshold, 19% reduction of people with no access to safe drinking water and 17% reduction of people with no sanitary toilets. For the period 2001-2004, a 32% increase in access to reproductive health services was noted. Moreover, there are no reported cases of HIVE and AIDS and malaria. The cure rate for tuberculosis is 32% with a DB network in place that provides counseling services and sponsors community cleanliness drives.

The earnest willingness of the Filipinos to uplift the rights of the Omen and the promotion of gender equality nationwide reflects to the high probability of attaining the Meg’s goal 3. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality ere Expanded Program on Immunization (PEP) was established in 1976 to ensure that infants/children and mothers have access to routinely recommended infant/ Childhood vaccines. Six vaccine-preventable diseases were initially included in the PEP: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pressures and measles. In 1986, 21. 3% “fully minimized” children less than fourteen months of age based on the PEP Comprehensive Program review. Its objective is to reduce the morbidity and mortality among children against the most common vaccine-preventable diseases. Republic Act No. 0152- Mandatory Infants and Children Health Immunization Act of 2011 To comply with provisions of the Constitution, Article II Section 15, the creation of the Republic Act No. 0152 takes proactive role in the preventive health care of Infants and children. The mandatory basic immunization shall be given for free at of age. Vaccine-preventable diseases are as follows: Tuberculosis; lb) Diphtheria, tetanus and pressures; Poliomyelitis; Measles; Mumps; If) Rubella or German measles; Hepatitis-B; H. Influenza type B (HIS); and II) Such other types as may be determined by the Secretary of Health in a department circular. The government’s massive immunization and vaccination campaign netted substantial gains which must be sustained.

Maintaining high immunization coverage s crucial in eradicating the vaccine-preventable diseases, which greatly affects child survival. Conduct of Routine Immunization for Infants/Children/Women through the Reaching Every Barbarian (REBEL) strategy REBEL strategy, an adaptation of the NO-EUNICE Reaching Every District (RED), was introduced in 2004 aimed to improve the access to routine immunization and reduce drop-outs. There are 5 components of the strategy, namely: data analysis for action, re-establish outreach services, strengthen links between the community and service, supportive supervision and maximizing resources. Supplemental Immunization Activity (ASIA)

Supplementary immunization activities are used to reach children who have not been vaccinated or have not developed sufficient immunity after previous ‘associations. It can be conducted either national or sub-national -in selected areas. Strengthening Vaccine-preventable Diseases Surveillance This is critical for the eradication/elimination efforts, especially in identifying true cases of measles and indigenous wild polio virus. This policy formulated by the government of the Philippines evidently shown effectiveness and efficiency in the reduction of child mortality rate. High probability of Meg’s goal 4 achievement in the Philippines is definite.

Goal 5: Improve maternal health ere Philippines had one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in Southeast Asia. Pregnancy and child birth are among the leading causes of death, disease and disability in women of reproductive age in developing countries. Safe Motherhood and Women’s Health Program identifies the critical need to improve the quality and coverage of maternal health services. The DOD with support from the Nor Bank decided to focus on making pregnancy and childbirth safer and sought to change fundamental societal dynamics that influence decision making on matters elated to pregnancy and childbirth while it tries to bring quality emergency obstetrics and newborn care to facilities nearest to homes.

Project Development Objectives and Indicators ere Project contributes to the national goal of improving women’s health by demonstrating in selected sites a sustainable, cost-effective model of delivering health services access of disadvantaged women to acceptable and high quality reproductive health services and enables them to safely attain their desired number of children. Also, it establish the core knowledge base and support systems that can acclimate countrywide replication of project experience as part of mainstream approaches to reproductive health care within the Aqualungs Panhandling framework. This component of the Project covered the provision of microinstructions, a home-based mother record and medical supplies, and the establishment of maternal information systems.

The microinstructions distributed were ‘attain A and iodine capsules, and ferrous sulfate (iron) tablets. This intervention Nas aimed at reducing deficiency disorders among the vulnerable groups, especially pregnant and lactating women. A total of 270 iron tablets were allocated per regency for use from the 3rd month of pregnancy to the 3rd month after delivery. Vitamin A capsules were given to lactating women and iodine capsules were given to Omen of reproductive age. Microinstructions were supplied nationwide and were in generally high demand, but supply was often inadequate. The home-based mother record was used to monitor progress of pregnancies and to identify danger signs and high-risk pregnancies.

Pregnant women received the record when they first visited health centers for prenatal care. It was used to record the progress and treatments for the entire duration of the pregnancy. The information recorded was used to identify and refer high-risk cases to the first-level referral hospitals and to make the required preparation for delivery. The home-based mother records were supplied nationwide, with more than 5 million copies in English, Filipino, and various predominant local dialects distributed. This tool was highly appropriate, was used by all centers for prenatal care, and was effective in providing a quick overview of the history of the pregnancy.

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